Chapter 7 Deviance And Crime George Ritz Presented
Chapter 7 Deviance And Crime George Ritz Presented by Rolande D. Dathis What is deviance? Deviance is any act, belief, or individual trait that members of a society or a social group view as a violation of group norms and for which the violator is expected to be condemned or penalized. Deviance is relative and it differs from one culture to another.
Deviant acts in a society at a specific location and time may not be viewed as deviant at some later time. Deviance and Criminalization Deviance and Criminalization Criminalization Deviance Theories of Deviance
Explanatory Theories Constructionist theories Social Inter/ Control Actionists Theory Theories
Structural/ Functional Theories Brown windows Strain Theory Adaptation to Strain Conformists innovators Self
control Deviance And poor Conflict/ Critical Theories Deviance And Elite Ritualists Retrealists
Theories of Deviance Explanatory theories- explain that deviant actions are derived from a number of facts, such as the biological composition of the deviant and the social structure of the bigger society. Explanatory theories- theories of deviance ( or some other social phenomenon) that try to explain why it occurs (Ritzer 2015p 220) Theories of Deviance contd Constructionist theories- are concerned with the
procedure by which individuals describe and categorize some actions as normal and others as deviant. Structural/ Functional Theories - Emile Durkheim believed that deviance allows members of societies or groups to describe and make clear their collective ideas- their norms and values. Theories of Deviance Strain theory- developed by Robert K. Merton as an extension of the functionalist approach. This theory based on the belief that the gap
between the larger structure of society and the means available to individuals to reach to what the society believes to be of value fabricates strain that can lead a person into deviant acts. Adaptations to Strain Conformists- Individuals who consider both cultural goals and the conventional means of accomplishing those goals. Innovators People who consider cultural goals but discard traditional means of accomplishing
success. Ritualists- People who recognize that they will not be capable to accomplish cultural goals, but who nevertheless continue to engage in the traditional Adaptations to Strain Retreatists- People who decline both cultural goals and the conventional routes to their realization; they have entirely given up on achieving success within the system. Rebels- People who decline both conventional means and goals and as an alternative replace
nonconventional goals and means to those goals. Conflict / critical Theories According to conflict theorists inequality in a society leads some of the less unfortunate people to engage in deviant and criminal acts. According to the conflict approach of deviance those in power make the laws and rules to protect themselves and reduce opportunities for those who are deficient in power in the society.
Conflict / critical Theories Deviance and the poor - Elites in power viewed the poor as a group to offer the needed work at small cost and made vagrancy laws. - Contemporary conflict theorists influenced by Marxian theory hold that deviance is a result of the capitalist economic system. Conflict / critical Theories Deviance and the Elite
- Elite deviance is likely to get away with deviant and criminal acts. - Elites have a broad range of means at their removal to cover up their actions. Inter/Actionists Theories Labeling Symbol Social Control
Agents Key Ideas in Labeling process Interaction Labeling Theory Moral panic
Social control Rule creators Rule Enforcers Primary Deviance Secondary Deviance Moral Entrepreneurs
and help fill in numerous of the gaps in understanding left by structural / functional and conflict critical theories( Ritzer 2015). 2- One particular of Symbolic Interactionism, labeling theory, states that people become deviant when two things happen: Inter/actionist- Labeling theory contd - A symbol / label: In the realm of deviance, a number of labels are particularly powerful negative symbols: alcoholic, drug addict, pedophile, adulterer, and so on(Ritzer 2015,p229)
- Interaction: A social engagement between two or more people who identify, and orient their actions toward one another. Those who label an individual as deviant are known as social control agents. Inter/actionist- Labeling theory contd - Labeling theory asserts that people become deviant when a deviant label is effectively applied to them. Inter/actionist- Labeling theory contd There are two types of deviant acts connects
with labeling theory. Primary deviance : Early, nonpatterned acts of deviance, or an act here or there that is considered to be strange or out the ordinary(Ritzer 2015p230). Secondary deviance: Deviant acts that persist, become more common, and eventually cause people to organize their lives. Inter/actionist- Labeling theory contd and personal identities around their deviant status(Ritzer2015p230).
