Physical Activity and the Early Years Section Section
Physical Activity and the Early Years Section Section Section Section Section Section Section Index
1 Intro/Benefits 2 - Statistics 3 Physical Literacy 4 Activity Guidelines 5 How to Get Kids Active 6 Resources Physical Activity and the Early Years Target Audiences
(a) Municipal Council - Section 1, 2, 3, 6 (b) Early Childhood/Daycare Workers Section 1, 3, 4, 5, 6 (c) Public Health Health Promoters Section 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 (d) Public Health Managers Section 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 (e) Students Section 1, 3, 4, 5, 6 Page 2 Physical Activity and the Early Years
This presentation was developed by the Physical Activity Resource Centre (PARC) for use by physical activity promoters across Ontario Page 3 Workshop Objectives By the end of the workshop, participants will : Know the current physical activity levels of young children Be reminded of the many benefits of physical activity Understand the importance of physical literacy Be knowledgeable of the Canadian Physical Activity
Guidelines for the Early Years and be able to promote the guidelines to parents, caregivers and early childhood educators Have knowledge and access to tools and hands-on activities that can integrated into programming Page 4 PARC Services PARC is the Centre of Excellence for physical activity promotion in Ontario. PARC is managed by Ophea and is funded by the Government
of Ontario. PARC services support capacity-building, knowledgesharing and learning opportunities PARC services include: Consultations & referrals Trainings & workshops Physical activity resources: Website (parc.ophea.net - sign up for listserv) Posters Page 5 Informational tools and booklets Ophea Overview Vision
All children and youth value and enjoy the lifelong benefits of healthy, active living Mission Ophea champions healthy, active living in schools and communities through quality programs and services, partnerships and advocacy Clients 180,000+ Ontario teachers 7,500+ Ontario principals, vice-principals & school board administrators 1,000+ Ontario public health managers and practitioners 100+ provincial and national education and health sector partners Page 6
Section 1 Intro/Benefits Of Physical Activity Page 7 Physical Activity Physical activity is an important part of a childs physical, mental and emotional development. According to a 2012 Systematic Review:
There is evidence to support a positive relationship between increased or higher physical activity and favourable measures of adiposity, bone and skeletal health, motor skill development, psychosocial health, cognitive development, and aspects of cardiometabolic health. Investing in physical activity during the early years has health benefits later in life, particularly with respect to adiposity. Benefits of Physical Activity Physical Strengthens the heart and lungs Helps build strong bones and muscles Develops good posture
Increases energy Improves fitness levels Enhances flexibility Improves coordination and balance Helps maintain a healthy body weight Helps improve sleeping and eating habits Helps develop fundamental movement skills Enhances development of brain function and neural pathways Page 9 Benefits of Physical Activity
Psychological / Emotional Encourages fun and makes children feel happy Reduces anxiety and helps young children feel good about themselves Prevents, reduces, manages depression
Improves the ability to deal with stress Helps build confidence and positive self-esteem Enhances emotional development Helps young children form impressions about themselves and their surroundings Page 10 Benefits of Physical Activity Academic
Improve problem-solving skills/abilities Improve learning and attention Increase concentration Improve memory Enhance creativity Page 11 Benefits of Physical Activity Social
Teaches important skills such as sports skills and life skills Provides opportunities for children to practice/develop social skills and leadership
skills Encourages interaction and helps develop friendships Develops positive lifelong attitudes toward physical activity Encourages healthy family engagement Helps nurture and promote imagination and creativity Page 12
Lets get moving! Section 2 Statistics Page 14 What the Research Says 1. At what age do physical activity levels start to decline? a. 3 b. 6 c. 10
d. 12 Page 15 What the Research Says 2. What percentage of 3-4 year olds are getting the recommended 180 minutes of daily physical activity at any level? a. 10% b. 24% c. 50% d. 73%
Page 16 What the Research Says Grade: DPresentation title| Date Page 17 What the Research Says 3. How many hours a day do children aged 3-4 spend being sedentary (not including sleep time)? a. 3.4 hours b. 5.8 hours
c. 7.25 hours d. 10 hours Page 18 What the Research Says 4. What percentage of children aged 3-4 are meeting the guidelines of less than one hour of screen time per day? a. 10% b. 15% c. 45% d. 60%
Page 19 What the Research Says 5. The estimated direct and indirect health care costs of physical inactivity in Canada in 2009 was a. $2.6 billion b. $3.3 billion c. $5.9 billion d. $6.8 billion Page 20 Section 3
Physical Literacy Page 21 Physical Literacy PHYSICAL Page 22 Why is physical literacy so important? Why is physical literacy so important?
