Chapter 7 Deviance And Crime George Ritz Presented

Chapter 7 Deviance And Crime George Ritz Presented

Chapter 7 Deviance And Crime George Ritz Presented by Rolande D. Dathis What is deviance? Deviance is any act, belief, or individual trait that members of a society or a social group view as a violation of group norms and for which the violator is expected to be condemned or penalized. Deviance is relative and it differs from one culture to another.

Deviant acts in a society at a specific location and time may not be viewed as deviant at some later time. Deviance and Criminalization Deviance and Criminalization Criminalization Deviance Theories of Deviance

Explanatory Theories Constructionist theories Social Inter/ Control Actionists Theory Theories

Structural/ Functional Theories Brown windows Strain Theory Adaptation to Strain Conformists innovators Self

control Deviance And poor Conflict/ Critical Theories Deviance And Elite Ritualists Retrealists

Theories of Deviance Explanatory theories- explain that deviant actions are derived from a number of facts, such as the biological composition of the deviant and the social structure of the bigger society. Explanatory theories- theories of deviance ( or some other social phenomenon) that try to explain why it occurs (Ritzer 2015p 220) Theories of Deviance contd Constructionist theories- are concerned with the

procedure by which individuals describe and categorize some actions as normal and others as deviant. Structural/ Functional Theories - Emile Durkheim believed that deviance allows members of societies or groups to describe and make clear their collective ideas- their norms and values. Theories of Deviance Strain theory- developed by Robert K. Merton as an extension of the functionalist approach. This theory based on the belief that the gap

between the larger structure of society and the means available to individuals to reach to what the society believes to be of value fabricates strain that can lead a person into deviant acts. Adaptations to Strain Conformists- Individuals who consider both cultural goals and the conventional means of accomplishing those goals. Innovators People who consider cultural goals but discard traditional means of accomplishing

success. Ritualists- People who recognize that they will not be capable to accomplish cultural goals, but who nevertheless continue to engage in the traditional Adaptations to Strain Retreatists- People who decline both cultural goals and the conventional routes to their realization; they have entirely given up on achieving success within the system. Rebels- People who decline both conventional means and goals and as an alternative replace

nonconventional goals and means to those goals. Conflict / critical Theories According to conflict theorists inequality in a society leads some of the less unfortunate people to engage in deviant and criminal acts. According to the conflict approach of deviance those in power make the laws and rules to protect themselves and reduce opportunities for those who are deficient in power in the society.

Conflict / critical Theories Deviance and the poor - Elites in power viewed the poor as a group to offer the needed work at small cost and made vagrancy laws. - Contemporary conflict theorists influenced by Marxian theory hold that deviance is a result of the capitalist economic system. Conflict / critical Theories Deviance and the Elite

- Elite deviance is likely to get away with deviant and criminal acts. - Elites have a broad range of means at their removal to cover up their actions. Inter/Actionists Theories Labeling Symbol Social Control

Agents Key Ideas in Labeling process Interaction Labeling Theory Moral panic

Social control Rule creators Rule Enforcers Primary Deviance Secondary Deviance Moral Entrepreneurs

Stigmas Sigma Discredited sigma Discreditable sigma Inter/actionist- Labeling theory Labeling 1- Symbolic Interactionism examines deviance

and help fill in numerous of the gaps in understanding left by structural / functional and conflict critical theories( Ritzer 2015). 2- One particular of Symbolic Interactionism, labeling theory, states that people become deviant when two things happen: Inter/actionist- Labeling theory contd - A symbol / label: In the realm of deviance, a number of labels are particularly powerful negative symbols: alcoholic, drug addict, pedophile, adulterer, and so on(Ritzer 2015,p229)

- Interaction: A social engagement between two or more people who identify, and orient their actions toward one another. Those who label an individual as deviant are known as social control agents. Inter/actionist- Labeling theory contd - Labeling theory asserts that people become deviant when a deviant label is effectively applied to them. Inter/actionist- Labeling theory contd There are two types of deviant acts connects

with labeling theory. Primary deviance : Early, nonpatterned acts of deviance, or an act here or there that is considered to be strange or out the ordinary(Ritzer 2015p230). Secondary deviance: Deviant acts that persist, become more common, and eventually cause people to organize their lives. Inter/actionist- Labeling theory contd and personal identities around their deviant status(Ritzer2015p230).

Inter/actionist- Labeling theory contd Key ideas in the Labeling Process -Social control: the procedure by which a group/ or society imposes conformity to its demands and expectations. - Rule creators: people who create societys rules, norms, and laws. - Rule enforcers: people threaten to, or in fact, apply the rules. Inter/actionist- Labeling theory contd

Moral entrepreneurs : People or groups who have the power to describe an act as a moral outrage and also have the resources to have it defined as deviant and to have it made illegal and therefore subject to legal enforcement (Ritzer 2015). Inter/actionist- Labeling theory contd Moral Panics: A widespread , but disproportionate, reaction to a form of deviance( Ritzer 2015p 231). Stigma: A trait that individuals find, describe, and

most of the time label as strange, distasteful, or deviant. Discredited stigma: A stigma that the affected person presumes that his/her differentness is known by others or is noticeable on the spot. Inter/actionist- Labeling theory contd Discreditable stigma: A stigma that the affected person presumes is neither known about nor immediately identifiable. Crime

Criminology Criminal Justice System Parole Probation Specific deterrence d Deferential Association

Types of crimes Violent crime Property crime Felonies General Deterrence Misdemeanors

Recidivism Organized crime Globalization And crime Political crime White-collar crime Hate crime

Cybercrime Consumer crime Concepts of crime What is Crime? A type of deviance that violates the law which is subject to punishment. It is the fact that it breaks the law that distinguishes crime from other types of deviance. Criminology is the field dedicated to the study of crime.

Cesare Lombroso (1876-2007) Cesare Lombroso and Criminology - Father of Criminology - rejected the early criminologists perspective which claimed that crime was a characteristic feature of human nature. - Focus on the born criminal. This approach explained that a born criminal could be recognized by physical and psychological attributes.

Edwin H. Sutherland (1883-1950) Edwin H. Sutherland and Criminology Known for his differential theory of crime. Differential association: A theory that focuses on the fact that people learn criminal behavior and therefore that what is crucial is whom a person associates with (Ritzer 2015 p 234) . Criminal Justice System

Parole Probation Specific deterrence Recidivism General deterrence Types of Crimes

Violent crime Property crimes Felonies

Misdemeanors White-collar crimes Corporate crime Organized crime Political crime Types of crime contd Hate crimes Cybercrime Consumer crimes

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