Chapter 4 Lesson 1 ANCIENT PEOPLE Content Vocabulary

Chapter 4 Lesson 1 ANCIENT PEOPLE Content Vocabulary

nomad archaeologist artifact hunter-gatherer Academic Vocabulary available

technology STUDENTS WILL KNOW how the first people came to the Americas and

Texas. how the earliest Texans lived. important technology used by the first Texans. that Native Americans lived in Texas for thousands of years before the Europeans arrived. that Native Americans lived differently, depending on the environment. MAIN IDEAS Many thousands of years ago, Earth was very cold, causing vast amounts of water to become ice. This lowered sea levels and

created a land bridge between Alaska and Asia. People migrated from Asia to the Americas, following the animals they hunted for food. QUESTIONS TO CONSIDER How did the First people reach the Americas?

How did the earliest Texans live? How was pottery a useful new technology? BERING STRAIT THEORY INTO THE AMERICAS

Thousands of years ago, Earths climate turned very, very cold. Large amounts of water became ice and formed vast sheets, called glaciers, Sea levels fellturned the ocean floor in some areas into dry land. Area was between Alaska and Asia, where a land bridge formed and connected those two masses of

land. Migrating animals moved across that land bridge in their search for food. Nomads who hunted these animals for food followed them. In this way, the first humans came to the Americas.

They eventually spread east across North America and south all the way to South America. The land bridge opened about 36,000 B.C. After about 20,000 years, however, the climate warmed again. Glaciers melted, and sea levels rose once more. STUDYING THE PAST

archaeologists study the past. They have methods for learning about early humans who lived in the time before written records. They collect artifacts, such as tools, pottery, bones, and shells. Archaeologists study these artifacts for clues about how and why people used them.

Archaeologists also use artifacts to figure out where people came from and moved to. They have seen similarities between stone tools used in Asia and in the Americas in ancient times. They have also found physical similarities between some Asian peoples and Native Americans. This evidence points to Asia as

the original home of the first Americans. LIVING IN TEXAS It is believed that the first people reached Texas around 11,000 B.C. A recent find at a site called Buttermilk Creek in central Texas near

Austin could push that date back another 2,500 years or so. archaeologists have learned much about how the earliest Texans lived. The Native Americans who lived in Texas from prehistoric time until the arrival of

Europeans in 1528 lived in the historical era called Natural Texas and Its People. They adapted their lives to the native plants and animals found in Texas over these thousands of years. FINDING FOOD

The earliest Texans were hunter-gatherers who moved from place to place to hunt and gather food. They hunted large animals, such as mammoth and giant bison. They used a stick called an atlatl to throw their spears farther and give them more force. After a few thousand years, the mammoth and giant bison died out.

They also hunted the small bison that survived, as well as deer and smaller animals such as rabbits, squirrels, and birds. These early people lived in small groups and did not stay in one place for long. They often followed herds of

large animals as the creatures roamed the land to graze. they moved on when plants in an area were used up. The earliest Texans ate nuts such as walnuts, pecans, and acorns. They ate fruit like prickly pear fruit, plums, and grapes when they were in season. In drier regions, early people collected bulbs of some agave plants and cut out the edible center to dry and eat. They also used the leaves of agave plants to make mats, baskets, and sandals. FINDING SHELTER

The earliest Texans lived in rock shelters, areas naturally cut open in the side of a canyon. This was especially common in what is today southwest Texas. People cooked and worked toward the front open area of the shelter. They placed beds made of plants toward the back. These rock shelters were found along streams or rivers, so the people had fresh water available.

NEW TECHNOLOGY Around A.D. 600 to 700, Native Americans in Texas began using new kinds of technology. One of these new technologies was the bow and arrow. It let hunters deliver smaller, sharper points with greater force than a handthrown spear. Another new technology was its form.

Pottery vessels could be used to cook or store food. pottery. Pots were created by shaping mud into containers and then heating the containers at very high temperatures. The heating makes the shape keep Around A.D. 1200, the practice of agriculture, or the growing of crops, became well established among the early peoples of Texas. Native Americans here began to

produce their own supply of plants for food instead of only gathering what they could find in nature. Agriculture had a huge effect on these peoples way of life. They could now settle in one place to tend their crops instead of moving around, always in search of food. EXIT TICKET

How did the First people reach the Americas? How did the earliest Texans live? How was pottery a useful new technology? Chapter 4 Lesson 2 SOUTHEASTERN AND GULF CULTURES

Content Vocabulary shaman confederacy matrilineal

Academic Vocabulary site status STUDENTS WILL KNOW

how the first people came to the Americas and Texas. how the earliest Texans lived. important technology used by the first Texans. that Native Americans lived in Texas for thousands of years before the Europeans arrived. that Native Americans lived differently, depending on the environment.

