Monica Gordon Pershey, Ed.D., CCC-SLP Associate Professor Cleveland

Monica Gordon Pershey, Ed.D., CCC-SLP Associate Professor Cleveland State University [email protected], [email protected] IMPLEMENTING RESEARCHBASED LANGUAGE & LITERACY INSTRUCTION & INTERVENTION: FOCUS ON VOCABULARY & COMPREHENSION Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All 1 Introduction Strategies for enhancing students abilities and

remediating deficits in vocabulary and comprehension will be addressed. Course participants will learn how to prepare students for mandated achievement testing in these areas. Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All 2 Learner Outcomes 1. Learners will describe how vocabulary and reading and listening comprehension are taught and assessed as curricular areas.

2. Learners will identify strategies for improving vocabulary and reading and listening comprehension. Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All 3 Curriculum, Instruction, and Assessment in Vocabulary Key issues: A STRONG VOCABULARY

INSTRUCTION BASED ON INTEGRATION, REPETITION, AND MEANINGFUL USE FORMATS FOR VOCABULARY STUDY: CONTEXTUAL USAGE AND ANALYSIS (CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT) AND STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS (WORD STUDY) TRANSFER APPLICATIONS FOR VOCABULARY STUDY WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All 4 Curriculum, Instruction, and Assessment in Vocabulary IMPACT OF VOCABULARY ON MANDATED

ACHIEVEMENT TESTING IMPLEMENTING EFFECTIVE VOCABULARY INSTRUCTION: FACT AND FALLACY STRATEGIES FOR TEACHING VOCABULARY BEFORE, DURING, AND AFTER READING ONGOING VOCABULARY ASSESSMENT Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All 5 Instruction Based on Integration, Repetition, and Meaningful Use VOCABULARY I NSTRUCTI ON: I S THERE ANYTHI NG NEW UNDER THE SUN?

NAGY, 1988 I NTEGRATI ON REPETI TI ON MEANI NGFUL USE Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All 6 A Strong Vocabulary Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All 7

Formats for Vocabulary Study Contextual Usage and Analysis Pertains to Meaning and Concept Development Structural Analysis of Words in the English Language Study Word Origins and Orthography Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All 8

Transfer Applications For Vocabulary Instruction Comprehension when listening and viewing, e.g., lecture note taking, read alouds, entertainments Reading comprehension during content area studying, eclectic reading Better speaking & writing: Academic, vocational, interpersonal Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All 9 What We Know About Vocabulary Development

We have different levels of word knowledge and usage: Words we know and use readily Words we know but dont often use Words we know in context and can define plainly Words we know in context but cant define Words we read but cant pronounce Words we say but cant read: true for young kids Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All 10 What We Know About Vocabulary Development Vocabulary is the #1 predictor of reading

comprehension Therefore, a text with too many unfamiliar words is incomprehensible Unknown words relate to topics, content, or concepts that challenge A reader need not know every word in a text to realize gist Up to 15% of words can be missed, depending on text clarity and readers purpose for reading The average 5th grader who reads 25 minutes a day will meet 20,000 new words per year - If s/he retains just 5%, s/he will learn 1,000 new words per year; Most kids learn 3,000 words per year with reading being the largest source of input; The best way to increase vocabulary is by reading widely Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All 11

Impact of Vocabulary on Mandated Achievement Testing 265 African American fourth and sixth graders from a district in academic emergency according to the Ohio Proficiency Test (OPT) 16 standardized subtests of oral, written, and reading vocabulary yielded corresponding findings: Word knowledge and word usage are stable and interrelated constructs in oral language and literacy 4th graders: Vocabulary can predict between 18% and 35% of the variance in OPT reading scores and 19% of the variance in OPT writing (p < .0001) 6th graders: Vocabulary can predict between 18-25% of the variance in OPT reading scores (p < .0001)

Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All 12 Impact of Vocabulary on Mandated Achievement Testing VOCABULARY TASKS THAT CORRELATE WITH OPT SCORES (p < .0001) CORRELATION TO OPT READING READ WORD, FIND SYNONYM 4TH .433 6TH .394 WRITE WORD IN SENTENCE