Physically literate children lead healthy active lives Children who are not physically literate avoid physical activity and may turn to sedentary or unhealthy lifestyle choices Children who are physically active: are ready to learn, have better personal satisfaction, have better and safer relationships Page 23 Physical literacy lays the foundation for an active life
Page 24 Skill-Based Literacies Developing skills and then being able to understand and apply. Page 25 Physical literacy is essential for optimal growth and development Page 26
Early Brain Development Page 27 Physical Literacy Developing physical literacy and participation in regular physical activity supports learning, readiness and positive behaviours Increased Academic Performance Increased Self-esteem Decreased Anxiety & Depression Decreased Behaviour related problems
Page 28 Physical Literacy HANDS UP | Part 1 - Introduction to Physical & Health Lite racy How do we develop children who are Active for Life? Who helps children develop these skills?
Fundamental Movement Skills Kicking Swimming Hopping Throwing Cycling Crawling Climbing Skating Striking Running Falling Catching Jumping
Dribbling Volleying Balancing Skipping Dodging Fundamental Movement Skills Impacts of Physical Literacy Physical Literacy Across Sectors Leisure: Recreation & Sport
Fundamental Movement Skills General Movement Sequences Performance Excellence and Participation Performance Arts Circus, dance Vocational Any vocation with physicality: firefighter, police and armed services, construction /trades workers, nurse, landscaper/tree removal, Activities of Daily Living Garden, paint, hammer, walk on slippery surfaces Injury Prevention Lift, carry, transfer Falls, stumble recovery, landing
Supporting Physical Literacy Evaluation Quality Programs and Instruction Supportive Environments Opportunities for active play Page 36 Lets get moving!
Section 4 Activity Guidelines Page 38 Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology Children 5-11 years Early
Years 0-4 years Youth 12-17 years Physical Activity Guidelin es Adults
18-64 years Older Adults 65 years + Page 40 Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines: 0-4 years
These guidelines are relevant to all apparently healthy infants (aged <1 year), toddlers (aged 12 years), and preschoolers (aged 34 years), irrespective of gender, race, ethnicity, or socio-economic status of the family Infants, toddlers, and preschoolers should be encouraged to participate in a variety of age-appropriate, enjoyable and safe physical activities that support their healthy growth and development, and occur in the context of family, child care, school, and community Infants should be physically active daily as a part of supervised indoor and outdoor experiences. Activities could include tummy time, reaching and grasping, pushing and pulling, and crawling Children in the early years should be physically active daily as part of play, games, sports, transportation, recreation, and physical education
Page 41 Being active 0-4 years means Infants Tummy time Reaching and grabbing for toys Playing or rolling around on the floor Crawling
Toddlers/Preschoolers Exploring a play area or age appropriate outdoor space Pushing a walker type toy or popper Kicking, rolling, or carrying a ball around The activity should be more intense as the child gets older A Word About Infants
Physical activity helps to build a babys sense of his/her own identity. When babies control their movements better, they start to be able to make things happen in their environment. A Word About Infants Physical activity helps babies to be healthy, alert, relaxed and happy. Regular activity establishes connections in the brain that lead to
improved: strength and endurance ease of movement flexibility and coordination balance Parents/caregivers also notice that with regular activity, babies are often: easier to soothe have better sleep habits have improved digestion Page 44 Presentation title| Date
Page 45 Presentation title| Date Page 46 The Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Children and Youth: An Integration of Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour and Sleep The Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Children and Youth: An Integration of Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour and Sleep
Presentation title| Date Page 48 Lets get moving! Section 5 Getting Kids Active Page 50 Tips for Getting Infants Active
Provide opportunities for supervised tummy time several times each day. Provide opportunities for movement both indoors and outdoors. Provide a variety of play objects with different textures, sizes and shapes. Use large blocks, stacking toys, nesting cups, textured balls, squeeze toys, parachutes. Limit an infants time in bouncy seats, swings, car seats and playpens to no more than 15 minutes at a time. Encourage and assist infants to roll, reach, scoot, sit, stand, crawl and walk. Provide parents with a daily update of their infants physical activity and skill development.