MAIN IDEAS Native Americans lived in Texas for thousands of years before the Europeans arrived. Different groups of Native Americans shared similar social structures and spiritual beliefs.

Native American groups had different ways of life, depending on their environment. QUESTIONS TO CONSIDER Why did cultures differ from one region of Texas to another? How did Southeastern and Gulf Coast

people differ? Why did the Karankawa, Coahuiltecan, and Atakapa eat different kinds of food? NATIVE AMERICAN CULTURES

Native Americans lived in Texas for thousands of years before the arrival of the Europeans in the 1500s. Most lived in small units called bands. Normally all band members shared the responsibility for decision making. The spiritual beliefs of these groups were generally similar. Most Native American groups believed that spirits caused natural events such as rain, fire, the change of seasons, and the flow of water in streams and rivers.

According to Native American beliefs, these spirit beings walked Earth and interacted with human beings. Sometimes they helped people, but they were also known to cause harm. For instance, Native Americans believed that the actions of spirits caused illness. When people were

ill, they needed the help of a shaman, someone who was believed to have the power to summon spirits and heal the sick. More than just healers, shamans were also the spiritual leaders of their bands.

The various Native American groups had differences, too. Peoples such as the Caddo (KAdoh), Karankawa (kahRAHNKahwah), and Jumano (hooMAHnoh) had their own cultures, or ways of life shared by people with similar beliefs and customs. Each group spoke its own language. They organized their bands differently, and they interacted with other groups differently. Some were peaceful, but some were warlike.

While many lived in permanent communities, others moved frequently from one site to another. The geography of Texas helped to shape some of these differences. Texas is a large area with varied landforms and climate zones. Each of Texass regions has its own plant and animal resources. Native Americans used the plant and animal resources available to them in the region in which they lived. Thus, their ways of

life differed. THE CADDO The Caddo included more than 20 groups

who lived along the Red River and in East Texas. These groups were part of larger associations or unions called confederacies. The various Caddo confederacies were loosely structured and linked. Each was connected by ties of kinship, or shared ancestry. The Caddo had a matrilineal society, with kinship traced through a persons mother.

The Caddo developed a complex social system that was based on differences in status, or rank. Some individuals were recognized as leaders. Such positions of power were often passed on from one generation to the next in the same family. Caddo confederacies had both political leaders and spiritual leaders. The Caddo also had village elders, who were the leaders of each settlement.

The Caddo were an agricultural society that grew corn as their chief crop. They grew two corn crops each year an early crop for eating and a later crop that was used to make flour. The Caddo also grew beans, squash,

and other foods. They hunted deer, bear, and bison for meat. The Caddo were part of a very large trade network that stretched from the Great Lakes to the Gulf of Mexico and from the Rocky Mountains to the Appalachians. Shells, stones, and other trade goods from hundreds of miles away have been found in eastern Texas.

The Caddo were also known for the beauty of their pottery. In 1859 the Caddo were relocated to reservations in present-day Oklahoma, where their descendants live today. THE KARANKAWA

Karankawa is a name used to refer to a number of different Native American groups who lived along the Gulf Coast and shared a common language. The Karankawa were nomadic people. They lived by hunting, fishing, and gathering, and moved every few weeks after using up the food in an area. They also moved between the barrier islands along the coast and more inland areas as the seasons changed. They often traveled by water in large canoes. Each canoe held all the members of a family and their goods.

A few families traveled together as a small band, which was led by a chief. The Karankawa used smoke signals to send messages to one another over a distance. In 1528 the Karankawa were perhaps the first Native Americans of Texas to meet Europeans. Some 300 years later, the last of the Karankawa in Texas disappeared from the area.

THE COAHUILTECAN The Coahuiltecan lived on the dry South Texas Plains, a land marked by scrub plants and little

water. This group used bows and arrows to hunt deer and small animals such as armadillos, rabbits, lizards, and birds. They were able to fish in streams that had water throughout the year. The Coahuiltecan also gathered plant foods such as fruit from the prickly pear cactus, mesquite beans, nuts, and tubers, which are root vegetables.

