ARCTAS preliminary report to HQ ESD visitors at

ARCTAS preliminary report to HQ ESD visitors at

ARCTAS preliminary report to HQ ESD visitors at Ames Phil Russell, NASA Ames with contributions from many, many leaders, experimenters, modelers, forecasters, aircraft crews, Fri 12 Sep 2008 ARCTAS: Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites Why Study the Arctic Now? Third IPY (2007-2008) ARCTIC IS UNDERGOING RAPID CHANGE- Rapid warming; receptor of mid-latitudes pollution; boreal forest

fires increasing POTENTIALLY LARGE RESPONSE & UNIQUE CHEMISTRY- Melting of polar ice sheets, decrease of snow albedo from soot, halogen chemistry UNIQUE OPPORTUNITY- Large NASA satellite fleet; Interagency & international collaboration via POLARCAT & IPY Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) A NASA contribution to IPY and the international POLARCAT initiative http://cloud1.arc.nasa.gov/arctas Conducted in spring and summer 2008 with the following foci: 1. Long-range transport of pollution to the Arctic (including arctic haze, tropospheric ozone, and persistent pollutants such as mercury) 2. Boreal forest fires (implications for atmospheric composition and climate) 3. Aerosol radiative forcing (from arctic haze, boreal fires, surface-deposited black carbon, and other perturbations)

4. Chemical processes (with focus on ozone, aerosols, mercury, and halogens) April 2008: Fairbanks and Barrow, Alaska; Thule, Greenland July 2008: Cold Lake, Alberta; Yellowknife, NW Territories NASA DC-8 NASA P-3B NASA B-200 Partners: NASA, NOAA, DOE, NSF, Canada, France, Germany Slide courtesy Jim Crawford, HQ Mgr TCP Chemistry and Aerosols 21 instruments Radiation, Aerosols, Tracers

9 Instruments Aerosol satellite validation HSRL CALIPSO RSP GLORY Satellite Teams: CALIPSO, MODIS, TES, OMI, AIRS, MISR, MOPITT Model Forecasting: GEOS-5, GOCART, STEM, MOZART ARC-IONS: Ozonesonde network in cooperation with Environment Canada The ARCTAS science team includes over 150 scientists and support personnel representing 8 NASA installations, 12 Universities, and 3 Government Labs LaRC ARC GSFC Measurements X

Satellite Teams X X Model Forecasting X X Science Leadership and Decision Support X Aircraft operations

X Logistics and Data Archival X JPL MSFC X X GISS DFRC X

Univ/OGOV X X X X X X X X WFF X X

AOD, Multi-Center Participation on P-3 in0Z,7/8 ARCTAS ARC LaRC AATS GSFC COBALT HiGEAR Aero3X SSFR

BBR CAR BBR DFRC: REVEAL SSFR MSFC: RTMM PDS CCN Multi-Center Participation on DC-8 in ARCTAS LaRC: 4 Science Instruments DFRC: REVEAL

MSFC: RTMM DC-8 (185 flight hours) P-3B (158 flight hours) B-200 (150 flight hours) Spring (1-20 April) 9 sorties 8 sorties 27 sorties California (18-24 July) 4 sorties

1 sortie Summer (26 Jun-13 July) 9 sorties 12 Sorties DC-8 P-3B B200 21 Sorties ARCTAS-California 2008 OMI NO2 Oct. 22, 07 NASA CAPABILITIES:

Airborne observations Satellite observations Global/regional models Integrated analysis NASA MAIN OBJECTIVES: Ozone/aerosol formation Aerosol & radiative forcing GHGs & precursors Long-range pollution transport Satellite validation Ames Roles in ARCTAS Leadership ARCTAS Field Campaign Strategy: Maximize the value of satellite data for improving models of atmospheric composition and climate Satellites: CALIPSO, CALIPSO OMI, TES, MLS, MODIS, MISR, MOPITT, AIRS Aerosol optical depth, properties

H2O, CO, ozone, NO2, HCHO, SO2, BrO Aircraft: DC-8, P-3B, B200 Comprehensive in situ chemical and aerosol measurements Passive remote sensing of atmospheric state and composition Active remote sensing of ozone, water vapor and aerosol optical properties Models: CTMs, GCMs, ESMs Source-receptor relationships for pollution Inverse modeling for estimating emissions Aerosol radiative forcing Detailed chemical processing Calibration and Validation Retrieval development Correlative information Small scale structure and processes

Model error evaluation Data assimilation Diagnostic studies Measurement comparisons were conducted between the NASA DC-8 and partner aircraft as well as between the NASA P3-B and NOAA WP-3D NASA P-3B NSF HIAPER NASA DC-8 NOAA WP-3D DLR FALCON Example comparison of CO2 measurements onboard the NASA DC-8 (S. Vay, NASA LaRC) and NOAA WP-3D (T. Ryerson, NOAA ESRL) -Blind comparison reveals no detectable difference

1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 04/12/2008 NASA DC-8 CO2 NOAA WP-3D CO2 delta CO2 =DC8 - WP-3D Distance delta CO2 (ppmv) 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5

0.0 -0.5 -1.0 -1.5 -2.0 Aircraft Distance (km) delta CO2 (ppmv) -Establishing confidence in airborne CO2 measurements is critical to future OCO validation and ASCENDS technology demonstrations. 1.0 0.5 0.0 -0.5 -1.0 -1.5 396

6 396 04/12/2008 ODR Fit, 1 s data Slope = 1.000 0.000 Avg. Residual = 0.000 0.0081 ppmv Avg. Delta = 0.00 0.16 ppmv 4 3 End 23:22:00 392 2

390 22:15 22:30 22:45 23:00 GMT 23:15 23:30 Pressure Altitude (km) Begin 22:23:30

