Mandating (Green) Open Access to Maximize the Usage

Mandating (Green) Open Access to Maximize the Usage

Mandating (Green) Open Access to Maximize the Usage and Impact of Danish Research Output Stevan Harnad Denmark at an Open Access crossroads mandate or a peoples movement? 3 September 2010 Collaborators:

Brody, Tim (U. Southampton, Eprints) Carr, Les (U. Southampton, EPrints) Gargouri, Yassine (U. Qubec Montral) Gingras, Yves (U. Qubec Montral) Gutteridge, Chris (U. Southampton, Eprints) Hajjem, Chawki (U. Qubec Montral)

Harnad, Stevan (U. Qubec Montral, U. Southampton, EPrints) Hitchcock, Steve (U. Southampton, EPrints) Jeffery, Keith (STFC, EuroCris, Cerif) Larivire, Vincent (U. Qubec Montral) Oppenheim, Charles (U. Loughborough) Sale, Arthur (U. Tasmania) Swan, Alma (U. Southampton, EPrints, Key Perspectives) Copenhagen Sep 3 What Is Open Access?

Copenhagen Sep 3 Open Access is NOT: o o o o o

Copyright Reform Publishing Reform Peer Review Reform Digital Preservation Freeing Knowledge Copenhagen Sep 3 Open Access is: o

o o o o o Free, Immediate Permanent Full-Text

On-Line Access Copenhagen Sep 3 Open Access to What? ~2.5 million articles yearly ~25,000 peer-reviewed journals 1. Books

2. Textbooks 3. Magazine articles 4. Newspaper articles 5. Music 6. Video 7. Software 8. Knowledge 9. Data 10. Unrefereed Preprints

Copenhagen Sep 3 Open Access: Why? Copenhagen Sep 3 Open Access: Why? 1. To maximise the uptake, usage, applications and impact of the research output of your university

1. To measure and reward the uptake, usage, applications and impact of the research output of your university (research metrics) 1. To collect, manage and showcase a permanent record of the research output and impact of your university Copenhagen Sep 3 OA maximises research visibility

usage uptake applications impact productivity progress funding manageability assessability

by maximising research: accessibility Copenhagen Sep 3 Open Access: How? By mandating Green OA Self-Archiving OA Metrics motivate OA Mandates And OA Mandates maximize OA Metrics

Metrics of research usage and impact quantify, evaluate, navigate, propagate and reward the fruits of OA self-archiving, motivating Green OA Mandates. Mandates for Green OA self-archiving, incentivized by the Metrics, once adopted by most or all universities and research funding

agencies, will provide OA to 100% of research output, maximizing research usage and impact, productivity and progress. Brody et al (2007) Incentivizing the Open Access Research Web: Publication-, Data-Archiving and Scientometrics. CTWatch Quarterly 3(3). http://eprints.ecs.soton.ac.uk/14418/ Copenhagen Sep 3 PREVIEW of following slides: OA: How? Universities and funders mandate Green OA selfarchiving Deposit Where? In universities' own Institutional Repositories (IRs)

Deposit How? A few minutes of keystrokes per paper is all that stands between the world research community and 100% OA Deposit What? Author's final, revised, peer-reviewed draft ("postprint") Deposit When? Immediately upon acceptance for publication Optimizing OA Self-Archiving Mandates: What? Where? When? Why? How? http://openaccess.eprints.org/index.php?/archives/136-guid.html Copenhagen Sep 3

There are 2 ways to make research OA Copenhagen Sep 3 1. Gold OA: publishers convert Copenhagen Sep 3 2. Green OA: researchers self-archive

Copenhagen Sep 3 Gratis OA (no price barriers) Green OA (published in journal + deposited in OA Repository) Gold OA (publisheMay 18 2010 [email protected] in OA journal)

Copenhagen Sep 3 Libre OA (no price barriers + no permission barriers) The Immediate Practical Implication of the Houghton Report: Provide Green Open Access Now Houghton, J.W., Rasmussen, B., Sheehan, P.J., Oppenheim, C., Morris,

A., Creaser, C., Greenwood, H., Summers, M. and Gourlay, A. (2009). Economic Implications of Alternative Scholarly Publishing Models: Exploring the Costs and Benefits, London and Bristol: The Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC). Harnad, S. (2010) The Immediate Practical Implication of the Houghton Report: Provide Green Open Access Now. Prometheus, 28 (1). pp. 55-59. It would yield a greater than twenty-fold benefit/cost ratio if the worlds peer-reviewed

research were all self-archived by its authors so as to make it OA. Copenhagen Sep 3 Estimated Savings for Danish Universities -- and for Denmark from providing OA -- based on Houghton Report Danish savings if WORLD also provides OA