Like the Karankawa, the Coahuiltecan rarely spent more than a few weeks at each campsite. Their environment was more harsh than that of the coastal groups, however, and their struggle for food was constant. By the early 1800s, many Coahuiltecan had died from diseases brought by the Europeans. Others had joined other groups or moved to Mexico. Few remained in the area of Texas.

OTHER NATIVE AMERICAN GROUPS Other groups in the region followed varied lifestyles. The Atakapa, who were hunters and gatherers, lived in the bayous, or swampy regions of southeastern Texas and nearby Louisiana.

Alligators lived in the bayous and were an important resource for the Atakapa. They hunted the large reptiles, eating the meat and using the oil from the alligators as an insect repellent. The Caddo, Karankawa, Coahuiltecan, and Atakapa all lived in Texas for many centuries and were there when Europeans reached the area. Unlike those peoples, the Wichita arrived

later, in the 1700s, from what is now Oklahoma. They settled in northern Texas and at first traded with people in Louisiana and with the Comanche to the west. They also farmed and hunted. However, they were not nomads, and lived in villages in houses with grass outer coverings. The Wichita were moved to a reservation in Oklahoma in the late 1800s. QUESTIONS TO CONSIDER

Why did cultures differ from one region of Texas to another? How did Southeastern and Gulf Coast people differ? Why did the Karankawa, Coahuiltecan, and Atakapa eat different kinds of food? Chapter 4 lesson 3

PLAINS AND PUEBLOAN CULTURES Content Vocabulary adobe

patrilineal tepee middleman Academic Vocabulary distinct migrate

STUDENTS WILL KNOW how the first people came to the Americas and Texas. how the earliest Texans lived.

important technology used by the first Texans. that Native Americans lived in Texas for thousands of years before the Europeans arrived. that Native Americans lived differently, depending on the environment. MAIN IDEAS The Jornada and the Tigua were two main Native American groups in the Puebloan culture region.

Southwest Texas is a dry region without many trees. QUESTIONS TO CONSIDER

How did the people of the Puebloan culture change over time? How were the people of the Plains culture similar and different? Up to _____ tanned hides were fastened around a framework of 20 to ____ poles to make a tepee THE PUEBLOAN CULTURE AREA

The areas that are now West Texas and Southwest Texas were home to peoples of the Puebloan culture. The Puebloan culture was marked by settled village life with homes made of adobe, a mix of sun-dried earth and straw. Trees were scarce in the dry southwestern area where these peoples lived, making it difficult to build homes out of wood.

However, since there was little rain, the homes lasted many years. The Puebloan culture in Texas included two main Native American groups. They were the Jornada people in ancient times and the Tigua, who arrived in the present-day Texas area in 1680. THE JORNADA

The Jornada lived in Southwest Texas in ancient times. Originally they built pit houses that were partly underground and partly above ground. They lived in adobe homes in the Puebloan style. They supported themselves by growing corn,

beans, and squash. They lived near Hueco Tanks, a site near El Paso, where hollowed-out granite hills collect and store rainwater. For some unknown reason, the Jornada disappeared about the year 1400. Some historians believe they joined and merged with other Native American groups. THE TIGUA

The Tigua lived originally in New Mexico but moved near present-day El Paso at the end of the 1600s. They came along with Spanish colonists who were fleeing the Pueblo Revolt in New Mexico.

The Tigua named their new home Ysleta del Sur, or Ysleta of the South, after their previous home, Isleta. Tigua descendants live in the same area today on a reservation. Ysleta is the oldest continuous settlement in Texas. As with other Puebloan peoples, originally kinship among the Tigua was matrilineal.

Later, the Tigua adopted the European custom of tracing descent through the father, becoming patrilineal. Property is also transferred through the male members of the family today. All adult males in the tribe voted to choose members of the tribal council.

That council in turn chose the groups two leaders: the cacique, the groups religious leader, and the governor, the political leader. The cacique held his position until he died. In recent years, some women have been elected to the tribal council.

However, not all members of the Tigua agree with this change in JORNADA VILLAGE THE PLAINS CULTURE The peoples of the Plains culture lived

on the Great Plains. Herds of bison roamed the Plains, and Plains tribes relied on those animals as their main source of food. They also used tanned bison hides to make clothing and tepees, their portable homes.

