Webinar Series Using RESPECT To Build Trust Across

Webinar Series Using RESPECT To Build Trust Across

Webinar Series Using RESPECT To Build Trust Across Difference and Power with Patients, Supervisees and Teams Tuesday, March 17, 2015 Audience Reminders This webinar is funded in part by a donation in memory of Julian and Eunice Cohen. Submit a question by typing it into the Question and Answer pane at the right of your screen at any time. Respond to audience polls by clicking on the answer of your choice. Provide feedback through our electronic

survey following the Webinar. 2 Todays Speakers Beth A. Lown, MD Carol Mostow, LICSW Medical Director, The Schwartz Center for Compassionate Healthcare, Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School

Assistant Professor of Familly Medicine Boston University School of Medicine 3 Using RESPECT To Build Trust Across Difference and Power with Patients, Supervisees and Teams Carol Mostow, LICSW Assistant Professor of Family Medicine Boston University and Boston Medical Center Boston Medical Center is the primary teaching affiliate of the Boston University School of Medicine.

Why RESPECT? Connect with patients across differences Partner effectively with supervisees to address challenges Support inclusive and empowered teams 5 Carol Mostow LICSW A frustrated intern confides in you 6 Carol Mostow LICSW

A teachable moment? 7 Carol Mostow LICSW Diversity Curriculum Task Force WHAT to do and HOW to teach it Identify communication skills effective with a low income, racially and culturally diverse population

Address disparities in each doctor-patient encounter Identify best methods to teach these skills in busy clinical settings Never worry alone 8 Carol Mostow LICSW Key Drivers of Success Knowledge Attitude

Skills 9 Carol Mostow LICSW Awareness Exercise: Difference & Power1 1. Personal cultural identity 2. What about your background do you like/dislike 3. An experience when you felt different 4. An experience when you felt privileged or powerless with others 5. How your background helps and challenges connections with patients 10

Key Drivers of Success Knowledge Attitude Skills 11 Carol Mostow LICSW Cross-cultural skills Explanatory model (Kleinman, Eisenberg, Good 1978)2 LEARN model - negotiating differing explanatory models (Berlin, Fowkes 1983)3 ESFT model (Betancourt, Carillo, Green 1999)4

Explanatory Model Social Context Fears and Concerns Therapeutic Alliance 12 RESPECT R espect E xplanatory model S ocial context Stressors Supports Strengths Spirituality

P ower E mpathy C oncerns T rust/Therapeutic alliance 13 Carol Mostow LICSW What is Respect? Demonstrable attitude Proactive Non-verbal and verbal Affirms others value & autonomy Validates concerns

14 Carol Mostow LICSW Listening for RESPECT 15 Carol Mostow LICSW POLLING QUESTION 16 Carol Mostow LICSW How and why RESPECT?

17 Carol Mostow LICSW Disparity data for RESPECT African American, Hispanic and Asian patients feel less respected by physicians than do white patients.5 White physicians dominate speech more with non-white patients. 6 White MDs display less warmth, pt-centered behaviors with AA pts 6 63% of AA vs. 38% of whites believe their MDs have, or would experiment on them without their consent. 7 Experiencing less support, less partnering and less

information from their doctor lowered black patients trust in their physicians 8 18 Carol Mostow LICSW Show Respect Affirm patients value, dignity, autonomy, concerns verbally and nonverbally Skills Attentive listening, eye contact, body posture. Address patient in their preferred terms Recognize/affirm patients efforts, choices, accomplishments Example

You have so much to take care of with your work and family yet you still made it in today. 19 Carol Mostow LICSW Elicit the patient's Explanatory model What does the patient think caused his/her illness? What does the patient think will help? Skills Kleinman questions 2 Example

What do you think has caused your problem? What do think would help you? Rationale Patients understanding is often different from clinicians but not shared unless elicited. 9 20 Carol Mostow LICSW Explore Social context Examine stressors, supports, strengths, spiritual

resources 10, 11 Skills - Elicit How illness affects the patients life How the patients life affects illness Examples What or who in your life helps you cope? What or who makes it harder? Rationale Personal, family or community resources may help with health burdens

21 Carol Mostow LICSW Share Power Share control 12, 13 Skills Listen Do not dominate or speak too much Build rather than take the history Negotiate agenda and treatment plan Elicit patients preferences and choice

Example What would feel helpful to you? 22 Carol Mostow LICSW Show Empathy Demonstrate understanding Skills Respond verbally and nonverbally to patients emotions Show care, concern and respect Put into words the significance of patients concerns

so patient feels understood, respected, supported Example No wonder youre afraid of insulin since you think it made your mom lose her legs and her life. You take responsibility for your family and feel their needs must come first. 23 Carol Mostow LICSW Explore Concerns Elicit fears, concerns and needs 14 Skills Ask open-ended questions about concerns and fears

Active listening Examples What worries you most? Any other concerns I should know about? 24 Carol Mostow LICSW Build Trust Patient feels and believes clinicians act in his/her best interest. This must be built, not assumed Skills Invite hesitation or disagreement.

