Legislative Power Chief-of-State Pardoning Power Treaty-making Power Chief

Legislative Power Chief-of-State Pardoning Power Treaty-making Power Chief

Legislative Power Chief-of-State Pardoning Power Treaty-making Power Chief Diplomat Commander -in-Chief Chief Executive Veto Power Appointment Power

Presidential Power Formal Power Informal Power Derived Derived from Constitution Constitution left some room for expansion, especially for Chief Executive over time from political

practice and circumstances Technological changes U.S. position in global society Impeachment What steps are involved? Treason, bribery, or other high crimes & misdemeanors Does not have to be a crime Offense should be serious

Policy disagreement is not grounds for impeachment Two presidents have been impeached but not removed from office Andrew Johnson in 1868 Bill Clinton in 1998 Nixon was almost impeached for the Watergate scandal why not? He resigned prior to being removed from office.

The Vice President Only formal duty? President of the Senate (casts vote only to break a tie) Not much power, though modern VPs have been more involved Reasons for VP choice: Geographical balance Re-unite party at

convention Achieve social and cultural balance Overcome candidate shortcomings The Cabinet The Cabinet is not mentioned in the Constitution and is formulated by each President Began with Washington Consists of heads of major bureaucratic departments (State, Defense, Treasury, etc.) POTUS appoints, Senate must approve http://www.whitehouse.gov/government/cabin et.html Executive Office of the

President Created by FDR in 1939 Carries out day-to-day work and research Overseen by Chief of Staff EOP Includes the groups on the following slides National Security Council Coordinates the Presidents foreign and military policy advisors Formal members: POTUS VP Secretary

of State Secretary of Defense Unlike the State Department, the NSC is largely free of congressional oversight Council of Economic Advisors Three-member body appointed by the president to advise the President on economic policy Prepare annual Economic Report of the President Assist with State of the Union

Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Composed of appointees and officials What is their major function? Works with POTUS to develop budget proposal Very powerful Allocates money to cabinet departments through the budget process (though

Congress has the final say on the budget) The U.S. Trade Representative Negotiates complex trade and tariff agreements on behalf of POTUS, with White House guidance Example: NAFTA White House Staff Those most directly responsible to POTUS Includes personal assistants, senior aides, administrative personnel, press secretary, and more. No Senate confirmation

Power comes from personal relationship with POTUS Reached a height of 583 members in 1972, but now runs around 400. Presidential Line of Succession The Vice President Speaker of the House President pro tempore of the Senate Secretary

of State Secretary of the Treasury Secretary of Defense Attorney General Secretary of the Interior Secretary

of Agriculture Secretary of Commerce Secretary of Labor Secretary of Health and Human Services Secretary of Housing and Urban Development Secretary

of Transportation Secretary of Energy Secretary of Education Secretary of Veterans Affairs Secretary of Homeland Security POTUS as Crisis Manager

Usually foreign policy related Sudden, unpredictable, dangerous situation Calls for quick judgment Cuban Missile Crisis 9/11 Attacks Why is the -He is one person and get things done faster and more decisively than Congress Executive Orders

Meant to be orders to the executive staff Most are made in agreement with current legislation Basically orders the executive branch to carry out their functions differently Truman desegregated the armed forces with an executive order Recent example? Executive Privilege Nixon was ordered to turn over tapes, he claimed absolute privilege of confidentiality There

is an inherent authority that flows from the nature of enumerated powers The separation of powers insulates a president from judicial subpoena in criminal prosecutions President Bush has used executive privilege in withholding documents on Hurricane Katrina; he said that he would use it to withhold information on 9/11 but later did not President Clinton tried to use executive privilege with the Monica Lewinsky case, but was overturned by the courts Mandates Some Presidents claim that

because they have been elected, the public has mandated their particular plan of action for the country. Do you agree or disagree? The Presidents Relationships with the Public To what degree should the President listen to/follow public opinion? Presidential approval rat ings Obama Job Approv al

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