C-Change in GEES Changing Permafrost Environments Session One:

C-Change in GEES Changing Permafrost Environments Session One:

C-Change in GEES Changing Permafrost Environments Session One: One An Introduction to Permafrost Environments Dr Richard Waller, Keele University, [email protected] C-Change in GEES: Changing Permafrost Environments Intro to Permafrost Environments How to use the teaching slides These slides are not intended to form a complete lecture on the session topic. These resources are designed to suggest a framework to help tutors develop their own lecture material The resource slides comprise where appropriate; key points, case studies, images, references and further resources. There are limited case studies included. Students can develop their own portfolio of case studies as part of coursework activities

These resources may be used for educational purposes only, for other uses please contact the author These slides were last updated in February 2010 Dr Richard Waller, Keele University, [email protected] C-Change in GEES: Changing Permafrost Environments Intro to Permafrost Environments Disclaimer Links within this presentation may lead to other sites. These are provided for convenience only. We do not sponsor, endorse or otherwise approve of any information or statements appearing in those sites. The author is not responsible for the availability of, or the content located on or through, any such external site. While every effort and care has been taken in preparing the content of this presentation, the author disclaims all warranties, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy of the information in any of the content. The author also (to the extent permitted by law) shall not be liable for any losses or damages arising from the use of, or reliance on, the information. The author is also not liable for any losses or damages arising from the use of, or reliance on sites linked to this

site, or the internet generally. Pictures, photographs and diagrams within this presentation have been produced by the author unless otherwise stipulated No content within this resource is knowingly an infringement of copyright. Any infringement can be immediately rectified on notification of the author of the resource Dr Richard Waller, Keele University, [email protected] C-Change in GEES: Changing Permafrost Environments Intro to Permafrost Environments Permafrost Environments Tundra vegetation, snow geese and ice-wedge polygons, Arctic Coastal Plain, Alaska (R.I.Waller). Dynamic geomorphological

environment associated with high latitudes and altitudes Characterised by harsh climates, intense freeze/thaw cycles and frozen ground Geographically extensive Yet both research and teaching on permafrost environments is limited

These resources will introduce you to this important but often forgotten environment characteristic of high latitudes and high altitudes. Dr Richard Waller, Keele University, [email protected] C-Change in GEES: Changing Permafrost Environments Intro to Permafrost Environments Lecture Programme Lectures 1-2 An Introduction to Permafrost Environments What is permafrost? Where does it occur? What sort of environmental conditions do these places experience?

What terminology is employed in the study of permafrost environments? Ice-rich permafrost in the western Canadian Arctic (R I Waller) Dr Richard Waller, Keele University, [email protected] C-Change in GEES: Changing Permafrost Environments Intro to Permafrost Environments Lecture Programme Lecture 3 Ground Thermal Regimes and Permafrost Development (...or how is permafrost created and maintained?) Surface energy balances (diurnal and seasonal patterns) Factors influencing the surface energy balance Ground thermal regimes The freezing process

Figure from: Williams, P.J. & Smith, M.W. 1989. The Frozen Earth. Studies in Polar Research. CUP, Cambridge. Fig 1.6 p.12 http://www.cambridge.org/uk/catalogue/catalogue.asp? isbn=9780521424233 Reproduced with the permission of Cambridge University Press Dr Richard Waller, Keele University, [email protected] C-Change in GEES: Changing Permafrost Environments Intro to Permafrost Environments Lecture Programme Lecture 4 The World of Underground Ice Massive ice and a large sand wedge in a coastal exposure in the Mackenzie Delta region, Canadian NWT (R.I. Waller)

Different types of ground ice. Processes associated with ground ice formation. Distinctive landforms associated with ground ice (e.g. palsas and pingos). Massive ice: enigmatic origin?

Dr Richard Waller, Keele University, [email protected] C-Change in GEES: Changing Permafrost Environments Intro to Permafrost Environments Lecture Programme Lecture 5 Permafrost Degradation: Active layers and thermokarst (what happens when permafrost melts) Processes and products of permafrost degradation. Active layers (seasonal thaw) Thermokarst (longer-term thaw) Thaw settlement and frost heave. Patterned ground. Patterned ground in a dry river bed in northern Finland (R I Waller) Dr Richard Waller, Keele University, [email protected] C-Change in GEES: Changing Permafrost Environments Intro to Permafrost Environments

Lecture Programme Lecture 6 Development Problems and Engineering Solutions Anthropogenic disturbance of ground thermal regimes. Engineering problems: frost heave and thaw consolidation. Engineering solutions.

