1 Members as at Feb 07: Greensols Pty.

1 Members as at Feb 07: Greensols Pty. Ltd. (Prof. Chris Cuff) www.greensols.com.au TecEco Pty. Ltd. (John Harrison) www.tececo.com The name Gaia Engineering is a tribute to James Lovelock who got us all thinking that We can't solve problems by using the same kind of thinking we used when we created them." (Einstein) www.gaiaengineering.c Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologie 2 Even if the annual flow of emissions was frozen today, the level of greenhouse gas in the atmosphere would still reach double its pre-industrial levels by 2050. In fact, emissions are increasing rapidly and the level of 550ppm could be reached as early as 2035. Stern review Executive Summary Page 3 para 6 Our view is that this is a crisis and it is time we stopped stuffing around and went for the solution that can solve the problem quickly, economically and without huge suffering and losses. Gaia Engineering is that solution www.gaiaengineering.c Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologie 3

Gaia Engineering Presentation Roadmap The Global Sustainability Alliance Background Materials through the Techno-Process The supply and waste chains and in use Economics Biomimicry/Geomimicry Gaia Engineering Introduction Components of Gaia Engineering Outcomes of Gaia Engineering www.gaiaengineering.c Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologie 4 Global Sustainability Alliance

Our mission is to develop Gaia Engineering that substantially reverses damaging molecular flows that are a consequence of materials flows on the planet As the built environment is man made and involves large flows it is the obvious place to permanently fix CO2 and other wastes Gaia engineering is potentially profitable as it results in the production of valuable commodities including fresh water and building materials www.gaiaengineering.c Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologie Demographic Explosion 5 ? ? Undevelope d Countries A Planet in Crisis Develope d Countries Global population, consumption per capita and our footprint on the planet are exploding.

www.gaiaengineering.c Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologie 6 Ecological Footprint Exceeds Capacity Source: WWF State of the Planet, 2005 Our footprint is exceeding the capacity of the planet to support it. We are not longer sustainable and the environment is no longer sustainable we must change our ways to survive www.gaiaengineering.c Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologie 7 Energy Peak Oil Production (Campell 2004) Most models of oil reserves, production and consumption show peak oil around 2010 (Campbell 2005) and serious undersupply and rapidly escalating prices by 2025. It follows that there will be economic mayhem unless the we act now to reduce and change the energy base of our economies. www.gaiaengineering.c Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologie

The Carbon Cycle and Emissions Units: GtC GtC/yr 4.5 billion years of geological sequestration have resulted in 7% of the crust being carbonate 8 Emissions from fossil fuels and cement productio n are a significan t cause of the global warming. We need to increase the sedimentar y carbon sink After: David Schimel and Lisa Dilling, National Centre for Atmospheric Research 2003 www.gaiaengineering.c Greensols

permanent CO2 fixation technologie 9 Global Warming Rises in the levels of greenhouse gases Are causing a rapid rise in temperature www.gaiaengineering.c Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologie 10 CO2 and Temperature Hansen, J et. al. Climate Change and Trace Gases The correlation between temperature and CO2 in the atmosphere over the last 450,000 years is very good Should we continue to live in denial? www.gaiaengineering.c Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologie 11

Fresh Water A finite resource Population rising Per capita use rising Water-stress 1/3 world's population By 2025, 2/3 due to global warming. 1 person in 5 do not have access to safe drinking water Yet water is the most common substance on the planet. www.gaiaengineering.c Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologie 12 Waste & Pollution

Ill health. Contamination of global commons with dangerous molecules. Increased traffic, noise, odours, smoke, dust, litter and pests. There are various estimates, but we produce about 5600 million tonnes of waste each year. Tec and Eco-Cements use waste. www.gaiaengineering.c Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologie One Planet, Many People, Many Interconnected Problems 13 Global Sustainability Alliance Partners are in the BIGGEST Business on the Planet Economic Solutions to our Energy, Global Warming, Water and Waste Problems. www.gaiaengineering.c Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologie The Techno-Process