Integrate patients concerns and priorities into treatment plans and decisions Find common ground with alternative shared goals if patient unready or disagrees Example Let's make sure we answer all your questions so you feel comfortable making a decision." 25 Carol Mostow LICSW Build Therapeutic alliance Patient and clinician reach shared understanding about goals and options. Interactional education

builds partnership to implement plans. Skills ASK, TELL, ASK (American Academy on Communication in Healthcare) Elicit what patient understands, wants, can, will do Examples What do you think? How do you feel? What would you like to do? What might get in the way? 26

Carol Mostow LICSW Reach common understanding Have you reached common ground? If preferences diverge, find other shared goals Address obstacles Find alternatives Elicit the evidence 27 Carol Mostow LICSW Helping those we supervise to RESPECT the patient

Educators and managers need to be self- aware about power too Why assume that others see things the way I do? 28 Carol Mostow LICSW Supervising and precepting for RESPECT Respect, empathize, empower supervisees Counteract documented decline in empathy 15 Align learning climate, relationships, modeling,

incentives, goals Harness the power of positive reinforcement Employee engagement and morale impacts patient satisfaction and organizational outcomes 29 Carol Mostow LICSW How can we supervise Dr. Smith with RESPECT? Dr. Smith: She wont even consider insulin, but she hasnt made any other changes I told her to. Im not sure what the point is of even discussing her with you since she doesnt seem to be willing to do anything to

help herself. 30 Carol Mostow LICSW Respect your supervisee Approach the supervisee with Respect Build supervisee confidence, trust with supervisor. Reduce defensiveness Example: I know how hard you have been working to address Mrs. Gomez diabetes.

31 Carol Mostow LICSW Elicit supervisees Explanatory model Convey interest while supporting the supervisees interest in patients perspective. Learn what supervisee knows about patient as the starting point Examples What do you think is going on with the patient? What does the patient think is causing her symptoms?

32 Carol Mostow LICSW Supervisees Social Context Ask about supervisees well-being Explore stressors, supports, strengths, sources of meaning Build supervisor-supervisee relationship Model interaction with patients Examples

How are things going for you these days? Whats been difficult? Whats helping? Whatkeeps you going? 33 Carol Mostow LICSW EmPower supervisee Find ways to share power Support supervisees self-efficacy Resist temptation to take over when the learner is uncertain

These approaches help supervisor Assess supervisees clinical judgment Build supervisees ability to formulate and own solutions 34 Carol Mostow LICSW POLLING QUESTION 35 Carol Mostow LICSW Show Empathy to supervisee

Acknowledge and validate frustrations and emotions Safety scores improve when staff feel support at work for stressors, adverse events Examples It can be frustrating when patients disregard medical knowledge and jeopardize their health. Sometimes its hard for us to remember that right now other things might feel more important to the patient. 36 Carol Mostow LICSW

Address supervisees Concerns and challenges Help strategize possible solutions, share relevant data Replace anxiety with information Examples I know that eliciting the patients concerns worries you. Eliciting them doesnt mean you can or should tackle them all in one visit. Lets discuss how to identify the patients and your top priorities, create a plan for today and bring her back for follow-up. 37 Carol Mostow LICSW

Foster Trust and open communication Be approachable and receptive Encourage supervisees to share both positive and negative experiences Help them articulate challenges Example I admire your openness to share that your patient was so frustrated she wanted to change providers. How can I help you? 38 Carol Mostow LICSW Building teams with RESPECT

Respect Welcome members, appreciate contributions, strengths and diversity Explanatory model Explore differences, build understanding and shared mental models Social context Explore what impacts participation, what makes work meaningful

Power Share, flatten hierarchy, empower members Empathy Express caring despite differences Concerns Identify and address worries and dissent Team trust Shared vision, support, adaptive creativity 39 Carol Mostow LICSW ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: Material for this webinar is based on the following: Mostow C, Crosson J, Gordon S, Chapman S, Gonzalez P, Hardt E, James T, David M. Treating and Precepting with RESPECT: A Relational Model Addressing Race,Culture and Ethnicity in Medical Training. J Gen Int Med. May 2010; 25(Suppl 2):14654.

