CROSS - CULTURAL WORK & SELF-CARE Do you desire cultural competence Funke Oba September 6, 2018 [email protected] 2 Central question to cross-cultural communication How do people understand one another when they do not share a common cultural experience? (Bennett, 1998, p.1)
3 Common question Where are you from? 4 Potential impacts? Chat with your neighbour White front line staff (European background) to white client White front line staff to immigrant / refugee client Foreign trained social worker to immigrant/refugee client Indigenous staff (grew up on reserve) to indigenous client (not from reserve) Find out where your neighbour is from and introduce them
5 Whats happening in this conversation? Supervisor: It looks like were going to need some people to come in on Saturday. Newcomer volunteer: I see. Supervisor: Can you come in on Saturday? Newcomer Volunteer: Yes, I think so. Supervisor: Thatll be a great help. Newcomer volunteer: Yes Saturdays a special day, did you know? Supervisor: How do you mean? Newcomer volunteer: Its my sons birthday. Supervisor. Thats so nice , I hope you all enjoy it very much. Newcomer volunteer: Thank you so much, I appreciate your understanding.
What happened on Monday morning? Native speaker: Do you have a brother? Non-native speaker: No. Native speaker: You dont have a brother. Non-native speaker: Yes. 6 Common linguistic error Non Native speaker: Oh youre here? Native speaker: yes, I just got in Non Native speaker: I thought you were not coming again Non-native speaker: Really, what does that mean
02/2 8/20 20 What is wrong with the following sentences Je suis 25 ans Je suis fini "je suis plein Suis = am but French = Jai 25 ans. Hi gang 8 Attribution error Tendency to attribute things to personality (shortcomings)
rather than to circumstances We tend to attribute our own actions to situations In a social work setting attributions? 9 What is culture? Cultural Models Cultural models [are] like movies or videotapes in the mind We all have a vast store of these simulations, each of which depicts prototypical (what we take to be normal) events in a simplified world. We . take these simplified worlds to be the real world, or act as if they were. We make our choices and guesses about meaning in relation to these worlds.
variable, differing across different cultural groups, including different cultural groups in a society speaking the same language... Change with time and changes in the society, but we are usually quite unaware of their full implications Cultural models involve us in exclusions that are not at first obvious and which we are often quite unaware of making. (Gee, 2008, p. 104 [emphasis added]) Culture gives patterned ways of dealing with our environment, influences
what we perceive, how we think, interpret, and respond to messages, people, events (Gudykunst & Kim, 2003) female Anglo transplant me heritage employment family Baby boomer
12 What is being defined here ? The process of cognitive, behavioural, affective change people undergo from living in a new cultural environment (Berry, 1997, Ward, 1996 Ability to communicate well in new culture, Respond well to host culture to achieve goals (Deardorff, 2006). There are more things in heaven and
earth, Horatio, Than are dreamt of in your philosophy. Hamlet, Act 1 scene 5 Horatio, Eugne Delacroix HC/LC Spectrum Low Context The context is not assumed to be known Clear explanation, precise description Spell out everything Reliance of verbal messages Over-explaining
SPEAKER IS PRIMARILY RESPONSIBLE FOR UNDERSTANDING High Context The context is assumed to be known To explain everything and state meaning precisely may be insulting Leave understanding up to other person Under-explaining
LISTENER IS PRIMARILY RESPONSIBLE FOR UNDERSTANDING Critical Incident: Culture-Person-Situation Model What differing cultural values might have influenced the situation? How might the personal background or personality traits of the participants have influenced the incident? What is this person's relationship with their words? What effects did different communication
styles have on the situation? What kind of differing discourse conventions might have caused the conflict? What situational factors might have affected the incident (where, what was the context, what events were happening in the individuals lives?) What meaning did the situation have for the participants? What is the relationship of the people what roles are they in? Adapted from Vielfalt erkunden ein Konzept fur interkulturelles Training an Hochschulen, 2010, by E. Bosse & Gundula Gwenn Hiller, On the Train, in Building Cultural Competence: Innovative Activities and Models, 2012
16 Cultural Adaptation http://idiinventory.com/pdf/idi_sample.pdf Think Pair Share What are all the contextual factors that might influence how these two individuals understand what each other has said? Visible/invisible? Individualism vs. collectivism How individuals perceive themselves
I am distinct and unique I am a member of a family, tribe. How individuals relate to others How/what do I gain from this act? How will this act affect others? The goals they follow I want to win. Im a team player to help the group win. What drives their behavior
It is my right to do this. My duty is to my group. (Triandis, as cited in Neuliep, 2012) 19 Responses to culture shock: acculturation Acculturation attitudes It is considered to be of value to maintain relationships with other groups?