M Underlying the technoprocess that describes and controls the flow of matter and energy through the Detrimental affects on earth Wast systems e ion bill 0 -60 0 0 5 ion l ve l i o M es e 50 b n n to som e s U s ne n

s l o atteria Take Ma 14 supply and waste chains are molecular ls a i r te stocks and flows. If out of synch with nature these moleconomic flows have detrimental affects on earth systems. To reduce the impact on earth systems new technical paradigms need to be invented and cultural changes evolve that result in materials flows with underlying molecular flows that mimic or at least do not interfere with natural flows and that support rather than detrimentally impact on earth systems. www.gaiaengineering.c Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologie 15 Earth Systems Science

Courtesy NASA Earth system science treats the entire Earth as a system in its own right, which evolves as a result of positive and negative feedback between constituent systems (Wiki) www.gaiaengineering.c Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologie 16 The Earth System The earth system consists of positive and negative feedback loops. Anthro posphere www.gaiaengineering.c Small changes caused by man such as CO2 and other climate forcing as well as pollution impact right across all interconnected systems throughout the global

commons Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologie How Flows in the Techno-Process Effect Earth Systems 17 Take Manipulate Make Use Waste [ Materials ] [ Underlying molecular flow ] These underlying molecular flows are damaging the environment e.g. heavy metals, cfcs, c=halogen compounds and CO2 Moleconomics Is the study of the form of atoms in molecules, their flow, interactions, balances, stocks and positions. What we take from the environment around us, how we manipulate and make materials out of what we take and what we waste result in underlying molecular flows that affect earth systems. These flows should mimic or minimally interfere with natural flows. www.gaiaengineering.c Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologie Detrimental Impacts of the Techno-Process 18 Detrimental

Linkages that affect earth system flows Take manipulate and make impacts There is no such place as away Materials are in the End of lifecycle impacts TechnoSphere Utility zone Materials are everything between the take and waste and affect earth system flows. Less Utility Greater Utility www.gaiaengineering.c Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologie 19 Materials Important for Sustainability Biosphere Geosphere Materials are the link

between the biosphere and anthroposphere and the key to sustainability. They are everything between and define the take and waste. Anthroposphere The choice of materials controls underlying molecular flows, (the study of moleconomics) Affected are emissions, lifetime and embodied energies, physical properties such as specific heat and conductance, use of recycled wastes, durability, recyclability and the properties of wastes returned to the biosphere and geosphere www.gaiaengineering.c Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologie 20 Changing the Techno-Process Take => manipulate => make => use => Driven by fossil fuel energy with detrimental moleconomic waste effects. Reduce Re-use Recycle Reduce Re-use Take only renewables

Manipulate Make Use Waste only what is biodegradable or can be re-assimilated Recycle Materials Atoms and Molecules in the global common www.gaiaengineering.c Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologie 21 Economically Driven Sustainability New, more profitable technical paradigms are required that result in more sustainable and usually more efficient moleconomic flows that mimic natural flows or better, reverse our damaging $ - ECONOMICS - $ flows. Change is only possible economically. It will not happen because it is necessary or right. www.gaiaengineering.c Greensols

permanent CO2 fixation technologie 22 Changing the Technology Paradigm It is not so much a matter of dematerialisation as a question of changing the underlying moleconomic flows. We need materials that require less energy to make them, do not pollute the environment with CO2 and other releases, last much longer and that contribute properties that reduce lifetime energies. The key is to change the technology paradigms By enabling us to make productive use of particular raw materials, technology determines what constitutes a physical resource1 1.Pilzer, Paul Zane, Unlimited Wealth, The Theory and Practice of Economic Alchemy, Crown Publishers Inc. New York.1990 www.gaiaengineering.c Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologie Cultural Change 23 Al Gore (SOS) CSIRO reports

STERN Report Lots of Talkfest IPCC Report Branson Prize Live Earth (07/07/07) The media have a growing role www.gaiaengineering.c Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologie 24 Economics Sustainability is Where Culture and Technology Meet Increase in demand/price ratio for $ greater sustainability due to cultural Supply change. ECONOMICS We must rapidly move both the supply and demand curves for sustainability Equilibrium Shift Greater Value/for impact

