Chip-integrated visible-telecom entangled photon pair source for quantum

Chip-integrated visible-telecom entangled photon pair source for quantum

Chip-integrated visible-telecom entangled photon pair source for quantum communication X. Lu et al., Nat. Phys., Jan, 2019. doi:10.1038/s41567-018-0394-3 3 dB attenuation distance in single mode fiber 370 nm (Yb+ ion): 637 nm (NV-): 780 nm (Rb): 940 nm (QD): 1300 nm (O-band): 1550 nm (C-band): < 50 m 300 m 750 m 1.5 km 10 km 15 km Xiyuan Lu,1, 2 Qing Li,1, 2 Daron A. Westly,2 Gregory Moille,1, 2 Anshuman Singh,1, 2 Vikas Anant,3 and Kartik Srinivasan2 1 2

3 Nanophotonic frequency conversion Four-wave-mixing Bragg scattering Two pumps at w1 and w2 induce an effective grating in the nonlinearity => sets spectral translation range as (w2-w1) Q. Li et al., Nat. Photon. 10, 406-414 (2016) Air/SiO2 Cladding () SiNx ( SiO2 ( Si ( 2 Quantum frequency conversion (QFC) QFC of photon pair source Q. Li et al., under review QFC of quantum dot A. Singh et al., under review Both 980 nm intraband conversion Nontrivial for visible-telecom QFC

Pump noise, dispersion, pump laser etc. Visible Visible pump Visible input signal 3 Visible-telecom photon pair source Motivation: entanglement swapping Entangle remote quantum memories using visible-telecom entangled photon pair sources Most quantum memories are in the visible Visible photons have limited travel range in optical fibers Requirements 3 dB attenuation distance

Entanglement swapping by time measurement: M. Halder et al. Nat. Phys. 3, 692-696 (2007) (visible/telecom) inWide-band single mode fiber 370 nm (Yb+ ion): (MHz~GHz) < 50 m Narrow-linewidth 637 (NV>-):100) 300 m Purenm (CAR 780 nm(high (Rb):photon 750 Bright flux)m 940 nm (QD): 1.5 km Efficient (sub-mW power) 1300 nm (O-band): 10 km

Integrable (on-chip) 15 km 1550 nm (C-band): A review for photon source: M. D. Eisaman et al., Rev. Sci. Instr. 82, 071101 (2011) 4 Visible-telecom photon pair source PPLN/PPKTP & filtering/cavity PPLN/PPKTP J. Fekete et al., Phys. Rev. Lett.110, 220 502 (2013) C. Clausen et al., New J. Phys. 16, 093058 (2014) O. Slattery et al., Appl. Phys. B 121, 413419 (2015) D. Rielnder et al., New J. Phys. 18, 123 013 (2016)

Wide-band (visible/telecom) Broadband, external filtering/cavity Pure (CAR > 100) Bright (high photon flux) Power efficient (if cavity is used) Cavity ~ 1 meter, not integrable yet 5 Visible-telecom photon pair source PPLN/PPKTP & filtering/cavity PhC fiber J. Fekete et al., Phys. Rev. Lett.110, 220 502 (2013) C. Clausen et al., New J. Phys. 16, 093058 (2014) O. Slattery et al., Appl. Phys. B 121, 413419 (2015) D. Rielnder et al., New J. Phys. 18, 123 013 (2016)

PhC fiber C. Sller et al., Phys. Rev. A 81, 031 801 (2010) Wide-band (visible/telecom) Broadband, ~ 1nm CAR low, typical a few 10s Bright (high photon flux) fs laser pulse needed Length ~ 10 cm, already in fiber 6 Visible-telecom photon pair source PPLN/PPKTP & filtering/cavity LiNbO3 mm-resonator J. Fekete et al., Phys. Rev. Lett.110, 220 502 (2013) C. Clausen et al., New J. Phys. 16, 093058 (2014) O. Slattery et al., Appl. Phys. B 121, 413419 (2015) D. Rielnder et al., New J. Phys. 18, 123 013 (2016)

PhC fiber C. Sller et al., Phys. Rev. A 81, 031 801 (2010) Lithium Niobate mm-resonator G. Schunk et al., Optica 2, 773778 (2015) Wide-band (visible/telecom) Narrow-band (17 MHz) CAR low, < 20 Bright (high photon flux) Efficient (a few microwatt) Length ~ a few mm, not integrable yet 7 Visible-telecom photon pair source PPLN/PPKTP & filtering/cavity J. Fekete et al., Phys. Rev. Lett.110, 220 502 (2013) C. Clausen et al., New J. Phys. 16, 093058 (2014) O. Slattery et al., Appl. Phys. B 121, 413419 (2015)

D. Rielnder et al., New J. Phys. 18, 123 013 (2016) PhC fiber C. Sller et al., Phys. Rev. A 81, 031 801 (2010) LiNbO3 mm-resonator G. Schunk et al., Optica 2, 773778 (2015) PhC fiber Wide-band (visible/telecom) Broadband, need filtering/cavity CAR low, typical a few 10s Bright (high photon flux) High power pump/pulse needed Length ~ 10 cm No nanophotonic source for our intended applications yet! PPLN/PPKTP

LiNbO3 mm-resonator Wide-band (visible/telecom) Broadband, need filtering/cavity Pure (CAR > 100) Bright (high photon flux) Efficient (sub-mW power) Cavity ~ 1 meter, not integrable yet Wide-band (visible/telecom)