Danish savings if DENMARK alone provides OA Houghton, John (2009) Costs and Benefits of Alternative Publishing Models: Denmark. Victoria University 29 April 2009 http://bit.ly/OA-Denmark-Houghton Houghton, J.W., Rasmussen, B., Sheehan, P.J., Oppenheim, C., Morris, A., Creaser, C., Greenwood, H., Summers, M. and Gourlay, A. (2009). Economic Implications of Alternative Scholarly Publishing Models: Exploring the Costs and Benefits, London and Bristol: The Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) http://www.jisc.ac.uk/publications/reports/2009/economicpublishingmodelsfinalreport.aspx Estimated Benefit/Cost B/C Ratios for Danish Universities -- and for Denmark from providing OA -- based on Houghton Report

Danish B/C if WORLD also provides OA Danish B/C if DENMARK alone provides OA Houghton, John (2009) Costs and Benefits of Alternative Publishing Models: Denmark. Victoria University 29 April 2009 http://bit.ly/OA-Denmark-Houghton Houghton, J.W., Rasmussen, B., Sheehan, P.J., Oppenheim, C., Morris, A., Creaser, C., Greenwood, H., Summers, M. and Gourlay, A. (2009). Economic Implications of Alternative Scholarly Publishing Models: Exploring the Costs and Benefits, London and Bristol: The Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) http://www.jisc.ac.uk/publications/reports/2009/economicpublishingmodelsfinalreport.aspx Gratis OA

(no price barriers) Deposit Mandates Green OA (published in journal + deposited in OA Repository) Copenhagen Sep 3 Libre OA

(no price barriers + no permission barriers) Deposit + Permission Mandates Open Access: How? Copenhagen Sep 3 Impact cycle

begins: 12-18 Months Research is done Researchers write pre-refereeing Pre-Print

Submitted to Journal Pre-Print reviewed by Peer Experts PeerReview Pre-Print revised by articles Authors Refereed Post-Print Accepted, Certified, Published by Journal

Researchers can access the Post-Print if their university has a subscription to the Journal New impact cycles: New research builds on existing research Slides for Promoting OA Mandates and

Metrics Impact cycle begins: 12-18 Months Research is done

Researchers write pre-refereeing Pre-Print Submitted to Journal Pre-Print reviewed by Peer Experts PeerReview Pre-Print revised by articles Authors

This limited subscription-based access can be supplemented by self-archiving the Postprint in the authors own institutional repository as follows: Refereed Post-Print Accepted, Certified, Published by Journal

Researchers can access the Post-Print if their university has a subscription to the Journal New impact cycles: New research builds on existing research Slides for Promoting OA Mandates and

Metrics What Is Green OA? Copenhagen Sep 3 Impact cycle begins: 12-18 Months

Research is done Researchers write pre-refereeing Pre-Print Submitted to Journal Pre-Print reviewed by Peer Experts Peer-Review Pre-Print revised by

articles Authors Refereed Post-Print Accepted, Certified, Published by Journal Researchers can access the Post-Print if their university has a subscription to the Journal Post-Print

is self-archived in Universitys Eprint Archive More impact cycles: New impact cycles: New research builds on

existing research Open Access: Why? 1. To maximise the uptake, usage, applications and impact of the research output of your university 1. To measure and reward the uptake, usage, applications and impact of the research output of your university (research metrics) 1. To collect, manage and showcase a

permanent record of the research output and impact of your university Copenhagen Sep 3 How the Optimal Open Access Mandate Can Help Denmark Copenhagen Sep 3 Copenhagen Sep 3

Copenhagen Sep 3 Copenhagen Sep 3 Copenhagen Sep 3 Copenhagen Sep 3 Some EPrints download metrics for top

deposits by Southampton author Tim Berners-Lee. Copenhagen Sep 3 Copenhagen Sep 3 Copenhagen Sep 3 Sample citation and download growth with time. (Downloads only start in

2005 because that is when this paper was deposited.) Early growth rate and Copenhagen Sep 3 late decay metrics for downloads and citations can also be derived. Sample of candidate OA-era metrics:

Citations (C) CiteRank (like Google) Co-citations Downloads (D) C/D Correlations Hub/Authority index Chronometrics: Latency/Longevity Endogamy/Exogamy Book citation index