(Sustainability) and economic growth Demand Increase in supply/price ratio # for more sustainable products due to technical innovation. A measure of the degree of sustainability of an industrial ecology is where the demand for more sustainable technologies is met by their supply. www.gaiaengineering.c Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologie 25 Learning from Nature (Biomimicry) Nature is the most frugal economist of all. The waste from one plant or animal is the food or home for another. In nature photosynthesis balances respiration and recycling is the norm By studying nature we learn who we are, what we are and how we are to be. (Wright, F.L. 1957:269) There is a strong need for similar efficiency and

balance in our techno-process By learning from Nature we can all live together www.gaiaengineering.c Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologie Biomimicry - Geomimicry 26 The term biomimicry was popularised by the book of the same name written by Janine Benyus Biomimicry is a method of solving problems that uses natural processes and systems as a source of knowledge and inspiration. It involves nature as model, measure and mentor. Geomimicry is similar to biomimicry but models geological rather than biological processes. The theory behind biomimicry is that natural processes and systems have evolved over several billion years through a process of research and development commonly referred to as evolution. A reoccurring theme in natural systems is the cyclical flow of matter in such a way that there is no waste of matter and very little of energy. Geomicry is a natural extension of biomimicry and applies to geological rather than living processes Nature is very economical about all

Processes. We must also be MUCH more economical www.gaiaengineering.c Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologie 27 Biomimicry - Ultimate Recyclers As peak oil start to bite and the price of transport rises sharply We should not just be recycling based on chemical property requiring transport to large centralised sophisticated and expensive facilities We should be including CO2 and wastes based on physical properties as well as chemical composition in composites whereby they become local resources. The Jackdaw recycles all sorts of things it finds nearby based on physical property. The bird is not concerned about chemical composition and the nest it makes could be described as a composite material. TecEco cements are benign binders that can incorporate all sort of wastes without reaction problems. We can do the same as the Jackdaw www.gaiaengineering.c Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologie 28 Utilizing Carbon and Wastes

During earth's geological history large tonnages of carbon were put away as limestone and other carbonates and as coal and petroleum by the activity of plants and animals. Sequestering carbon in calcium and magnesium carbonate materials and other wastes in the built environment mimics nature in that carbon is used in the homes or skeletal structures of most plants and animals. In eco-cement blocks and mortars the binder is carbonate and the aggregates are preferably wastes Biomimicry Geomimicry We all use carbon and wastes to make our homes! CO2 CO2 CO2 C CO2 www.gaiaengineering.c

Porous pavement Wast e Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologie Geomimicry 29 There are 1.2-3 grams of magnesium and about .4 grams of calcium in every litre of seawater. Carbonate sediments such as these cliffs represent billions of years of sequestration and cover 7% of the crust. There is enough calcium and magnesium in seawater with replenishment to last billions of years at current needs for sequestration. To survive we must build our homes like these seashells using CO2 and alkali metal

cations. This is geomimicry www.gaiaengineering.c Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologie Geomimicry for Planetary Engineers? 30 Large tonnages of carbon were put away during earths geological history as limestone, dolomite, magnesite, coal and oil by the activity of plants and animals. Shellfish built shells from it and Trees turned it into wood. These same plants and animals wasted nothing The waste from one was the food or home for another. Because of the colossal size of the flows involved the answer to the problems of greenhouse gas and waste is to use them both in building materials. Materials are very important www.gaiaengineering.c Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologie

Geomimicry for Planetary Engineers? 31 The answer to the problems of greenhouse gas and waste is to use them both in building materials. Such a paradigm shift in resource usage will not occur because it is the right thing to do. It can only happen economically. We must put an economic value on carbon to solve global warming by inventing new technical paradigms such as offered by the Global Sustainability Alliance in Gaia Engineering. Evolving culturally to effectively use these technical paradigms By using carbon dioxide and other wastes as a building materials we could economically reduce their concentration in the global commons. Materials are very important www.gaiaengineering.c Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologie Making Carbonate Building Materials to Solve the Global Warming Problem 32