394 DC-8 CO2 (ppmv) 395 5 CO2 (ppmv) 1.5 394 393 392 391 1

390 0 389 389 390 391 392 393 394 WP-3D CO2 (ppmv) 395

396 California and Boreal (Cold Lake) CH4, N2O, CO2 & CO measurements: Highly correlated time series can characterize emissions from varied sources (incl. rice paddies, feed lots, other agriculture, wooded lands, wildfires) DC-8 P-3B B200 AOD, 0Z,7/8 ARCTAS P-3 & B-200 Tracks, 26 Jun-12 Jul 2008 GEOS5 Model prediction of Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) Planned P3 Flight Track

Flight Plan A 0Z,7/8 2008 ARCTAS P-3 Data Flight #17, AOD, 30 Jun To measure composition & radiative effects of wildfire smokes in CALIPSO & B200 lidar tracks GEOS5 Model prediction of Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) Planned P3 Flight Track Flight Plan A 0Z,7/8 2008 ARCTAS P-3 Data Flight #15, AOD, 28 Jun

View from cockpit approaching Lake Athabasca fires - Canadian researchers (Mike Flannigan, Merritt Turetsky, Brian Stocks) now working on ground to assess impact of fires ARCTAS sampled 0Z,7/8 2008 ARCTAS P-3 Data Flight #15, AOD, 28 Jun A closer view from cockpit AOD, 0Z,7/8 A closer view from cockpit NRL COAMPS PREDICTED SMOKE FROM ATHABASKA FIRES (courtesy Jeff Reid) 18 Z 9 Jul 2008

GEOS5 - Weak Siberia biomass burning plume between 1-6 km in central Canada, Courtesy Mian Chin - Similar features in some other models . CALIPSO Track Turnaround Point P-3B B200 9 July 2008: B200 and P-3B underfly the CALIPSO track sampling smoke plume from boreal fires in northern Saskatchewan. CALIPSO Track Turnaround Point P-3B B200

P-3 in ARCTAS: Payload Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14) Solar Spectral Flux Radiometer (SSFR) Flux,(), albedo() Broad-Band Radiometers (BBR) LW SW AOD Ext H2O vapor HiGEAR Aerosols & O3

OPC & DMA dry size dist, volatility Tandem Volatility DMA Neph scat + PSAP abs Humidified Neph f(RH) Ultrafine & CN Time of Flight Mass Spec size resolved chemistry SP2 black carbon mass Flux,, albedo AERO3X Cavity Ringdown ext (2) Reciprocal Neph sca (2, RH ) Nenes CCN PVM cloud drop reff, vol TECO O3 P-3 Data System (PDS): Nav, Flight, Met (P, T, RH, )

Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) Radiance, BRDF COBALT: CO REVEAL & RTMM HSRL/AATS-14 Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) Comparison Extinction Smoke layer Comparison of AOT derived from HSRL (B200) and derived from AATS-14 Airborne Sun Photometer (P-3B) while P-3B spiraled up below B200 (AATS14 data courtesy of Jens Redemann) Large variability in AOT associated with smoke plume

Optical Thickness Preliminary HSRL/In situ Aerosol Extinction Comparison Comparison of aerosol extinction derived from HSRL (B200) and in situ dry scattering (neph) + absorption (PSAP) measurements while P-3 spiraled up below B200 (in situ data courtesy of Tony Clarke) Extinction Smoke layer Preliminary

Low level feature due to temporal offset Good agreement in and above the smoke! CALIPSO slightly lower Vertical Feature Mask misidentification Preliminary MODIS OMI Typical maneuvers flown by P-3 in ARCTAS To measure aerosols, CO , O3, & radiative effects DC-8

P-3 light cloud Comparison of AATS, OMI, and MODIS AOD spectra Preliminary J. Redemann, J. Livingston Comparison of AATS and MODIS AOD spectra Preliminary J. Redemann, J. Livingston AOD, 0Z,7/8 ARCTAS Summary & Future 1. NASAs contribution to IPY & International POLARCAT

2. Strong intercenter, university, interagency, & international collaboration. 3. Strong coordination among aircraft, satellites, & models (showed just 1 case of many, many [3 satellites, 2 A/C, several models]). 4. Ames lead roles in project science, project management, & platform science. Also A/C instruments. 5. Most analyses just getting started (preliminary data archival due 1 Oct 2008). Potential strong link to ecosystems. - Highly correlated A/C time series of CH4, N2O, CO2 & CO can characterize emissions from varied sources (e.g., rice paddies, feed lots, other ag, woods, wildfires) - Canadian researchers (Mike Flannigan, Merritt Turetsky, Brian Stocks) assessing impact of fires ARCTAS sampled AOD, 0Z,7/8 END OF

PRESENTATION REMAINING SLIDES ARE BACKUP Notable N2O and CH4 observations Suggesting Strong Sources Glenn Diskin and Glen Sachse (communications with Bob Chatfield) "Glenn S. Diskin" Glen Sachse 1) California agriculture and wetlands: N2O in the PBL over some valley areas of California reached levels rarely seen by the N2O/CH4/CO team. CH4 also reached high levels, sometimes in concert with N2O , sometimes not. Agriculture/land surface, not pollution: no CO correlation. Chatfield will communicate Christopher Potters characterization of sources to the Langley team. Possibility: day-by-day estimation of emissions by Potter (responding to irrigation, fertilization, and cropping) may focus on particular source regions and processes.

2) Boreal observations showed variations of N2O and CH4 within expectations. However extremely high concentrations were noted at and near the airport on takeoff from Cold Lake in one instance. Cold Lake is near the dividing line between cattle pasturage and forest. Unfortunately, no ethane (C2H6) or other hydrocarbon measurements were made which might have distinguished the source.

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