Water supply and waste management. Thermosyphons (R.I. Waller) Dr Richard Waller, Keele University, [email protected] C-Change in GEES: Changing Permafrost Environments Intro to Permafrost Environments Lecture Programme Lecture 7 Permafrost and Future Climate Change Historical trends and predicted patterns of climate change in the High Latitudes. Climate change, ground thermal regimes and permafrost degradation. Human implications of thawing permafrost: building stability, coastal recession, positive feedbacks.

Degrading permafrost, Prudhoe Bay, Alaska (R I Waller) Dr Richard Waller, Keele University, [email protected] C-Change in GEES: Changing Permafrost Environments Intro to Permafrost Environments Permafrost: the basics Dr Richard Waller, Keele University, [email protected] C-Change in GEES: Changing Permafrost Environments Intro to Permafrost Environments What is Permafrost? Dependent solely upon temperature and time. Not dependent upon the presence of water. Thermal condition in soil and rock where temperatures below 0C

persist over at least two consecutive winters. Originally an abbreviation of permanently frozen ground. But... Permafrost frozen ground Dr Richard Waller, Keele University, [email protected] C-Change in GEES: Changing Permafrost Environments Intro to Permafrost Environments Massive ice at the Nicholson Peninsula R.I. Waller bedrock at Yellowknife

R.I. Waller ice within a Finnish peat bog R.I. Waller ALL PERMAFROST! Dr Richard Waller, Keele University, [email protected] C-Change in GEES: Changing Permafrost Environments Intro to Permafrost Environments Permafrost vs. Periglacial? Permafrost is the easier concept to define Term periglacial originally used to describe conditions occurring in areas peripheral to Pleistocene ice-sheets. Now refers to wide range of cold, nonglacial conditions that occur irrespective of

proximity to a glacier. Two key sets of processes: Frost action. Permafrost-related processes (focus of this course). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Storflaket.JPG Dr Richard Waller, Keele University, [email protected] C-Change in GEES: Changing Permafrost Environments Intro to Permafrost Environments Permafrost vs. Glacial? High GLACIERS TEMP. Permafrost environments are in

general too arid to support glacial conditions. Characterised by: Lack of precipitation Extremely low temperatures PERMAFROST Low High PRECIPITATION Low Dr Richard Waller, Keele University, [email protected] C-Change in GEES: Changing Permafrost Environments Intro to Permafrost Environments

What are permafrost environments like? Arctic Coastal Plain (R I Waller) Dr Richard Waller, Keele University, [email protected] C-Change in GEES: Changing Permafrost Environments Intro to Permafrost Environments Where does it occur? http://www.unep.org/GC/GC21/permafrost_map.jpg Geographically extensive. Occurs mostly at high latitudes and high altitudes.

Permafrost underlies: >20% of Earths land surface c. 49% of Former Soviet Union (11,000,000 km2) c. 50% of Canada (5,700,000 km2) c. 22% of China (2,100,000 km2) Also occurs in Alaska, Scandinavia, Greenland, Antarctica, high mountain regions (e.g. Tibet) For comparison, UK = 230,000 km2 Dr Richard Waller, Keele University, [email protected] C-Change in GEES: Changing Permafrost Environments Intro to Permafrost Environments Climatic Conditions

Permafrost environments are generally cold and dry. A basic boundary condition is: Mean annual ground temperature < 0C http://www.flickr.com/photos/richdedeyan/2792412013/ Permafrost climates show large variations as they occur in a range of climatic and altitudinal zones. Three main types of permafrost climate: High Arctic climates Continental climates Alpine climates Dr Richard Waller, Keele University, [email protected]