How much magnesium carbonate would have to be deposited to solve the problem of global warming? 12 billion tonnes CO2 ~= 22.99 billion tonnes magnesite The density of magnesite is 3 gm/cm3 or 3 tonne/metre3 Thus 22.9/3 billion cubic metres ~= 7.63 cubic kilometres of magnesite are required to be deposited each year. Compared to the over seven cubic kilometres of concrete we make every year, the problem of global warming looks surmountable. If magnesite was our building material of choice and we could make it without releases as is the case with Gaia Engineering, we have the problem as good as solved! We must build with carbonate and waste www.gaiaengineering.c Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologie 33 The Gaia Engineering Process Inputs: Atmospheric or smokestack CO2, brines, waste acid, other wastes Outputs: Gaia Engineering delivers

profitable outcomes whilst reversing underlying undesirable moleconomic flows from other less sustainable technoprocesses outside the tececology. Potable water, gypsum, sodium bicarbonate, salts, building materials, bottled concentrated CO 2 (for algal fuel production and other uses). Carbonate building components CO2 Solar or solar derived energy CO2 CO2 MgO Eco-Cement TecEco MgCO2 Cycle TecEco Kiln CO2 MgCO3 1.29 gm/l Mg Coal Carbon or carbon compounds Magnesium compounds

Fossil fuels Greensols Process Oil www.gaiaengineering.c Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologie 34 Gaia Engineering Introduction Gaia Engineering is a combination of new technologies including A seawater separation technology from Greensols Pty. Ltd. TecEcos Tec-Kiln technology and cements Carbon dioxide scrubbing technologies TecEco' Eco-Cements www.gaiaengineering.c Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologie 35 Gaia Engineering Introduction (2)

Gaia engineering profitably geomimics past planetary geological processes and adopted on a large scale will: Sequester significant amounts of atmospheric CO2 Add value to the salts recoverable from sea water Convert large volumes of waste to valuable resource Produce fresh water. www.gaiaengineering.c Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologie 36 Gaia Engineering Introduction (3) Gaia Engineering works like a giant ecological pump. Inputs include Seawater or suitable brine CO2 Waste acid Other wastes of all kinds A small amount of energy Outputs include

Gypsum, sodium bicarbonate and various other valuable salts. Magnesium carbonate building components. TecEco Tec, Eco and Enviro-Cements. Waste utlisation. Fresh water. www.gaiaengineering.c Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologie 37 Gaia Engineering Industrial Ecologies are generally thought of as closed loop systems with minimal or low impacts outside the ecology The Gaia Engineering tececology could be thought of as an open technical ecology designed to reverse major damaging moleconomic and other system flows outside the tececology The Gaia Engineering tececology is not closed and is designed to reverse damaging moleconomic flows

outside the ecology - LIKE A GIANT ECOLOGICAL PUMP www.gaiaengineering.c Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologie 38 Gaia Engineering Greensols Seawater Carbonatio n Process. Wast e Acid CO2 from power generation or industry Other salts Na+,K+, Ca2+,ClMgO Production using solar energy Simplified TecEco Reactions Tec-Kiln MgCO3 MgO + CO2 - 118 kJ/mole Reactor Process MgO + CO2 MgCO3 + 118 kJ/mole (usually more complex hydrates) Solar Process to

Produce Magnesium Metal CO 2 Other Wastes (MgCO2) Cycle Tec-Reactor Hydroxide / Carbonate slurry Eco-Cementprocess Tec-Cement Magnesit e (MgCO3) 1.354 x 109 km3 Seawater containing 1.728 1017 tonne Mg or suitable brines from other sources Gypsum + carbon waste (e.g. Bicarbona sewerage) te of Soda = fertilizers Gypsu Sewerage (NaHCO3) m compost (CaSO4) CO2 + H2O => Energy rich

biomass using blue green algae CO2 from power generation, industry or Magnesia out of the air (MgO) Sequestration Table Mg from Seawater Tonnes CO2 sequestered per tonne magnesium with various cycles through the TecEco Tec-Kiln process. Assuming no leakage MgO to built environment (i.e. complete cycles). Billion Tonnes Tonnes CO2 sequestered by 1 billion tonnes of Mg in seawater 1.81034 Tonnes CO2 captured during calcining (same as above) 1.81034 Tonnes CO2 captured by eco-cement 1.81034 Total tonnes CO2 sequestered or abated per tonne Mg in seawater (Single calcination cycle). 3.62068 Total tonnes CO2 sequestered or abated (Five calcination cycles.) 18.1034 Total tonnes CO2 sequestered or abated (Ten calcination cycles).

