Enhancing Skills for Systematic Reviews part 1: searching

Enhancing Skills for Systematic Reviews part 1: searching

Enhancing Skills for Systematic Reviews part 1: searching healthcare databases Clare Crowley Sonya Lipcyznska 2 Learning Objectives Brief overview of what is involved in doing a systematic review Understand the importance of drawing up a clear

search strategy Know where to look to find information Understand the importance of recording your search strategy properly Know where to go to get more help 3 High quality systematic reviews seek to:

Identify all relevant published and unpublished evidence Select studies or reports for inclusion Assess the quality of each study or report Synthesise the findings from individual studies or reports in an unbiased way Interpret the findings and present a balanced and impartial summary of the findings with due consideration of any flaws in the evidence. (Hemingway, 2001) They are the foundation stone of evidence-based medicine! 4

The stages of a systematic review Cochrane Collaboration sets out eight stages of doing a systematic review 1. Defining the review question and developing criteria for including studies 2. Searching for studies 3. Selecting studies and collecting data 4. Assessing risk of bias in included studies 5. Analysing data and undertaking meta-analyses 6. Addressing reporting biases 7. Presenting results and summary of findings tables

8. Interpreting results and drawing conclusions 5 Drawing up your search Need to: Define your question! Identify topics for searching Use free text AND subject headings Identify as many synonyms as possible and combine with OR Dont use language or date limits at this point youll need to cast your net as widely as possible as only a small fraction of studies will meet your quality threshold

You can use filters to find randomised controlled trials available at http://www.york.ac.uk/inst/crd/intertasc/ 6 Where to search 1

Ovid databases Medline, PscyInfo, Embase CINAHL Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials Web of Science Scopus HMIC ASSIA 7

Where to search 2 Make sure you choose the most appropriate database for your topic e.g. Medicine, dentistry etc = Medline Drugs = Embase Psychotherapy = PsycInfo Nursing = CINAHL Social Sciences = Scopus, ASSIA 8 Focus your question

Ask focused, answerable questions NOT What is the most effective intervention for treating eating disorders? 9 Focus your question Ask focused, answerable questions INSTEAD Is cognitive therapy better than antidepressants for treating eating disorders?

10 PICO search P = Patient, population / problem, condition I =Intervention / exposure C = comparison comparing therapies or options O = outcome the effects of the intervention 11 Patient

People with eating disorders Intervention Cognitive therapy Comparison Antidepressant drugs Outcome

Reduction of symptoms, increase in quality of life 12 AND

Retrieves results containing only both terms e.g. eating disorders AND cognitive therapy Makes search more specific Sometimes automatic for two or more terms depending on database 13 OR

Retrieves results containing either term, i.e. inclusive Useful for synonyms and related terms e.g. antidepressant drugs OR antidepressive agents Useful for variant terms e.g. SSRI OR Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors

Makes search broader 14 Subject heading searching Standardised terms Assigned by expert indexers (humans not machines!) Allows exploration of associated (broader, narrower and related) terms in subject tree. Can help your search and avoid problems inherent in free text Can retrieve articles where the term does not occur in title or abstract

15 Using subject headings Not all databases provide subject headings or a thesaurus Medline uses MeSH, EMBASE uses EMTREE etc.. In OvidSP search usually maps to headings by default. Remember to check Scope notes and explore the subject tree where you can explode or focus terms. Search in stages and then combine results using Search History functions

16 Free text searching Free text, keyword, or natural language searching The strategy used for searching the web and any database Finds results if the words you are searching for are present in: article title abstract keywords You will find an article if you use the same terminology

as the author(s) 17 Problems with free text searching The ambiguity of natural language Synonyms, homonyms etc.. Variant forms of the same word or phrase spelling, plural v. singular, abbreviations etc.. How do you know what you are missing? 18

Free text search tools Phrases antidepressant drugs Truncation depress* Wildcard searching p?ediatrics Adjacency searching cognitive adj2 therapy 19

Find full text Finding full text Electronically as e-journals In print at Kings libraries In print at other libraries (e.g. other UL colleges)

Document delivery interlibrary loans Look out for the [email protected] logo link to full text 20 An example of a search strategy http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/ 10.1002/14651858.CD006911.pub2/abstract (navigate to Appendices for search strategy via Jump to box under Article tab).