4TH .538 6TH .426 LISTENING: MATCH WORD TO PICTURE 6TH .398 ORAL SYNONYMS 4TH .591 6TH .458 ORAL DEFINITIONS 4TH .424 6TH .502

ORAL SUPER-ORDINATE 4TH .543 CORRELATION TO OPT WRITING READ WORD, FIND SYNONYM 4TH .436 ORAL ANTONYMS 4TH .450 Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All 13

Implementing Effective Vocabulary Instruction: Fact and Fallacy FALLACY: ALL VOCABULARY INSTRUCTION WILL INCREASE READING COMPREHENSION FALLACY: THE BEST WAY OF TEACHING VOCABULARY IS THE DEFINITIONAL APPROACH WHY NOT: A definition may not fit a context A definition seldom tells how a word is actually used A definition may not help form interconnections across words drawn from a text or unit of study A definition may not increase comprehension of word meaning and thus allow correct use of a word; it may be a weak instructional device Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All

14 Implementing Effective Vocabulary Instruction: Fact and Fallacy EXAMPLE: GIVEN THESE DEFINITIONS, PUT THE KEY WORD INTO A SENTENCE epiphenomenon: a phenomenon that occurs with and seems to result from another kern: to form or set (as a crop of fruit) squinch: a support (as an arch, lintel, or corbeling) carried across the corner of a room under a superimposed mass stirp: the sum of the determinants of whatever nature in a fertilized egg

Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All 15 Implementing Effective Vocabulary Instruction: Fact and Fallacy FALLACY: CONTEXT CUES ARE HELPFUL WHEN TEXT CONTENT IS FAMILIAR BUT OF LITTLE USE WITH UNKNOWN CONTENT EXAMPLE: Although Mary was very thin, her sister was obese. Is obese: a. normal b. fat

c. gracious d. unconcerned e. jealous CONTEXT MAY NOT GIVE ENOUGH INFORMATION OR MAY ALLOW FOR TOO MANY CHOICES TO BE POSSIBLE. CONTEXT MUST GUIDE INFERENCE Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All 16 Implementing Effective Vocabulary Instruction: Fact and Fallacy REAL TEXTS AND NATURAL CONTEXTS ARE NOT ALWAYS GOING TO TEACH THE DENOTATIVE

MEANING AND CONNOTATIVE USAGE OF A WORD EXAMPLE: Denotative meaning is given: cater: to act with special consideration Connotative meaning is lost when a student writes this sentence: The mayor catered when the corporate executives visited the city. Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All 17 Implementing Effective Vocabulary Instruction: Fact and Fallacy FACT: EFFECTIVE VOCABULARY INSTRUCTION

PROVIDES MULTIPLE CONTEXTS FOR LEARNING WORDS (BEFORE READING, DURING READING, AFTER READING) (REPETITION, DEPTH) FACT: DEFINITIONS NEED TO BE PAIRED WITH ILLUSTRATIONS OF HOW WORDS ARE ACTUALLY USED (MEANINGFUL USE, DEPTH) FACT: SUPPLEMENTAL INSTRUCTION ON COMMON INFERENCE PATTERNS IS HELPFUL SO THAT CONTEXTUAL REASONING IS ENHANCED (CONTRAST, CLASS, EXAMPLE, GENERALIZATION) Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All 18 Implementing Effective Vocabulary

Instruction: Fact and Fallacy FACT: EFFECTIVE VOCABULARY INSTRUCTION TEACHES THAT WORDS ARE LABELS FOR CONCEPTS; WHEN POSSIBLE, CONCEPTS ARE LIVED THROUGH BY DIRECT EXPERIENCE, SIMULATION OR DRAMATIZATION, DEMONSTRATION, MULTI-SENSORY EXPERIENCES (MEANINGFUL USE, DEPTH) FACT: EFFECTIVE VOCABULARY INSTRUCTION FEATURES WORDS THAT READERS ARE LIKELY TO ENCOUNTER OFTEN (REPETITION, INTEGRATION) FACT: EFFECTIVE VOCABULARY INSTRUCTION IS BOTH CONVERGENT AND DIVERGENT Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All