36.20 www.gaiaengineering.c Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologie Inputs 39 Gaia Engineering Brines Waste Acid Wastes CO2 Outputs Gypsum, Sodium bicarbonate, Salts, Building materials, Potable water www.gaiaengineering.c Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologie 40 Greensols Making Carbonate Building Components Greensols Pty. Ltd is an Australian company with an economic technology to

precipitate out carbonates and other valuable compounds from sea water and brines and in the process sequester significant amounts of carbon dioxide and produce valuable by products including fresh water. www.gaiaengineering.c Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologie 41 Greensols Carbon Capture Strongly charged ions such as calcium, magnesium and carbonate attract hydration shells of water around them. Magnesium and calcium ions polar bond to oxygen and the negative carbonate ion to hydrogen. These bonds can propagate through several layers of water and are strong enough to prevent the formation of calcium and magnesium carbonates even from supersaturated solutions. www.gaiaengineering.c Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologie 42 The Greensols Process

The Greensols process uses waste acid to de-polarise a statistical proportion of water molecules by attaching a proton whereby positively charged sodium, calcium or magnesium ions as well as negatively charged ions including carbonate ions are released, can combine and then precipitate. www.gaiaengineering.c Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologie Greensols Carbon Capture 43 Hydration shelling of water around calcium or magnesium Ions because of the strong charge of especially magnesium to the oxygen end of Similar hydration shellingwater occurs around the negative carbonate ion through polar bonding to the hydrogen ends of water www.gaiaengineering.c Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologie

44 Greensols Carbon Capture The addition of a proton to water using strong waste acid results in its depolarisation whereby it no longer electronically holds as many ions (sodium, calcium, magnesium or carbonate etc.) statistically releasing them and allowing them to combine and precipitate as carbonates and other more valuable salts leaving behind essentially fresh water www.gaiaengineering.c Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologie 45 Greensols Carbon Capture = + ++ Mg + MgCO3 CO3

__ => The statistical release of both cations and anions results in precipitation of for example magnesium carbonate as shown above. www.gaiaengineering.c Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologie Advantages of Greensols GREENSOLS REVERSE OSMOSIS Low energy costs - Does not work against the electronic forces in water. Relatively high energy costs - Works against the hydrogen bonding of water to separate it from its ions Low maintenance - The plant consists of low cost replaceable pumps High Maintenance - The membranes need cleaning and changing at regular intervals. No damaging or dangerous outputs

Highly saline water is potentially damaging Value adds include fresh water, sequestration, valuable salts and building products The only value add is fresh water www.gaiaengineering.c 46 Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologie The Tec-Reactor Hydroxide Carbonate Slurry Process 47 The solubility of carbon dioxide gas in seawater Increases as the temperature approached zero and Is at a maxima around 4oC This phenomenon is related to the chemical nature of CO2 and water and Can be utilised in a carbonate hydroxide slurry process to capture CO2 out of the air

and release it to storage or use in a controlled manner www.gaiaengineering.c Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologie The MgCO2 Process (Magnesium Thermodynamic Cycle) The MgCO2 (magnesium thermodynamic cycle) is very important for sequestration and is used for the formation of valuable building product TOTAL CALCINING ENERGY Relative to MgCO3 Theoretical = 1480 kJ.Kg With inefficiencies = 1948 kJ.Kg-1 Tec-Kiln CO 2 Eco-Cements CO2 + H2O => Hydrocarbon s compounds using algae Magnesite Dehydration 48 Calcination Representative of other

hydrated mineral Nesquehonite carbonates Carbonation Carbonation Mg(OH)2.nH2O +CO2 +2H2O => MgCO3.3H2O Brucite H = - 37.04 kJ.mol G = - 19.55 kJ.mol Magnesi a Calcification MgCO3 => MgO + CO2 H = 118.28 kJ.mol-1 G = 65.92 kJ.mol-1 Hydration MgO + H2O => Mg(OH)2.nH2O H = - 81.24 kJ.mol G = - 35.74 kJ.mol Tec, Eco and Enviro-Cements www.gaiaengineering.c Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologie 49 Tec-Kiln Technology CO2 + H2O =>