Links Tags Commentaries Journal Impact Factor

h-index (and variants) Co-authorships Publication counts Number of publishing years Semiometrics (latent

semantic indexing, text overlap, etc.) Research funding Students Prizes Copenhagen Sep 3 There are plenty of repositories Copenhagen Sep 3

But almost all of them are almost-empty of OAs target content (5-25%) Copenhagen Sep 3 One of the few exceptions and the first: Why? Copenhagen Sep 3 The worlds c. 15,000 research universities and institutions produce all

research output, in all disciplines, funded and unfunded Worlds first Green OA Mandate: University of Southampton School of Electronics and Computer Science (UK 2003) Worlds first University-Wide Green OA Mandate: Queensland

University of Technology (Australia Feb 2004) Europes First Green OA Mandate: University of Minho (Portugal Dec 2004) Copenhagen Sep 3 Copenhagen Sep 3

Copenhagen Sep 3 Copenhagen Sep 3 Copenhagen Sep 3 Copenhagen Sep 3 The ID/OA mandate applies (with no exceptions or delays) to the

deposit of the authors final, peer-reviewed draft (postprint). This must be deposited immediately upon acceptance for publication, but the deposit need not be made Open Access. Where access is embargoed (37%), the deposit can be made Closed Access. During the embargo period, the Institutional Repositorys Button provides Almost-Instant, Almost-OA, for just a few extra keystrokes, as follows:

Copenhagen Sep 3 Copenhagen Sep 3 Copenhagen Sep 3 Copenhagen Sep 3 So dont pay for Gold OA today without first mandating Green OA

COPE SCOAP3 Copenhagen Sep 3 Post-Gutenberg Post-Green-OA: Then What? 1. 2. 3.

4. 5. Green OA version enough? Institutions cancel journal subscription Journals downsize to peer-review Journals convert to Gold OA Institutions pay costs out of windfall cancellation savings 6. (no-fault peer review)

Copenhagen Sep 3 The publisher tail wagging the research dog Copenhagen Sep 3 SUMMARY: OA: How? Universities and funders mandate Green OA selfarchiving Deposit Where? In universities' own Institutional Repositories (IRs) Deposit How? A few minutes of keystrokes per paper is all that

stands between the world research community and 100% OA Deposit What? Author's final, revised, peer-reviewed draft ("postprint") Deposit When? Immediately upon acceptance for publication Optimizing OA Self-Archiving Mandates: What? Where? When? Why? How? http://openaccess.eprints.org/index.php?/archives/136-guid.html Copenhagen Sep 3 Open Access: How?

Universities adopt the ID/OA mandate: Immediate Deposit + Optional Access + Copenhagen Sep 3 The Optimal Open Access Mandate

Immediate Deposit (required) Immediate Open Access (recommended) Permission Clause (optional) Make deposit the official means of submitting publications for annual performance review Implement usage and impact metrics Implement Button Copenhagen Sep 3

Open Access: Why? 1. To maximise the uptake, usage, applications and impact of the research output of your university 2. To measure and reward the uptake, usage, applications and impact of the research output of your university (research metrics) 3. To collect (and showcase and manage) a permanent record of the research output and impact of your university

Copenhagen Sep 3 Three sources of policy-making and strategic guidance EOS OASIS SPARC Copenhagen Sep 3

http://www.openscholarship.org Copenhagen Sep 3 http://www.openoasis.org/ Copenhagen Sep 3 http://www.arl.org/sparc/advocacy/campus/

Copenhagen Sep 3 Authors URLs (UQAM & Southampton): http://www.crsc.uqam.ca/ http://users.ecs.soton.ac.uk/harnad/ BIBLIOGRAPHY ON OA IMACT ADVANTAGE: http://opcit.eprints.org/oacitation-biblio.html BOAI Self-Archiving FAQ: http://www.eprints.org/self-faq/

CITEBASE (scientometric engine): http://citebase.eprints.org/ EPRINTS: http://www.eprints.org/ OA ARCHIVANGELISM: http://openaccess.eprints.org/ ROAR (Registry of OA Repositories): http://roar.eprints.org/ ROARMAP (Registry of OA Repository Mandates): http://www.eprints.org/openaccess/policysignup/ ROMEO/EPRINTS (Directory of Journal Policies on author OA SelfArchiving): http://romeo.eprints.org/ Copenhagen Sep 3

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