19 Implementing Effective Vocabulary Instruction: Fact and Fallacy FACT: EFFECTIVE VOCABULARY INSTRUCTION TEACHES USEFUL WORDS (MEANINGFUL USE) FACT: EFFECTIVE VOCABULARY INSTRUCTION TEACHES KEY WORDS FOR A TEXT OR UNIT OF STUDY (INTEGRATION, DEPTH, BREADTH) FACT: EFFECTIVE VOCABULARY INSTRUCTION TEACHES INTERESTING WORDS (PERSONAL MEANING, MELODIOUSNESS, UNIQUE ORIGINS, PIQUE CURIOSITY) (MEANINGFUL USE) FACT: EFFECTIVE VOCABULARY INSTRUCTION TEACHES VOCABULARY-BUILDING WORDS (IN RELATION TO STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS)

(INTEGRATION, REPETITION, BREADTH) Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All 20 Implementing Effective Vocabulary Instruction: Fact and Fallacy FACT: EFFECTIVE VOCABULARY INSTRUCTION TEACHES WORDS IN RELATION TO OTHER WORDS (IN RELATION TO STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS) (INTEGRATION, REPETITION) FACT: EFFECTIVE VOCABULARY INSTRUCTION TEACHES WORDS THAT RELATE TO STUDENTS BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE (INTEGRATION, REPETITION)

FACT: EFFECTIVE VOCABULARY INSTRUCTION TEACHES WORDS SYSTEMATICALLY AND IN DEPTH (IN RELATION TO STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS) (INTEGRATION, REPETITION) Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All 21 Integration Via Concept Development: Techniques For Interconnecting Ideas With Vocabulary Terms SEMANTIC MAPS OR WEBS PROCESS: COLLABORATIVE BRAINSTORM PURPOSE: RELATES A NEW CONCEPT TO PRIOR KNOWLEDGE

OUTCOME: ORGANIZES ASPECTS OF A CONCEPT INDUCTIVE (MIND MAP, LIST) OR DEDUCTIVE CLASSEXAMPLE RELATIONS; ATTRIBUTE RELATIONS CARRY OVER: ALLOWS FOR FURTHER STUDY OF THE CONCEPT Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All 22 Semantic Map or Web: Deductive Attribute Relations Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All 23

Semantic Map or Web: Deductive or Inductive Class-Example Relations Category Superordinate Example Subordinate Example Subordinate Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All Example

Subordinate 24 Semantic Map or Web: Deductive or Inductive Concept Hierarchy Map Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All 25 Semantic Map or Web: Deductive Venn Diagram Snow

Rain Sleet Concepts that require multiple comparisons to show similarities and differences among characteristics Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All 26 Semantic Map or Web: Inductive Prereading: Spot A Theme, Then Web: Listen To A Few Paragraphs of a Story Spot a Theme Web the Theme First Continue Reading

Add to the Web Example: Dog Years Prereading Web: Properties of a concept are described, then the concept is identified Have you ever had the feeling something is about to go wrong? (Premonition) Then web allied concepts and words Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All 27 Semantic Map or Web: Structural Analysis CONCEPTS THAT CAN BE JOINED TO SHOW MEANING, ORIGIN, OR STRUCTURAL

FEATURES CONCEPTUAL NETWORKS TO SHOW: SYNONYMY ANTONYMY uncover COMMON ROOTS COMMON AFFIXES unzip COMMON DERIVATIONS un- unbutton Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All

28 Semantic Map or Web: Conceptual Analysis CONCEPT NETWORKS CAN BE MAPPED TO SHOW EXCLUSION, FOR EXAMPLE, ITEMS THAT DO NOT BELONG IN A GROUP igloo zoo zoo teepee palace

Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All 29 Semantic Map or Web: Conceptual Analysis Via Semantic Feature Analysis EXAMPLE: SEMANTIC FEATURE ANALYSIS MANY TYPES Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All 30 Integration Via Concept Development: Techniques For Interconnecting Ideas