Hydrocarbons compounds using algae MgO Productio n using solar energy Runs at low temperatures minimising the development of lattice energy. Can be powered by various non fossil sources of energy such as solar energy or waste heat. Grinds and calcines at the same time thereby running 25% to 30% more efficiency. Brings mineral sequestration and geological sequestration together. Captures CO2 for bottling and use for fuel manufacture using algae and other life forms o other purposes. The products CaO and/or MgO can be used to sequester more CO2 and then be re-calcined. This cycle can then be repeated. Suitable for making reactive reactive MgO.Will result in new

markets for ultra reactive low lattice energy MgO (e.g. cement, paper and environment industries) www.gaiaengineering.c Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologie Why Magnesium Carbonates for Sequestration? Group 1 Period 1 1 H 2 3 Li 3 11 Na 4 19 K 5 37 2

3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 50 18 Because of the low molecular weight of magnesium, it is ideal for scrubbing CO2 out of the air and sequestering the gas into the 2 He built environment: 5 6 7

8 9 10 More4BeCO2 is captured than in calcium systems as B the C calculations N O F Ne below show. 12 CO 2 Mg 16 S 17 Cl 18 Ar 34 Se 35 Br 36 Kr 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47

48 49 50 51 52 Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te the crust magnesium is the 8th most abundant 53 I 54 Xe 44 52% 20 21 22 23 24 MgCO 3 84Ti V Cr Ca Sc 38 39

Sr 2.09% Yof 13 Al 25 Mn 26 Fe 14 Si 15 P CO 2 44 30 4332% 33 27 28 29 31 CaCO Co Ni 3 Cu 101 Zn Ga Ge As At 56 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80

81 82 83 84 85 86 element 6 * Ba Lu Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn Sea-water contains 1.29 gm/litre 87 88 * 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 7 Fr Magnesium Ra * Lr minerals Rf Db are Sg potential Bh Hs Mt low Uun cost. Uuu Uub Uut kiln Uuq technology Uup Uuh Uus Uuo

New from TecEco will enable easy low cost simple non fossil fuel calcination of magnesium carbonate with CO capture for 70 other 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 2 67 68 69 *Lanthanoids * uses. (e.g.LaalgalCeproduction fuel) Pr Nd Pm of Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Magnesium compounds have94low95pH96and polar bond in * 89 90 91 92 93 97 98

99 100 101 102 **Actinoids composites making them suitable for waste utilisation. * Ac Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Rb 55 Cs www.gaiaengineering.c Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologie 51 Why Materials for the Built Environment? The built environment is made of materials and is our footprint on earth. It comprises buildings and infrastructure. Construction materials comprise 70% of materials flows (buildings, infrastructure etc.) 40-50% of waste that goes to landfill (15 % of new materials going to site are wasted.) Over 30 billion tonnes of building materials are used annually on a world wide basis. Mostly using virgin natural resources

Combined in such a manner that they cannot easily be separated. Include many toxic elements. Why not use magnesium carbonates components from Greensols and Eco-Cements from TecEco? www.gaiaengineering.c Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologie Huge Potential for More Sustainable Construction Materials 52 Reducing the impact of the take and waste phases of the techno-process by. including carbon in materials Many wastes they are potentially carbon sinks. including CO2 can including wastes for contribute to physical properties as well as chemical composition physical properties they become resources. reducing lifetime re engineering materials to energies reduce the lifetime energy of buildings CO2 A durable low pH binder

high bonding system is required CO2 for effective waste utilisation such as Tec and Eco-Cements developed by TecEco CO2 C CO2 www.gaiaengineering.c Porous pavement Wast e Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologie Earthship Brighton Earthship Brighton, the first building in the world made with Eco-Cement which sets by absorbing CO2 and wastes www.gaiaengineering.c 53 Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologie 54 TecEco Cements Tec-cements (Low MgO) contain more Portland cement than reactive magnesia.