Remember! Screen time is not recommended for infants. Tips for Getting Young Children Active Ensure that physical activity experiences: Are fun and safe Are a positive experience, free of negative pressure Provide diverse and interesting activities, games and skill development opportunities Are challenging Consist of small but achievable goals
Emphasize basic motor skill development, such as running, rolling, climbing, throwing, catching and kicking Take place in short bursts with frequent breaks Are part of a childs daily routine Page 52 Tips for Getting Young Children Active While it is important to provide challenges for young children, it is equally important to ensure that activities are developmentally appropriate and safe. Children are not small adults. It is important to
modify the equipment and space to suit the needs of young children. Tips: Use lighter, softer, or larger balls Choose shorter and/or lighter bats and racquets Choose larger goals or target areas Partially deflate balls for dribbling and kicking Simplify games by having children drop and catch the ball rather than bouncing it consecutively Modify the size of the playing area to make it easier for all players to participate Page 53
Tips for Getting Young Children Active Be an active role model and an active participant in games and play with the children Display photos of the children being active. Put up posters depicting physical activity
Use equipment that is gender-neutral or without gendered imagery Limit rules that discourage physical activity (e.g., no balls, no running, etc.) Encourage and facilitate outdoor play as much as possible
Page 54 Tips for Getting Young Children Active Provide opportunities for children to participate in vigorous forms of physical activity such as running, dancing, chasing a ball and jumping Promote activities that use large muscle groups and
encourage movement of the whole body Develop physical activity programming that benefits all children regardless of body type, size, skill, or coordination The goal is not to produce Olympic athletes but to contribute to lifelong attitudes that value physical activity Page 55
Creating Inclusive Play Environments In all age groups, Canadians with a disability are less likely than other Canadians to participate in regular physical activities An inclusive environment is one that provides the opportunity for children of all abilities and interests to participate in all activities Inclusive environments recognize the inherent value of each child, the right to take risks and make mistakes, the need for independence and self-determination, and the right to choice Everyone has a responsibility to remove barriers for children with disabilities so that they can have equal access to
physical activities For more info on physical activity modifications, see Opheas Steps to inclusion resource Creating Inclusive Play Environments In an inclusive program: Activities are modified, adapted and individualized as necessary Expectations are realistic yet challenging Assistance is provided only to the
degree required Dignity of risk and availability of choices are respected and fostered Visual cues include children with varying abilities Activities are taught/led using different learning styles Equipment is adapted/modified as necessary Page 57 Reflecting a Variety of Cultures
Select visuals (e.g., posters, wall cards, etc.) and resources that reflect diversity in gender and ethnicity. Use music and activities that reflect various cultures including songs, instruments and dances. Encourage children to express themselves according to their culture when participating in imaginative games and activities. Use culturally appropriate props, equipment and materials.