C-Change in GEES: Changing Permafrost Environments Intro to Permafrost Environments e.g. Inuvik, Canadian NWT (68N) In July (c. 25C) R.I. Waller in April (c. 25C) (can drop below 50C in January) R.I. Waller Dr Richard Waller, Keele University, [email protected] C-Change in GEES: Changing Permafrost Environments Intro to Permafrost Environments Permafrost Vegetation Subarctic forests (Boreal zone or

taiga) Only occur in the northern hemisphere; generally characterised by open woodland occurring south of the tundra zone; dominated by coniferous species. Boreal forest in northern Finland (R I Waller) Tundra Occurs polewards of the subarctic forests; characterised by low-lying scrub with dwarf willows, sedges, alpine perennials , lichens and mosses being common. Tundra vegetation in the western Canadian Arctic (R I Waller) Dr Richard Waller, Keele University, [email protected] C-Change in GEES: Changing Permafrost Environments Intro to Permafrost Environments

Boreal forest around Pallas, Northern Finland R.I. Waller Dr Richard Waller, Keele University, [email protected] C-Change in GEES: Changing Permafrost Environments Intro to Permafrost Environments Tundra vegetation in the Mackenzie Delta region, western Canadian Arctic R.I. Waller Dr Richard Waller, Keele University, [email protected] C-Change in GEES: Changing Permafrost Environments Intro to Permafrost Environments Distinctive Fauna Grizzly (and polar) bears

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Grizzlybear55.jpg R.I. Waller Ubiquitous mosquitoes! Arctic foxes R.I. Waller Dr Richard Waller, Keele University, [email protected] C-Change in GEES: Changing Permafrost Environments Intro to Permafrost Environments Human Influence Permafrost areas originally populated by small indigenous groups of huntergatherers.

Settled more recently by larger numbers of people seeking to exploit natural resources: 19th Century - Fur trapping. Early 20th Century - Gold. Late 20th Century - Oil 21st Century Diamonds (+oil)? Development of these areas has presented huge logistical problems, associated with both extreme weather conditions and presence of permafrost. Required adaptation and huge expenditure.

Barrow, Alaska (R I Waller) The Trans-Alaska Pipeline (R I Waller) Dr Richard Waller, Keele University, [email protected] C-Change in GEES: Changing Permafrost Environments Intro to Permafrost Environments The Alaskan Gold Rush Early 20th Century http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Miners_register_claims.jpg http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Klondike_mining_camp.jpg Images of the Klondike Gold Rush Dr Richard Waller, Keele University, [email protected]

C-Change in GEES: Changing Permafrost Environments Intro to Permafrost Environments Prudhoe Bay Oilfield, Alaska Coastal Plain Late 20th Century R.I. Waller Dr Richard Waller, Keele University, [email protected] C-Change in GEES: Changing Permafrost Environments Intro to Permafrost Environments Diamond Mining 21st Century http://www.flickr.com/photos/johnbullas/2291556265/ Diavik Diamond Mine, Northwest Territories, Canada Construction began in 2001, currently

produces 1600 kg per year http://www.flickr.com/photos/jeande/2730864493/sizes/l/ Mirny Diamond Mine, Eastern Siberia The second largest excavated hole in the world. During winter months workers used jet engines to defreeze and dig out the permafrost or blasted it with dynamite. Dr Richard Waller, Keele University, [email protected] C-Change in GEES: Changing Permafrost Environments Intro to Permafrost Environments Small coastal settlement Aerial view of Tuktoyaktuk, western Canadian Arctic R.I. Waller

Dr Richard Waller, Keele University, [email protected] C-Change in GEES: Changing Permafrost Environments Intro to Permafrost Environments Yellowknife, capital of the Canadian Northwest Territories R.I. Waller Dr Richard Waller, Keele University, [email protected] C-Change in GEES: Changing Permafrost Environments Intro to Permafrost Environments Example of Costly Adaptation to the Environment: a utilidor in Inuvik, western Canadian Arctic (lecture 6) R.I. Waller Dr Richard Waller, Keele University, [email protected] C-Change in GEES: Changing Permafrost Environments Intro to Permafrost Environments

Lecture Summary Permafrost is a thermal condition where soil or rock has remained below 0C for at least two consecutive winters. Permafrost is widespread, covering over 20% of the Earths land surface. Permafrost environments are characterised by a range of climatic regimes, but are generally cold and arid.