Reactive magnesia hydrates in the same rate order as Portland cement forming Brucite which uses up water reducing the voids:paste ratio, increasing density and possibly raising the short term pH. Reactions with pozzolans are more affective. After all the Portlandite has been consumed Brucite controls the long term pH which is lower and due to its low solubility, mobility and reactivity results in greater durability. Other benefits include improvements in density, strength and rheology, reduced permeability and shrinkage and the use of a wider range of aggregates many of which are potentially wastes without reaction problems. www.gaiaengineering.c Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologie 55 TecEco Cements Eco-cements (High MgO) contain more reactive magnesia than in tec-cements. Brucite in porous materials carbonates forming stronger fibrous mineral carbonates and therefore presenting huge opportunities for waste utilisation and sequestration. The low pH and high hydrogen bonding make Eco-Cements ideal for binding other materials including most wastes. Enviro-cements (High MgO) contain similar ratios of MgO and OPC to eco-cements but in non porous concretes brucite does not carbonate

readily. Higher proportions of magnesia are most suited to toxic and hazardous waste immobilisation and when durability is required. Strength is not developed quickly nor to the same extent. www.gaiaengineering.c Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologie 56 Cements Net Emissions/Sequestration Compared Net Emissions (Sequestration) per kg Cement (Gaia Engineering Assumed) 1.00 0.80 Net Emissions (Sequestration) per kg Cement 0.60 0.40 0.20 e nt -C em Envir o M or t ar Lime ment EcoCe

nt Cem e Lime esia Magn T ec- -0.60 nd C e -0.40 Portl a -0.20 m en t 0.00 -0.80 www.gaiaengineering.c Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologie A Sustainable Built Environment CO2

CO2 + H2O => Hydrocarbons compounds using bacteria CO2 CO2 GREENSOLS MAGNESIU M CARBONAT E There is a way to make our city streets as green as the Amazon rainforest. Fred Pearce, New Scientist Magazine TECECO KILN MgO ECO-CEMENT CONCRETES RECYCLED BUILDING MATERIALS 57 OTHER

WASTE S PERMANENT SEQUESTRATION & WASTE UTILISATION (Man made carbonate rock incorporating wastes as a building material) Paretos principle 80% of the build environment in non structural and could be carbonate from Greensols held together by EcoCements SUSTAINABLE CITIES www.gaiaengineering.c Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologie Eco-Cement CO2 Release and Capture Eco-Cement No Capture during Manufacture CO2 MgCO3.3H2 O H2 O Mg(OH)2 Eco-Cement With Capture

during Manufacture H2 O MgO H2 O Carbon neutral except for carbon from process emissions CO2 capture (Greensols process etc) MgCO3.3H2 O H2 O 58 CO2 from atmosphe re H2 O MgO Mg(OH)2 H2 O

Net sequestration less carbon from process emissions Use of non fossil fuels => Low or no process emissions www.gaiaengineering.c Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologie 59 The Carbon Cycle with Gaia Engineering CO2 in the air and water Cellular Respiration burning and Photosynthesis decay by plants and algae Cellular Respiration Decay by fungi and bacteria Limestone coal and oil burning Gaia Engineering, (Greensols, TecEco Kiln and Eco-Cements) Organic compounds made by heterotrophs

Organic compounds made by autotrophs Consumed by heterotrophs (mainly animals) www.gaiaengineering.c Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologie Planetary Engineering - Reduction Global CO2 from Gaia Engineering Processes 60 Mass of CO2 (Gt) Global CO2 in the Atmosphere 3,500 3,300 3,100 2,900 2005 2010 2015 M ass CO2 in the atmosphere without "CarbonSafe" sequestration (Gt) M ass CO2 in the atmosphere with "CarbonSafe" sequestration (Gt) Upper CO2 limit (Gt) www.gaiaengineering.c 2020

2025 Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologie Carbonate Sequestration in Built Environment 61 MgO Component Used in Cement 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 0 1945 1955 1965 1975 1985 1995 2005 2015 2025 MgO component used (Mt) Cement sales (Mt) Trendline (Mt)

www.gaiaengineering.c Greensols permanent CO2 fixation technologie

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