Abraham Kaplan, The Conduct of Inquiry (San Francisco:

Abraham Kaplan, The Conduct of Inquiry (San Francisco:

Abraham Kaplan, The Conduct of Inquiry (San Francisco: Chandler, 1964), pp. 258-262. The fashion in question concerns one of the dimensions of cognitive style--roughly speaking, the use which is made of formal logic and mathematics. Note that this is a question of the style of thought, not merely of the style of presentation: Plato and Galileo both wrote dialogues, but with very different cognitive styles. Yet thought and its expression are surely not wholly unrelated to one another, and how scientific findings are formulated for

incorporation into the body of knowledge often reflects stylistic traits of the thinking behind them. . . . Theories Reflect Kaplan's Levels of Thinking Literary Analytic is the logical Academic character of scientific statements

Synthetic is the empirical character of scientific statements Eristic Symbolic Postulational Formal The literary style. This cognitive style is likely to be occupied with individuals, particular sets or sets of events, case studies, clinical findings, and the like. A plot is unfolded--a behavior sequence is disclosed to have a certain significance. . . . A person, a movement, or a

whole culture is interpreted in terms of the specific purposes of the actors, rather than in terms of the abstract and general theories of the scientist's own explanatory scheme. Examples: Kenneth Burke, Sigmund Freud, Marshall McLuhan, Lester Thonssen & A. Craig Baird The academic style. This is much more abstract and general than the literary style. There is some attempt to be precise, but it is verbal rather than operational. Ordinary words are used in special senses, to constitute a special vocabulary. . . . The materials dealt with tend to be ideational rather than observational data, and their treatment tends to

be highly theoretical, if not, indeed, purely speculative. System is introduced by way of great "principles", applied over and over to specific cases, which illustrate the generalization rather than serve as proofs of it. . . . Examples: Hugh Duncan, some of Burke, some of Leon Festinger, John Stewart, Irving Janis, Jack Gibb The eristic style. Here there is a strong interest in proof, and of specific propositions, rather than, as in the literary and academic styles, the aim only of exhibiting the cognitive possibilities in certain broad perspectives on the subject-matter. Experimental and statistical data become important.

Examples: Gerald Miller, Martin Fishbein, Robert F. Bales, James McCroskey The symbolic style. The subject-matter is conceptualized from the outset in mathematical terms. Both problems and solutions are formulated, therefore, in a more or less artificial language. . . . Measurement is important, as providing the content for the mathematical forms which are employed. Statistical data do not serve, as in the eristic style, only as a body of evidence; they are processed so as to generate new hypotheses, and even new patterns of conceptualization. In this processing, computers and other instruments, both physical and ideational, are likely to play a

major role. The symbolic style is characteristic of mathematical economics, psychometrics and sociometrics, game-theoretic treatments of political problems, probabilistic approaches to learning theory, and so on. Examples: Milton Rokeach game-theoretic models, John Thibaut & Harold Kelley The postulational style. This has many of the characteristics of the symbolic style, of which, indeed, it could be regarded as a special variant. It differs from the symbolic style in general only as logic differs from mathematics. The validity of proof is at the focus of attention here, rather than the content of the propositions which occur at the various steps.

Emphasis is on the system as a whole, bound together by the chains of logical derivation. Synthetic elements but emphasizing analytic properties. Examples: Claude Shannon, Charles Osgood (congruity hypothesis) The formal style. This is very close to the postulational style, and indeed, presupposes the latter. The difference is that here the key terms are not given any interpretation; there is no reference to any specific empirical content. Pure analytic. Examples: geometry, algebra, calculus, statistics

Increasing Analytic Rigor Kaplans Styles of Thinking Formal Postulational MathNo empirical loadings Empirical loadings Eristic theories Academic theories

Literary theories Increasing Synthetic Rigor Increasing Analytic Rigor Kaplans Styles of Thinking Formal Postulational MathNo empirical loadings Empirical loadings

Eristic theories Academic theories Literary theories Increasing Synthetic Rigor

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • IncUBator @ Univ. of Bridgeport

    IncUBator @ Univ. of Bridgeport

    CTech IncUBator Tenant Services & Resources: Tenants will be candidates for CI's Pre-Seed & Seed funding programs. Access to Library & Coffee Bar . Joint research and grant collaborations. Access to Student Interns / Employees & Faculty. Access to Gym...
  • You Light Up My Life

    You Light Up My Life

    Low pH activates expansins. 3 2 1 5 4 Plant Tropisms Adjustment of plant growth toward or away from an environmental stimulus Gravitropism Phototropism Thigmotropism Gravity and statolith distribution Gravitropism Gravitropism Roots tend to grow toward pull of gravity; shoots...
  • Eliminate Chronic Inflammation

    Eliminate Chronic Inflammation

    3D Nutrition: Nutrients. Definition of Nutrients: "a substance that provides nourishment essential for growth and the maintenance of life". - Eat foods that high amounts of natural nutrients
  • Delivering an organisational wide Quality Improvement Plan

    Delivering an organisational wide Quality Improvement Plan

    Full visibility of EEAST IC functions. London Ambulance Service NHS Trust. Began November 2013. Winners and losers. Exclusions - Blues calls, Critical pathways, complex needs, paeds, HCPs . Activity shared monthly with Acutes.
  • Visual Programming week # 14 Review for Final

    Visual Programming week # 14 Review for Final

    How toPreparefor FinalExam ? 1) 2) Have alook at MidtermReviewagain. For eachtopic,ask these questions: • When. should Iuseit ? • How . canI do it ? Write
  • pmg-assets.s3-website-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com

    pmg-assets.s3-website-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com

    The Public Protector is an independent Constitutional institution whose mandate, derived from Section 182 of the Constitution read with Section 181, is to support and strengthen c
  • Citing Print Sources - pikeville.k12.ky.us

    Citing Print Sources - pikeville.k12.ky.us

    Jan. 19--DIXON -- The Illinois Supreme Court is expected to file an opinion Friday in the appeal of Steve Sandholm, former Dixon School District head boy's basketball coach and athletic director, who has twice before had his defamation suit dismissed.
  • TEK 8.10 Earth and Space - Socorro Independent School ...

    TEK 8.10 Earth and Space - Socorro Independent School ...

    While in college, Mr. McDonald drove an unreliable Isuzu pickup truck. It was a common occurrence for the truck to die at stoplights. If the car stalled 100 meters from a parking and if the truck had a mass of...