Inter/actionist- Labeling theory contd Key ideas in the Labeling Process -Social control: the procedure by which a group/ or society imposes conformity to its demands and expectations. - Rule creators: people who create societys rules, norms, and laws. - Rule enforcers: people threaten to, or in fact, apply the rules. Inter/actionist- Labeling theory contd
Moral entrepreneurs : People or groups who have the power to describe an act as a moral outrage and also have the resources to have it defined as deviant and to have it made illegal and therefore subject to legal enforcement (Ritzer 2015). Inter/actionist- Labeling theory contd Moral Panics: A widespread , but disproportionate, reaction to a form of deviance( Ritzer 2015p 231). Stigma: A trait that individuals find, describe, and
most of the time label as strange, distasteful, or deviant. Discredited stigma: A stigma that the affected person presumes that his/her differentness is known by others or is noticeable on the spot. Inter/actionist- Labeling theory contd Discreditable stigma: A stigma that the affected person presumes is neither known about nor immediately identifiable. Crime
Criminology Criminal Justice System Parole Probation Specific deterrence d Deferential Association
Types of crimes Violent crime Property crime Felonies General Deterrence Misdemeanors
Recidivism Organized crime Globalization And crime Political crime White-collar crime Hate crime
Cybercrime Consumer crime Concepts of crime What is Crime? A type of deviance that violates the law which is subject to punishment. It is the fact that it breaks the law that distinguishes crime from other types of deviance. Criminology is the field dedicated to the study of crime.
Cesare Lombroso (1876-2007) Cesare Lombroso and Criminology - Father of Criminology - rejected the early criminologists perspective which claimed that crime was a characteristic feature of human nature. - Focus on the born criminal. This approach explained that a born criminal could be recognized by physical and psychological attributes.
Edwin H. Sutherland (1883-1950) Edwin H. Sutherland and Criminology Known for his differential theory of crime. Differential association: A theory that focuses on the fact that people learn criminal behavior and therefore that what is crucial is whom a person associates with (Ritzer 2015 p 234) . Criminal Justice System
Parole Probation Specific deterrence Recidivism General deterrence Types of Crimes
Violent crime Property crimes Felonies
Misdemeanors White-collar crimes Corporate crime Organized crime Political crime Types of crime contd Hate crimes Cybercrime Consumer crimes
Civil Engineers In road design and land development to determine and model subsurface strata such as bottom of fill and top of bedrock, create thematic maps, calculate volumes, create isopachs, etc. Structural Engineers In determining soil properties for analysis of...
Generating Employee Notices. Each notice is different Excel worksheet (not workbook) Can generate by subset (organization, rating official, wildcard, etc.) Can generate visible records only (from Pay Pool Panel worksheet) Can set sort order (2 levels) Can set folder location...
and darkness. SHADING-using a value pencil to add depth and dimension . What is a contour line? Contour Line. Is NOT a line that just outlines the subject! Contour lines define the exterior and the interior part of the subject...
Antony Van Leeuwenhoek: comerciant que dedicava el seu temps lliure a la construcció de microscopis descriu per primera vegada glòbuls vermells, protozous, espermatozoides, petits animals etc.. Replica del microscopi construït per Van Leeuwenhoek
How to Choose a Random Sudoku Board Joshua Cooper USC Department of Mathematics How to Choose a Random Sudoku Board Joshua Cooper USC Department of Mathematics Rules: Place the numbers 1 through 9 in the 81 boxes, but do not...
Information Technology Project Management, Fourth Edition * Information Technology Project Management, Fourth Edition * Case Study: JWD Consulting's Project Management Intranet Site This case study provides an example of what's involved in initiating, planning, executing, controlling, and closing an IT...
Welcome to Cardinal Newman College 2015 Enjoy Achieve Succeed Senior Tutor: Block: Aims of this evening: To welcome you into the College To give you some information about how the College operates To allow us to meet and to explain...
Ready to download the document? Go ahead and hit continue!