Up to 20 tanned hides were fastened around a framework of 20 to 24 poles to make a tepee. The entrance faced east so that the sun could warm the inside in the early morning. Tepees were easy to pack up and move. In times of danger, whole camps could be packed up in as little as 30 minutes.

In the 1500s and 1600s, the Apache moved south onto the Plains of Texas. The Jumano fought to maintain their territory and their trade relationships, but the Apache prevailed. Long before Texas became part of the United States, the Jumano almost disappeared from the area. Some moved into Mexico, and others joined other Native American bands. .

Another Plains group was the Tonkawa who lived in tepee villages throughout the southern Plains. They were nomadic hunters and fought many other groups, including the Apache, Caddo, and Wichita. They numbered only about 1,500 in A.D. 1691, when they first made contact with Europeans. Their numbers decreased rapidly afterward due to warfare and

THE JUMANO AND THE TONKAWA One group of Native Americans was split between the Plains and the Puebloan culturesthe Jumano One subgroup of Jumano was Puebloan. Two other subgroups lived by trading and

hunting bison throughout present-day Texas, New Mexico, and northern Mexico. The Jumano acted as middlemen, or gobetweens, for the eastern farming tribes, such as the Caddo and the Puebloan peoples of New Mexico. They traded agricultural products, including corn, squash, and beans, for animal skins and meat. The Jumano were known for the quality

of the bows and arrows that they made, and they traded arrows to other groups. The Jumano had distinct striped markings on their faces that made them easy for other groups to recognize. They probably used these markings to show themselves to be peaceful traders. THE APACHE

The Apache speak a language similar to that of Native Americans in northwestern Canada and Alaska. For this reason scientists believe the ancestors of the Apache came from the far north and migrated south along the Rocky Mountains. They settled in the Southwest from present-day Texas to Arizona and south to Mexico. Two groups lived in Texas: the Mescalero in West Texas and the

Lipan in Central Texas. The Apache relied mainly on bison and were among the first Native American groups to adopt the use of horses from Europeans. The arrival of the Lipan Apache caused problems for the Jumano, who lost their hunting grounds and role as traders. Soon after, the Lipan faced similar problems. Comanche moved into Texas from the north and forced the Lipan to leave Central Texas. Eventually they moved to the mountains where the Mescalero lived. Today most Apache live on reservations in New Mexico. THE COMANCHE

The Comanche came to Texas in the early 1700s and lived on the prairies, plateaus, and plains of western Texas until the late 1800s. Their territory, called the Comanchera, was a vast land that stretched from northern Mexico to Kansas and from Texas to New

Mexico. The Comanche originally lived in the Rocky Mountains. When they began to use horses in the 1600s, they moved onto the Plains. Aided by the use of horses, they became superb hunters. A buffalo hunt was an important event involving most of the group. Working under an elected leader, hunters surrounded a herd of buffalo and forced it to move in a circle. Then the hunters used bows and arrows or spears to kill the animals as they passed. After a successful hunt, the Comanche ate some of the meat right away, but later dried and saved the rest. CONT.

The Comanche were divided into many bands. Each had its own leaders and a council of older men who made the important decisions. Like other Native American peoples, they had a peace chief and a war chief, both of whom were chosen by the members of the band. Leaders of the various bands

sometimes met in council and made decisions, but those decisions were not binding. Bands and individual Comanche had great independence. The Comanche fought other groups fiercely to keep control of the Comanchera. By the 1870s, though, the destruction

of the buffalo herds, the loss of many horses, and the growing numbers of white settlers forced them to move to reservations in present-day Oklahoma. THE KIOWA

The Kiowa, like the Comanche, originally lived in the Rocky Mountains until they learned to ride horses and moved onto the Plains. They quickly adopted the nomadic life of bison hunters. The Kiowa were known for having the largest horse herds on the Plains. They made a peace agreement with the Comanche and often supplied them with horses.

Like their allies the Comanche, the Kiowa way of life was shattered in the 1870s when white Americans killed off thousands and thousands of bison. Denied their chief source of food, the Kiowa had to adapt. About a decade later, they, too, moved to reservations in Oklahoma and began to adopt new ways of making a living, including farming and ranching.

EXIT TICKET How did the people of the Puebloan culture change over time? How were the people of the Plains culture similar and different? Up to _____ tanned hides were fastened around a framework of 20 to

____ poles to make a tepee

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