With Vocabulary Terms WORD SORTS PROCESS: COLLABORATIVE LEARNING PURPOSE: DETERMINE THE RELATIONSHIP OF WORDS WITHIN CATEGORIES AND BETWEEN CATEGORIES; SORT BY ELEMENTS OF MEANING OR OF WORD STRUCTURE OUTCOME: ORGANIZE ASPECTS OF RELATED CONCEPTS (SUPERORDINATES AND SUBORDINATES) CARRY OVER: ALLOWS FOR FURTHER STUDY OF CONCEPTS Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All 31

Word Sorts Two Main Types of Word Card Sorts Closed Sorts: Superordinate categories are given Place words in category Felines Cats Leopards Tigers Canines Collies Wolves

Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All Beagles 32 Word Sorts Two Main Types of Word Card Sorts Open Sorts: Superordinate categories are not given Group words and then determine a category heading Cats Leopards Tigers

Collies Wolves Beagles Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All 33 Word Sorts BEFORE READING ALLOWS FOR SCHEMA ACTIVATION, PREDICTION DURING READING ALLOWS FOR IN-DEPTH STUDY OF TERMS

AFTER READING - ALLOWS FOR CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT, WORD STUDY, DISCUSSION Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All 34 Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All 35 Integration Via Concept Development: Techniques For Interconnecting Ideas With Vocabulary Terms LINEAR ARRAYS (SEMANTIC GRADIENTS)

Arrange ideas by degree Students are given all items to arrange, or given some (first two or three; first and last) and asked to generate others HOTTEST scorching sunny balmy cool nippy raw freezing frigid COLDEST Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All

36 Integration Via Concept Development: Techniques For Interconnecting Ideas With Vocabulary Terms T-Chart Shows what a concept is and is not FREEDOM IS IS NOT Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All 37

Integration Via Concept Development: Techniques For Interconnecting Ideas With Vocabulary Terms CHOOSING TEXT VOCABULARY TO EMPHASIZE KEY OR IMPORTANT WORDS WHAT IS THE BEST WORD TO USE AMONG CHOICES? JUSTIFY YOUR CHOICE EXAMPLE: CASE HILL IS A BOY WHO IS ___ (LONESOME AGGRESSIVE CONTENT) WORDS THAT GUIDE A READER THROUGH A TEXT WHAT WORDS ILLUSTRATE THE KEY EVENTS IN A STORY? EXAMPLE: CONNECT TWO Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All

38 Connect Two Your Preparation Read the Story Pick out 6-12 Vocabulary Words that Sequence the Story Events Words the Story Hinges Upon Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All 39 Connect Two

Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All 40 Connect Two Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All 41 Connect Two Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All 42

Connect Two Your Session Schema Activation Discussion Preview Words or Not? Read the Text Words Are Reviewed One by One Key Points Are Revisited Look Back in Text to the Place Where Each Word Occurred Write a Sentence that Summarizes the Passage in which the Word Appeared Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All 43

Connect Two Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All 44 Connect Two Underlying Language Skills Vocabulary Comprehension of Story Main Ideas and Details Story Sequence Sentence Construction Text Look-Back Beginning, Middle, End Word Study More Difficult: Students Select All or Some Words;

Words on Cards Students Sequence onto Spokes Easier: Sentence Strips Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All 45 Studying Word Structure: Structural Activities EXAMPLES: STRUCTURES TO BE STUDIED (AS RELATING TO CONCEPTS UNDER STUDY) LATIN AND GREEK ROOTS ROOT OF THE WEEK AFFIX OF THE WEEK OR, SORT WORDS USED IN UNITS BY THEIR ORIGINS, ROOTS, AFFIXES, ESP.

TECHNICAL TERMS, ASSIMILATED PREFIXES accompany occur offer Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All 46 Studying Word Structure: Structural Activities SUFFIXATION THAT CHANGES PARTS OF SPEECH fear = verb; fearful = adj 3 COLUMNS: MAKE AS MANY WORDS AS YOU CAN PREFIX inimprecon-

ROOTS junc voc cept tract SUFFIXES -(t)(s)ion -ive -or -ive Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All 47

Studying Word Structure: Structural Activities Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All 48 Studying Word Structure: Structural Activities SEMANTIC SHIFT (WORDS WHOSE MEANINGS HAVE CHANGED) villain = farm labor guest

= enemy, stranger slim = crafty, crooked gay = happy Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All 49 Studying Word Structure:

Structural Activities THREE KINDS OF HOMONYMS HOMOPHONES (SOUND SAME, SPELLED DIFFERENTLY) bear, bare NON-HOMOPHONIC HOMOGRAPHS (HETERONYMS) preSENT, PRESent (SHIFTIES) HOMOPHONIC HOMOGRAPHS (MULTIPLE MEANING WORDS) root brand trip Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All 50

Studying Word Structure: Structural Activities COMMON WORD PAIRS spic & span vim & vigor WORDS PARTS THAT SIGNIFY NUMERATION milli, dec, mega, kilo, myria CREATE A PLAUSIBLE WORD FROM WORD PARTS astrocraft telewaves ONOMATOPOEIA (ECHOES) bang cuckoo sizzle hiss Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All 51 Studying Word Structure: Structural Activities

WORDS THAT HAVE ENTERED THE LANGUAGE BY USING OLD WORDS IN NEW WAYS: CHANGING PARTS OF SPEECH a network [n] became to network [v] NEW COMPOUNDS splashdown, hovercraft, wingspan COINAGES (TO NAME A PRODUCT Create your own products, like Luminous Lollipops) nylon, aspirin, kleenex, zipper, band-aid, vaseline Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All 52 Studying Word Structure:

Structural Activities ACRONYMS (TIP NAMES) SAID AS A WORD: UNICEF NASA SCUBA LASER SAID AS LETTERS: COD MC AUTANTONYMS (WORDS THAT MEAN OPPOSITES) cleave = separate, unite trim = take off, add on dress = take off, add on Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All 53

Studying Word Structure: Structural Activities PORTMANTEAU WORDS twirl = twist + whirl brunch = breakfast + lunch CLIPPING (SHORTENING WORDS) omnibus: bus telephone: phone EUPHEMISMS Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All 54

Studying Word Structure: Structural Activities WORDS FROM OTHER LANGUAGES CHINESE - tea PERSIAN - shawl GERMAN - kindergarten POLYNESIAN - tattoo Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All 55 Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All 56

Curriculum, Instruction, and Assessment in Comprehension Comprehension is Functionally Dependent Upon.. Memory Incoming Information is Stored in Working Memory Relevant Background Knowledge is Retrieved from Long Term Memory Implied in Remembering is Verbal Organization Organization is Dependent upon Verbal Reasoning Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All 57 Curriculum, Instruction, and Assessment in Comprehension

Material That Is Decoded or Heard Cannot Be Too Quickly Forgotten Forgetting Disrupts Organization Memory is Functionally Dependent Upon .. Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All 58 Memory Cognitive-linguistic capabilities that impact upon comprehension: Material that is decoded or heard cannot be quickly forgotten

Information must be stored and relevant background knowledge must be activated; memory is both storage and activation Intervention strategies to enhance this area of cognitivelinguistic skill: Activate concentration Lesson uses a few key words Redundancy Collect words Visual or multisensory experiences Decodable or leveled texts free up cognitive resources for comprehending and remembering

Eliminate extraneous demands and distractions Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All 59 Word Collection Strategies Notebooks, Card Files, Rolodexes, Postings on Walls or Charts Their Word Note Take Their Ideas

My Ideas Note Make Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All Word Meaning Vocabulary 60 Word Collection Strategies Notebooks, Card Files, Rolodexes, Postings on Walls or Charts Word

Clues Definition Word My Meaning Definition Word Trouble Spot Definition

Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All 61 Memory INTEGRATION of words with the main ideas of the story and relationships among ideas REPETITION of key words and concepts MEANINGFUL USE in discussion and activities and assignments CONTEXTUAL USAGE AND ANALYSIS of how words are used in text MEANING AND CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT connecting the new to the known

Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All 62 Memory How Memory Influences Comprehension: Retention of Semantic Information Word Finding Strategies: Use External Tools Fund of Information Vocabulary Depth Deeper Knowledge is Memorized More Assuredly Fluent Flow of Input Access Text Information Automatically, Process Information Easily, Store Information Relevantly Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All