Page 58 Lets Get Active Main goal is to get children moving while having fun Can integrate other areas of learning into games and activities:
literacy, numeracy, colours, shapes, emergent curriculum Skills developed through games go beyond just fundamental movement skills and movement competence: aim & accuracy, spatial awareness, hand/eye coordination, communication, crossing the midline, listening, following instructions, problem solving, critical thinking, adaptability, developing relationships, self-regulation Games also develop character education: sharing, encouragement, cooperation, working together, empathy, positive attitude, teamwork, caring Presentation title| Date
Page 59 Lets Get Active Circle Time 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Parachute Games Birthdays
Bean Bag Circle Pass Rectangle Rush Circle Kick Ball Connect it Page 60 Lets Get Active Small Space Activities 1. 2. 3. 4.
5. 6. Alphabet Popcorn Dice Roll Scarf Toss Simon Says Touch That Colour Yoga Page 61 Lets Get Active
Open Space Activities 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Hoop Play Laundry Relay Colour Cones
Its a Zoo Out There! Magic Soup Mouse Chase Red Light, Green Light Shark Attack Page 62 Lets Get Active Physical Literacy: Movement Games 1. 2. 3.
4. Shake Your Sillies Out Red Light, Green Light Colour Switch Activity Pass Page 63 Lets Get Active Physical Literacy: Throwing-based games 1. 2.
3. 4. Circle Pass Circle Chase Bean Bag Song Scarf Toss Page 64 Lets Get Active Physical Literacy: Kicking-based games 1. Circle Kick Ball
2. Through the Goal 3. Clean UP Page 65 Lets Get Active Physical Literacy: Balance-based games 1. Bean Bag Balance 2. Down the Line 3. Body Part Balance Page 66
Practical Strategies for Getting Young Children Active: Challenges and Solutions Challenge 1: Some young children might not like to engage in structured physical activity because of the task of learning and abiding by rules. Strategies: Page 67 Practical Strategies for Getting Young Children Active: Challenges
and Solutions Challenge 2: Some young children may appear frustrated, cry or show a lack of interest during physical activity. Strategies: Page 68 Practical Strategies for Getting Young Children Active: Challenges and Solutions Challenge 3: Children like routine and like to know what to
expect in terms of timing, location of activities, etc. Strategies: Page 69 Practical Strategies for Getting Young Children Active: Challenges and Solutions Challenge 4: Some young children are shy or embarrassed to try a new skill or because they have had difficulty with a skill, game, etc. in the past.
Strategies: Page 70 Practical Strategies for Getting Young Children Active: Challenges and Solutions Challenge 5: There may be limited (real or perceived) time for scheduling a planned, dedicated time to be active in a pre-school/day care setting. Strategies:
Page 71 Practical Strategies for Getting Young Children Active: Challenges and Solutions Challenge 6: Your preschool has limited equipment and space for physical activity. Strategies: Page 72 Practical Strategies for Getting
Young Children Active: Challenges and Solutions Challenge 7: The parents of your kindergarteners need some encouragement to support their childrens physical activity. Strategies: Page 73 Practical Strategies for Getting Young Children Active: Challenges and Solutions Challenge 8:
In order to keep physical activity as an important part of your preschool curriculum, you determine that a policy is needed in case there is a change in leadership. Describe what would be included in your policy. Strategies: Page 74 Practical Strategies for Getting Young Children Active: Challenges and Solutions Challenge 9: You have found that the children are spending much of their
time at preschool being sedentary. Strategies: Page 75 Practical Strategies for Getting Young Children Active: Challenges and Solutions Challenge 10: Your preschool both indoors and outdoors is not physically supportive of physical activity. Strategies:
Page 76 Practical Strategies for Getting Young Children Active: Challenges and Solutions Challenge 11: The staff are committed to be more encouraging of their students to be physically active and less sedentary. Strategies: Page 77 Practical Strategies for Getting
Young Children Active: Challenges and Solutions Challenge 1: Some young children might not like to engage in structured physical activity because of the task of learning and abiding by rules. Strategies: Encourage and provide opportunities for free play or other unstructured forms of physical activity, such as dance. Limit the number of rules and instructions. Allow children to create their own games and make up
their own rules. Use positive instruction (e.g., walk vs. dont run). Provide different types of indoor and outdoor equipment to encourage active play. Ensure that equipment promotes gross motor skills and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Ensure opportunities to be active indoors exist for those intimidated by outdoor play. Page 78 Practical Strategies for Getting Young Children Active: Challenges and Solutions
Challenge 2: Some young children may appear frustrated, cry or show a lack of interest during physical activity. Strategies: Choose times to be active when children are well-fed, rested and alert. Be sure fluids are always available. Watch out for signs of fatigue during physical activity and end the activity before children start losing interest or stop having fun. Schedule physical activity for early in the day. Morning is often the best time for structured activity. Ensure children have sunscreen and are dressed appropriately for the weather (hot or cold).