Narrow-band CAR low, typical a few 10s Bright (high photon flux) Efficient (sub-mW power) Length ~ a few mm, not integrable yet 8 Silicon nitride nanophotonics/photon pair source Review: D. J. Moss et al., Nat. Photon. 7, 597-607 (2013) Silicon nitride /silicon dioxide Many groups developing this platform Columbia: Lipson/Gaeta; Purdue: Qi/Weiner; EPFL: Kippenberg; Chalmers: Torres-Company, etc. Wide transparency window (300 nm to 6 mm) Large n2 (10x that of SiO2); ; . Silicon nitride nanophotonics Air/SiO2 Cladding () SiNx ( SiO2 ( Si ( Frequency comb T. J. Kippenberg, et al., Science, 332, 555 (2011)

Y. Okawachi et al., Opt. Lett. 36, 33983400 (2011) Q. Li et al, Optica 4, 193203 (2017) M. Karpov, Nat. Commun. 9,1146 (2018) D. T. Spencer et al., Nature, 557, 81-85 (2018) High dimensional frequency-bin M. Kues et al., Nature, 546, 622-626 (2017) P. Imany et al., Opt. Express, 26, 1825-1840 (2018) Harmonic generation, QFC etc. Q. Li et al., Nat. Photon. 10, 406-414 (2016) J. S. Levy et al., Opt. Express, 19, 11415-11421 (2011) Silicon nitride photon pair source S. Ramelow et al., arXiv:1508.04358 (2015) J. A. Jaramilllo-Villegas et al., IPRSN, IW3A.2 (2016) Limited to telecom band and inferior to Si Not very pure (CAR < 100) Q. Li et al., under review (980 nm Pair + QFC) Wide-band pair source surpassing Si! This CAR has room to improve! 9

Device scheme Single Fundamental Mode Family (SFMF) engineering Dispersion Coupling X. Lu et al., Nat. Phys., Jan, 2019. doi:10.1038/s41567-018-0394-3 10 Efficient four-wave mixing in a microresonator Whispering gallery mode w number frequency ( , , )= ( , ) Frequency-matching Interacting modes need to be frequency matched 2wp=wi + ws

Dispersion engineering so that overall mismatch is within a cavity linewidth Phase-matching For single mode family operation, interacting modes are phase matched when 2bp=bi + bs => 2mp=mi + ms Resonator enhancement High loaded Q for the three modes Mode overlap for the three modes Resonator-waveguide coupling Efficient injection of pump mode Efficient extraction of signal and idler mode Single fundamental mode family (TE1) Selective mode splitting | TE1 mode family 11 Selective mode splitting X. Lu et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 151104 (2014) Coherent geometric modulation to split and targeted only modes split targeted

only modes For example, the inside ring radius is modulated by The mode splitting is orthonormal and can be estimated by = (,2) 12 Selective mode splitting 13 Frequency-/Phase-matching, StFWM, and SpFWM mi = 163 mp = 303 ms = 443 ls = 668.3789 nm lp = 933.6211 nm li = 1547.8960 nm Phase-matching Choose modes with Frequency-matching Adjust geometry for Dw/2p = (0.16 0.04) GHz < 1 GHz Q = 1.52 x 105 Q = 1.04 x 106

Q = 1.93 x 105 StFWM Pump/telecom input, visible out SpFWM photon spectra ms = 443 ms = 444 Dw/2p = 3.86 GHz mi = 163 mi = 162 14 Pair flux and CAR, power dependence Photon pair characteristics Wide-band: Over an octave, 668/1548 nm Narrow-linewidth: < 1 GHz Pure (CAR > 100) Bright (high photon flux) Efficient (sub-mW power) Integrable (on-chip)

P(W) N(Pairs/s) CARW) N(Pairs/s) CAR 146 46 62000 4800 423 2200 ~22 1200 3780 15 Pair flux and CAR, a comparison Comparison Among the best for overall performance

considering both flux and CAR Record CAR = 3780 at ~N = 5 pairs/s Record N = 18400 pairs/s, with CAR = 27 The high flux regime is perhaps more useful! The first nanophotonic device for narrowband visible-telecom photon pair source A comparison to previous sources Detected pair flux versus CAR Power is not the most critical measure Visible-telecom photon pair source PPLN/PPKTP & filtering/cavity [12] J. Fekete et al., Phys. Rev. Lett.110, 220 502 (2013) [9] C. Clausen et al., New J. Phys. 16, 093058 (2014) [13] O. Slattery et al., Appl. Phys. B 121, 413419 (2015) [14] D. Rielnder et al., New J. Phys. 18, 123 013 (2016) PhC fiber [10] C. Sller et al., Phys. Rev. A 81, 031 801 (2010)

LiNbO3 mm-resonator [11] G. Schunk et al., Optica 2, 773778 (2015) 16 Visible-telecom time-energy entanglement 17 Tailoring the source for different systems Ability to tune the visible wavelength to match different systems by changing the parameters in the nanophotonic device Change the device ring width (colors) Change the pump mode (x-axis) Change the device thickness (635/740 nm plato, not shown here) 18 Future work Entanglement swapping between two pair sources Two sources identical at telecom photon spectrum

Connection to visible quantum memory (need collaboration) Photon pair source for Pr3+:YSO (606 nm) Photon pair source for NV- (637 nm) and SiV (737 nm) 19 Acknowledgements Qing Li Gregory Moille Postdoc Postdoc Prof. at CMU now Anshuman Singh Postdoc NIST on a chip Vikas Anant Photon Spot Daron Westly

Research scientist Kartik Srinivasan Project leader 20 21

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