Is it considered to be of value to maintain cultural identity and characteristics? Assimilation Marginalization ( Adapted from Berry, Kim, Power, Young & Bujaki, 1989) 20 Whose culture matters The values of mainstream [agencies] are often complicit with the oppression of
non-mainstream [clients] home cultures and other social identities. (Gee, 2008,p. 114) Open discussion/questions Intercultural conflict is not always miscommunication what other factors might be at work How do you as a social worker interrogate issues of power, what can balance power differentials How would you as a worker avoid cultural profiling, toward the other Rethinking cultural competence Understanding our own cultural assumptions and their non universality/ neutrality
22 SELF CARE Intercultural learning is not just acquiring new knowledge cognitively, it involves real work, discovery, authenticity, mental physical, emotional, and intellectual self (Adapted from deVita, 2005,p.76) Your self needs you to do this work in a healthy way Know thyself Grow thyself Value thy self Care for thyself 23
References Berry, J. W., Kim, W., Power, S., Young, M. & Bujaki, M. (1989). Acculturation attitudes in plural societies. Applied Psychology, 38, 186-206. Berry, J. W. (1997). Immigration, acculturation and adaptation. Applied Psychology, 46, 5-68. Kohls, L. R. (1984). Survival kit for overseas living: For Americans planning to live and work abroad. Second Edition. Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press. Neuliep, J. W. (2012). Intercultural communication: A contextual approach. Thousand Oaks: Sage. Storti, C. (1997). Culture matters: The Peace Corps cross-cultural workbook. Washington, DC:
Peace Corps Information Collection and Exchange. Zhang, J. & Goodson, P. (2011). Predictors of international students psychosocial adjustment to life in the United States: A systematic review. International Journal of Intercultural Relations. 35, 139-162. 24
References Bennett, Milton, J. (1998). Intercultural communication: A current perspective. In Milton J. Bennett (Ed.), Basic concepts of intercultural communication: Selected readings. Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press. Berry, J.W. (1997). Immigration, acculturation and adaptation. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 46(1), 5-68. Butler, C., & Zander, L. (2008). The business of teaching and learning through multicultural teams. Journal of Teaching in International Business, 19(2), 192-218. Deardoff, D.K., (2006). Identification and assessment of intercultural competence as a student outcome of
internationalization. Journal of Studies in International Education, 10(3), 241-266. De Vita, G. (2005). Fostering intercultural learning through multicultural group work. In J. Carroll & J. Ryan, (Eds.), International students: Improving learning for all, London, New York: Routledge, pp. 75-83 DiStefano, J., Maznevski, M. (2000). Creating value with diverse teams in global management. Organizational Dynamics, 29(1), 45-64. Gee, J.P. (2008). Social linguistics and literacies: Ideology in discourse (3rd ed.). London: Routledge. Gudykunst, W. B. & Kim, Y.Y. (2003). Communicating with strangers: An approach to intercultural communication (4th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. Halualani, R.T. (2008). How do multicultural university students define and make sense of intercultural contact? A qualitative study. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 32, 1-16. Kim, E.Y. (2001). The yin and yang of American Culture. Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press. Hall, E. T. (1966). The hidden dimension. New York, NY: Anchor Books. Laroche, L. (2008, September). Job search strategies for international graduate students. Presentation to graduate students at The University of Western Ontario, London, ON. Nisbett, R.E. (2003). The geography of thought: How Asians and Westerns think differently. New York, NY: The Free Press
Storti, C. (1998). Figuring foreigners out. Yarmouth, Main: Intercultural Press. Ward, C. (1996). Acculturation. In. D. Landis & R.S. Bhagat (Eds). Handbook of intercultural training (2nd ed. pp 124-147). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
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