63 Memory Memory and Reading Fluency Phrasing of Phrases, Sentences, Larger Units of Text Anticipation of What Might Come Next in Text Self-Correction of Miscues Reread Text to Gain Speed, Accuracy, Expression Automatic, Comprehending Reading Text Pattern Repetition is Integral Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All 64

Memory Orthographic Representations of Whole Words and Letter Patterns Ready Access to Word Attack Strategies Searching for Base Words and Affixes Choosing Among Known Patterns: O-U-R is Hour, Or, Are, Er Etc. Identical Patterns Can Be Pronounced a Variety of Ways F-L-O-W in Flower F-L-O-W in Flowed Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All 65

Memory Prosodic Features Intonation Guided by Punctuation Syllable Stress in Words Word Stress in Sentences and Sentence Prasing Phrasing for Flow Across Multi-Sentence Text Passages Oral Reading Sounds Like Spoken Language Do Not Read Word by Word Anticipation of Whats Next Applies to Prosody Chunk and Phrase Text (The Chunking Machine) Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All 66 Hook, P.E., & Jones, S. D.(2002, Winter). The importance of automaticity and fluency for efficient comprehension.

International Dyslexia Association: Perspectives. Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All 67 Memory Curricular Tasks for Reading Fluency Identical Pronunciation Patterns Can Be Spelled in a Variety of Ways (All of the ways to make long a) Poetry Reading and Writing Dramatic Interpretation of Text Staged Readings or Class Plays Language Experience Stories Scribe Childrens Dictated Stories

Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All 68 Domain Knowledge Cognitive-linguistic capabilities that impact upon comprehension: At school, learners must learn concepts that are decontextualized from daily life Domain knowledge helps learners recognize and summarize main ideas, locate context clues, self-monitor for

comprehension breakdowns, organize and integrate new information, seek additional information from outside sources Intervention strategies to enhance this area of cognitivelinguistic skill: Thematic Units where reasoning is contextualized Relate academic concepts to daily life Repetition and redundancy Activate domain knowledge with videos, photos, websites, multisensory, lived-through

experiences, engaging picture books before reading textbooks Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All 69 Domain Knowledge Word Sorts Before Reading Builds Questioning, Activates Prior Knowledge After Reading Reinforces Concepts and Ideas Closed - Category Headings Provided Open - No Category Headings Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All

70 Domain Knowledge Anticipation Guides Provoke a Position Prior to Reading Answer Yes or No Do You Agree or Disagree? Why? Human Beings Have a Right to Kill Animals Children Must Never Disobey Adults A Pet is a Persons Possession (Shiloh, Phyllis Reynolds Naylor) Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All 71 Explaining Cognitive-linguistic

capabilities that impact upon comprehension: Difficulty displaying ones reasoning in a verbally organized way bogs down ones own comprehension and makes it hard for an evaluator to gauge a learners comprehension Intervention strategies to enhance this area of cognitive-linguistic skill: Explanations can be scaffolded by Frames Causal Events Frame

WHEN ___ HAPPENED, THE CHARACTER FELT ___. THIS WAS BECAUSE ___. List or Enumeration Frame Analogy or Example Frame Procedure or Process Frame Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All 72 Explaining It is easier to explain ideas, concepts, or events that cohere to ones world view it is easier to explain what

we view subjectively than what we must view objectively Sequence or Temporal Frames Timelines Problem-Solution Frame Plot Patterns: Most Fiction has three plot elements: 1 SOMEBODY WANTED_________ 2 BUT ____________ 3 SO _____________ Comparison Frames

Frame Using Definitions Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All 73 Explaining In Order to Explain.. Underlying Skills in Comprehension and Production of Narrative Action Words Mental State Words Causality Temporal Concepts Antecedents and Consequences

Story Sequence Story Main Ideas and DetailsText Vocabulary Beginning, Middle, End Text Look-Back Sentence Construction Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All 74 Explaining MATCHING WORDS TO STORY GRAMMAR LOOK AT THE FOLLOWING WORDS. TELL

WHICH WORDS THE AUTHOR USED TO DESCRIBE THE STORY ELEMENTS WORRIED UNSAFE IN THE COUNTRY EARNED MONEY CHARACTERS: WORRIED SETTING: IN THE COUNTRY PROBLEM: UNSAFE SOLUTION: EARNED MONEY Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All 75