Adjacency Truncation Synonyms Subject headings v free text searching Limit to specific fields e.g. PT (publication type) 21

Summaries of Evidence BMJ Clinical Evidence Promotes informed decision making by summarising whats known and not known about many conditions and treatments 22 NHS Evidence www.evidence.nhs.uk NICE search engine of evidence based resources, e.g. guidelines and reviews

23 Using Filters Cochrane filter http://www.mrc-bsu.cam.ac.uk/cochrane/handbook/ chapter_6/6_4_11_search_filters.htm SIGN http://www.sign.ac.uk/methodology/filters.html Centre for Reviews and Dissemination http://www.york.ac.uk/inst/crd/intertasc/rct.htm

24 The Cochrane Handbook http://www.cochrane-handbook.org/ The Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions is the official document that describes in detail the process of preparing and maintaining Cochrane systematic reviews on the effects of healthcare interventions. Part 2, Section 6 Searching for Studies. 25

Further information and support Library Services Searching for Literature guide User guides on specific interfaces and databases at available at http://www.kcl.ac.uk/library/libraries/guides.aspx Contact your schools Information Specialist at http://www.kcl.ac.uk/library/support/spec/ specialists.aspx 26

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • Chapter 7

    Chapter 7

    Electrically charged objects obey the following rules: Law of Conservation of charge- charge may be transferred from object to object, but it cannot be created or destroyed 2. Opposite charges attract, and like charges repel. 3. Charges can act on...
  • Framework for

    Framework for

    Framework for Accelerating Improvement. Paula Griswold, MS. Executive Director, MA Coalition for the Prevention of Medical Errors. Patricia McGaffigan, RN, MS, CPPS. Vice President, Patient Safety Programs
  • Exploring Marketing Research 10e - KSU Faculty

    Exploring Marketing Research 10e - KSU Faculty

    Describing Qualitative Research. Qualitative marketing research. Addresses marketing objectives through techniques allowing the researcher to provide elaborate interpretations of market phenomena without depending on numerical measurement
  • Burchells' Lunch & Learn

    Burchells' Lunch & Learn

    It is estimated that Aboriginal people could account for 4.1% of Canada's population by 2017. 30% identify as Métis 5 % identify as Inuit 62% identify as Indian / First Nation 11% as "non-status" Indians 51% as "status" Indians The...
  • If My Hair was Blue, PRESENTATION Could I

    If My Hair was Blue, PRESENTATION Could I

    MANA. Founded in 1974, MANA, A National Latina Organization® (MANA) is a national grassroots membership organization with chapters, individual members and affiliates across the country. The MANA Mission is to empower Latinas through leadership development, community service and advocacy.
  • Head Start A to Z: Fiscal Management, Part 1

    Head Start A to Z: Fiscal Management, Part 1

    Head Start A to Z: Fiscal Management Part I Revised April 2014 Key Message Head Start is a complex and evolving organization, with extensive regulations, policies, values, and traditions.
  • Business Planning - National Biodiversity Network

    Business Planning - National Biodiversity Network

    Rhyd-y-creuau. Preston Montford. Dale Fort. Orielton. Margam Park. Millport. Head office. Titanic Quarter - Belfast. Where we are now: 19 FSC Centres in 2013. Access to a large number of skilled tutors. Well placed to run further training courses nationwide.
  • Definisjoner


    Apparat med lyskilde under en transparent plate. Brukes til å subtrahere røntgenfilm. Ved subtraksjon brukes to filmserier, en tatt uten, og en med kontrastmiddel tilført under angiografiopptaket. Ved å legge disse over hverandre, vil gjengivelsen av blodårene rundt hjertet framheves,...