Permafrost regions are also characterised by distinctive flora and fauna, and pose a unique challenge to those who decide to live there. Dr Richard Waller, Keele University, [email protected] C-Change in GEES: Changing Permafrost Environments Intro to Permafrost Environments References Williams, P.J. and Smith, M.W. (1989) The Frozen Earth. Studies in Polar Research. CUP, Cambridge. Dr Richard Waller, Keele University, [email protected] C-Change in GEES: Changing Permafrost Environments Intro to Permafrost Environments This resource was created by the University of Keele and released as an open educational resource through the 'C-change in GEES' project exploring the open licensing of climate change and sustainability resources in the Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences. The C-change in GEES project was funded by HEFCE as part of the JISC/HE Academy UKOER

programme and coordinated by the GEES Subject Centre. This resource is licensed under the terms of the Attribution-Non-Commercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/). However the resource, where specified below, contains other 3rd party materials under their own licenses. The licenses and attributions are outlined below: 1.The name of the Keele University and its logos are unregistered trade marks of the University. The University reserves all rights to these items beyond their inclusion in these CC resources. 2.The JISC logo, the C-change logo and the logo of the Higher Education Academy Subject Centre for the Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences are licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution -non-commercial-No Derivative Works 2.0 UK England & Wales license. All reproductions must comply with the terms of that license Dr Richard Waller, Keele University, [email protected] C-Change in GEES: Changing Permafrost Environments Intro to Permafrost Environments Item Metadata Author

Dr Richard Waller Stephen Whitfield Institute Owner Keele University, School of Physical and Geographical Sciences Title Introduction to Permafrost Environments PowerPoint Presentation Date Created March 2010 Description

Part One of Changing Permafrost Environments Educational Level 3 Keywords (Primary keywords UKOER & GEESOER) UKOER, GEESOER, geography, climate, vegetation, fauna, flora, human influence Creative Commons License Attribution-Non-Commercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Dr Richard Waller, Keele University, [email protected]

C-Change in GEES: Changing Permafrost Environments Intro to Permafrost Environments

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy

    Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy

    [N=306, NYHA III or IV, LVEF ≤35%, QRS≥150 ms] Randomly assigned to simultaneous BiV pacing, sequential BiV pacing (ie, LVactivation preceding RV by 20 to 80 ms) or LV pacing.). At 6m, all groups had a significantimprovement in LVEF and...
  • Linking Asteroids and Meteorites through Reflectance Spectroscopy

    Linking Asteroids and Meteorites through Reflectance Spectroscopy

    Astronomy 100 Tuesday, Thursday 2:30 - 3:45 pm Tom Burbine [email protected]
  • FORMATION 10 décembre 2014

    FORMATION 10 décembre 2014

    Saisie des noms des enseignants par discipline et par classe terminale en vue de la saisie des appréciations en ligne (AEL) Saisie du nom du professeur principal (Suivi des candidatures des élèves) Du 20 janvier au 20 mars . 2016....
  • Influencing Behavior in the Workplace

    Influencing Behavior in the Workplace

    Influencing Behavior in the Workplace. Durham- Where Great Things Happen. ... Why is influencing behavior important? Productivity. ... City of Durham's Experience with . Monkey See, Monkey Do. Implemented the City's Strategic Plan.
  • The APUSH DBQ - Dearborn Public Schools

    The APUSH DBQ - Dearborn Public Schools

    Try to formulate a tentative thesis statement . before. you read the documents. Document Use In the Essay. When you have used the document, you may write (1) or (Doc 1) at the end of the reference to the document....
  • IEEE Power Electronics Society Status and Outlook

    IEEE Power Electronics Society Status and Outlook

    Power & Control Core Technologies, Power Conversion Systems and Components. Motor Drives and Actuators. Vehicle and Transportation Systems. Sustainable Energy Systems. High performance and Emerging Technologies. Communication Energy Systems . Join IEEE PELS today … And . be connected to...
  • An Update on GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) Level-2 ...

    An Update on GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) Level-2 ...

    AERONET level 2.0 and MODIS L1b reflectance at ABI channel resolution (2 km) for year 2009. ABI aerosol algorithm is run using proxy MODIS reflectances and ABI AODs are validated with AERONET. GOES-R AWG 2nd Validation Workshop, Jan 9 -...
  • Supporting Comprehension at Home

    Supporting Comprehension at Home

    By clarifying unfamiliar vocabulary, a child is making sure that he or she has a thorough understanding of a text. By inferring, a child is using higher level thinking to create meaning from a text. By using evidence to support...