Page 79 Practical Strategies for Getting Young Children Active: Challenges and Solutions Challenge 3: Children like routines and like to know what to expect in terms of timing, location of activities, etc. Strategies: Make physical activity part of a daily routine, just like lunch and nap time. This way, children will know to expect that it is time to learn a new skill, play, etc.
Expose children to different physical activity environments to help develop skills and strategies for adjusting to different situations. Take children for regular walks around the neighbourhood. Encourage parents to walk/cycle with their children to preschool/daycare. Page 80 Practical Strategies for Getting Young Children Active: Challenges and Solutions Challenge 4:
Some young children are shy or embarrassed to try a new skill or because they have had difficulty with a skill, game, etc. in the past. Strategies: Teach the skill in a different way or try a new activity that teaches the same skill. Use toys, rather than equipment to learn a new skill. Build children's self-confidence in physical activity by using praise, encouragement and positive feedback. Do not force a child to perform an activity. Children should never be singled out or embarrassed when being physically active. Allow children to choose the type of activity they are interested in. Be accepting of different body shapes and ability levels.
Use cooperative games that do not exclude anyone or ask anyone to sit out. Page 81 Practical Strategies for Getting Young Children Active: Challenges and Solutions Challenge 5: There may be limited (real or perceived) time for scheduling a planned, dedicated time to be active in a pre-school/day care setting. Strategies: Build physical activity into other aspects of the program. For example: Develop arts and crafts that require children to move around.
Encourage children to act out words/scenes in a story while reading a book. Incorporate physical activity into math lessons (e.g., 2+2 = 4 jumping jacks). While teaching the alphabet, encourage children to make the letters with their bodies. While teaching about animals, encourage children to move around the room like the animals they are learning about. Incorporate physical activity into circle time lessons. Encourage children to do movements common to the season while learning about days and months of the year (e.g., it is Dec. 20 encourage children to do 20 snow shovels or 20 big snow shoe steps). Page 82 Practical Strategies for Getting
Young Children Active: Challenges and Solutions Challenge 6: Your preschool has limited equipment and space for physical activity. Strategies: Host BYOB events: Bring Your Own Ball (and leave it for the school). Hold a sport/physical activity drive request items that are appropriate for young children (large balls, oversized equipment). Use household items to make your own equipment. The children can create some of these during arts and crafts time. Use pieces of paper as skates to skate around the room or school. Read books and have the children stand up and act out parts of the story.