DOI: 10.1007/s11606-010-1274-4 The RESPECT model for teams was developed by Crosson J, Gorosh MR, Mostow C to appear in module by Mostow C, Gorosh Rowe M, Crosson J, White MK. A Relational Approach to High Performance Teams: Addressing Diversity and Teamwork with RESPECT forthcoming in DocCom, American Academy on Communication in Healthcares online curriculum resource in healthcare. (See www.aachonline.org for information or to subscribe to DocCom) The development of the original RESPECT model was supported in part by grants from the Schwartz Center for Compassionate Healthcare and by Blue Cross Blue Shield Foundation of Massachusetts

40 Carol Mostow LICSW Diversity Curriculum Task Force contributors to original RESPECT model include:

O. Aladessamni MD,MPH C. Brackett MD,MPH S. Chapman MD S. Crosby MD PhD J. Crosson MD M. David MD MPH,MBA L. Delgado MD P. Gonzalez MD

S. Gordon MD E. Hardt MD T. James MD D. Lee MD PhD C. Mostow LICSW S. Wahi MD Step by step, the longest march can be won, can be won. Many stones to form an arch, singly none, singly none. 41

Carol Mostow LICSW REFERENCES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

12. 13. 14. 15. Pinderhughes E. Understanding Race, Ethnicity and Power. New York: Free Press; 1989 Kleinman,A, Eisenberg L,Good B. Culture, illness and care. Soc. Sci. & Med 1978:88(2):251-8 . Berlin EA, Fowkes WC Jr. A teaching framework for cross-cultural health care. Application in family practice. West J Med. 1983 ;139(6):934-8. Betancourt JR, Carrillo JE, Green AR. Hypertension in multicultural and minority populations: linking communication to compliance. Curr Hypertens Rep. 1999;1(6):482-8. Collins KS et al. Findings from Commonwealth Fund 2001 Health Care Quality Survey.At: http://www.commonwealthfund.org/publications/surveys/2001/2001-health-care-quality-survey. Johnson RL, Roter D, Powe NR et al .Patient race/ethnicity and quality of patient-physician communication during

medical visits. Am J Public Health 2004:94(12):2084-90 Corbie-Smith G, Thomas SB, St. George DMM. Distrust, race and research. Arch Intern Med. 2002:162(21):2458-63. Gordon HS, Street RL Jr, Sharf FM, et al. Racial differences in trust and lung cancer patients perceptions of physician communication. J Cln Oncol. 2006:24(6):904-9. Lang.F, Floyd MR, Beine KL, et al. Sequenced questioning to elicit the patients perspective on illness. Fam Med. 2002:34(5):325-30. Green AR. Betancourt JR, Carillo JE.Integrating social factors into cross-cultural medical education. Acad Med 2002;77(3):193-7. Mostow, Crosson, Gordon,et al. Treating and Precepting with RESPECT: A Relational Model Addressing Race, Ethnicity and Culture in Medical Training. J Gen Int Med 2010.25(Suppl 2):146-54 Haidet P, Paterniti DA. Building a history rather than taking one: a perspective on information sharing in the medical interview. Arch Intern Med 2003;163(10):1134-40. Cooper L,Roter DL.Patient-provider communication: the effect of race and ethnicity on process and outcomes of healthcare.Unequal Treatment. Smedley BC, Stith AY,Nelson AR,eds.IOM 2002:552-93.

Dyche and Swiderski. The effect of physician solicitation approaches on ability to identify patient concerns. J Gen Intern Med. 2005 Mar;20(3):267-70. Bellini LM,Shea JA. Mood change and empathy decline persist during 3 years of internal medicine training. Acad Med. 2005:80(2):164-7. 42 Carol Mostow LICSW Questions & Answers Beth A. Lown, MD Carol Mostow, LICSW

Medical Director, The Schwartz Center for Compassionate Healthcare, Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School Assistant Professor of Familly Medicine Boston University School of Medicine To submit a question, type it into the questions pane at the right of your screen at any time. 43 Upcoming Schwartz Center Webinars Effective and Compassionate

Communication for Shared Decision-Making May 12 Family Meetings: Improving Patient-FamilyClinician Communication October 19 Visit www.theschwartzcenter.org for more details or to register for a future session, and look for our Webinar email invitations. 44 Thank you for participating in todays session. Please take a moment to complete the electronic survey upon exiting todays program. 46

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