Use outdoor elements as equipment (e.g. rocks, logs, dirt, etc.) Take advantage of nearby playgrounds, parks, sporting grounds, etc. Page 83 Practical Strategies for Getting Young Children Active: Challenges and Solutions Challenge 7: The parents of your kindergarteners need some encouragement to support their childrens physical activity. Strategies: Encourage parents to dress their children for active play and the seasonal
elements (rain, snow, cold, hot, sun, etc.). Run different events and challenges throughout the year that engage the parents. Encourage parents to walk/bike, etc. their children to school. Host a presentation about the value/importance of physical activity. Communicate messages regularly through newsletters, fact sheets, posters, websites, etc. about physical activity. Decorate the daycare/preschool with physical activity posters and other information so that they can see it is well integrated. Include physical activity in fund raising and other preschool events. Encourage parents to limit childrens inactive pastimes and provide tips that they can use to get their children more active. Page 84
Practical Strategies for Getting Young Children Active: Challenges and Solutions Challenge 8: In order to keep physical activity as an important part of your preschool curriculum, you determine that a policy is needed in case there is a change in leadership. Describe what would be included in your policy. Strategies: Awareness ensure that communications and activities take place to increase the awareness of parents, children, supply teachers, surrounding-area businesses and others about the
importance of physical activity. Build skills provide an environment in which physical activity skills and play are part of the daily routine. Supportive environments assess the indoor and outdoor physical environments and determine ways to support physical activity. Page 85 Practical Strategies for Getting Young Children Active: Challenges and Solutions Challenge 9: You have found that the children are spending much of their
time at preschool being sedentary. Strategies: Have a stand-up break at least once every hour. Incorporate physical activity into other curriculum. Have some circle time activities done standing up. Include music during certain times of the day and encourage the children to move around or dance to the music. Create stand-up desks (using crates, etc.). Page 86 Practical Strategies for Getting Young Children Active: Challenges
and Solutions Challenge 10: Your preschool both indoors and outdoors is not physically supportive of physical activity. Strategies: Ensure there are bike racks so that children can ride to school. Consider creating adventure playgrounds that challenge childrens skills and problem-solving abilities. Ensure equipment and spaces support children from other cultures and of all abilities. Ask the municipality to ensure sidewalks are cleared of snow on school route side walks to ensure children can walk to school.
Institute a physical activity in all seasons policy. Page 87 Practical Strategies for Getting Young Children Active: Challenges and Solutions Challenge 11: The staff are committed to be more encouraging of their students to be physically active and less sedentary. Strategies: Use positive reinforcement to encourage children to participate in activities Be role models and participate with the children.
Dress appropriately to be physically active. Ensure there are spaces/times for physical activity. Encourage, rather than discourage, children to move around when they feel they need to stand up and move around. Never use physical activity as a punishment. Do not take away physical activity away as a consequence of undesirable behaviour. Page 88 Personal Reflection Section 6 Resources
Page 90 Resources for More Information Active for Life http://activeforlife.com/ Alberta Centre for Active Living https://www.centre4activeliving.ca/
Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology http://www.csep.ca Sport for Life Society www.canadiansportforlife.ca Parachute http://www.parachutecanada.org/ ParticipACTION http://www.participaction.com/ Page 91 Resources for More Activities Rainbow Fun: A physical activity and healthy eati ng program for young children Greater Sudbury: Physical activity resource guide for childcare
centres Best Start: Have a ball together Mount Royal College: A Hop, Skip and a Jump: Enh ancing Physical Literacy LEAP BC: Hop Family Resource LEAP BC: Move Family Resource Ophea Resources: http:/teachingtools.ophea.net Opheas Early Learning Cards Easy-to-implement activities that support H&PE learning areas of the Full Day Kindergarten program Ophea Alphabet Yoga Cards Playful poses that teach children the basics of yoga while developing their physical literacy and language skills
Ophea 50 Fitness Activity Cards - On the spot, fitness moves that can be used on their own or added to existing activities and are perfect for use in limited space HANDS UP A three-part illustrated video series on health and physical literacy PlaySport - An educational website with many great activities designed to teach kids games by playing games! Page 93 Wrap-up
Questions? Sharing (resources, great ideas, success stories) Evaluation Thank you!
Contributors Dr. Jory Basso, BSc, Dip SIM, CSCS, DC Professor, Chiropractor Hybrid Health & Fitness Toronto Marie Brisson Bilingual Health Promotion Consultant Best Start Resource Centre at Health Nexus Janet Dawson, CPT, BSc. HE, MSc. Health Promoter Peterborough Community City Health Unit Chris Sherman, BHK, B.Ed. Public Health Educator,
Chatham-Kent Public Health Unit Lindsay Siple, BA, MHS candidate Health Promotion Consultant Best Start Resource Centre at Health Nexus
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