Explaining EXTENDED RESPONSE EXAMPLE: THINK SHEET WRITING THAT IS DERIVED FROM KNOWLEDGE OF A KEY TERM/CONCEPT Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All 76 Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All 77 Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All

78 Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All 79 Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All 80 Explaining Frequent Contact game List 3 persons or characters Marty

Shiloh Mother Decide who is most likely to come into contact with these items. money fence broom (List should be as long as is wieldy for learners.) Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All 81

Boundaries Cognitive-linguistic capabilities that impact upon comprehension: What something is or is not Constraints upon a concept What to include and exclude within a concept Static properties vs variable properties Anomalous features Intervention strategies to enhance this area of cognitive-linguistic skill: T charts

Visuals that show separation of properties Venn diagrams Concept webs Allow concepts to make sense and not become nonsensical just to show a comparison (e.g., a mammal is not an amphibian because_____, not a mammal is not a pizza because_____) Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All 82

Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All 83 Resonance Cognitive-linguistic capabilities that impact upon comprehension: It is easier to comprehend concepts are important and of utility Resonance means that ideas ring true to the learner When an idea resonates,

we feel we are better for having become acquainted with this idea or for having learned something Intervention strategies to enhance this area of cognitive-linguistic skill: Learners need dynamic activity lived-through experiences such as dramatization, song, art projects Extend text meaning by relating text concepts and

events to personal meaning Has this happened to you? What does this mean to you? Have you ever felt this way? Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All 84 Resonance Character journals: book Write a diary or letter in the voice of the character (for example, the character is remembering what happened in the story)

Character conversations (dialogues between characters, with each telling what happened in the story) Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All 85 Resonance STUDENTS PARTICIPATE IN SELECTING WORDS FOR STUDY STUDENTS DISCUSS THE NATURE AND CONTENT OF VOCABULARY ASSESSMENTS WHAT YOU ARE ASKING THEM TO REMEMBER, HOW, AND WHY INTEGRATION AND MEANINGFUL USE VIA VARIED READING AND WRITING OPPORTUNITIES LOTS OF FUN WAYS TO USE THE LANGUAGE OF THE TEXT

REPETITION VIA REVISITING TEXT PEER REVIEWING/EDITING OF STUDENT TEXT SHARING RESPONSES TO TEXT IN A VARIETY OF FORMATS Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All 86 Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All 87 Goal Setting Cognitive-linguistic capabilities that impact

upon comprehension: Intervention strategies to enhance this area of cognitive-linguistic skill: Learner sets him/herself up for gaining understanding, gaining information, enjoyment, mastery, or the chance to engage in subsequent dynamic activity Pre-reading journaling: I want to read this book because _____.

Learners stop and reassess what is going on if they are not meeting their goals List of terms commonly used in a text, on state assessments, or in a learning context goal is to learn these terms Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All 88 Goal Setting

Intervention strategies to enhance this area of cognitive-linguistic skill: Pre-reading study guide points to look for when reading, skim text prior to reading to alert reader to these points Setting questions before reading Predicting what text will be about, then confirming or disconfirming predictions KWL What do I know about this topic, what do I want to know, and, after reading, what have I learned? Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All 89 Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All

90 Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All 91 Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All 92 Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All 93 Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All

94 Higher Level Thinking Cognitive-linguistic capabilities that impact upon comprehension: Intervention strategies to enhance this area of cognitive-linguistic skill: 3 Levels of Questions Inference On the Lines Factual Deduction/induction

questions--Answers can Plausibility be found in the text Evaluation, judgment Between the Lines The Non-literal meanings answer is not explicitly stated in the text but can Indirect messages be figured out Non-linear presentations completely from reading Hypothesizing, problem posing the text Beyond the Lines Changing point of view

Requires judgment or personalization of text Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All 95 Higher Level Thinking Cognitive-linguistic Intervention strategies to capabilities that impact enhance this area of upon comprehension: cognitive-linguistic skill: Apply principles/concepts QAR: QUESTION-ANSWER RELATIONSHIP

4 kinds of questions Synthesis/relationships Right There (in the text) between texts Think and Search (found throughout the text) Between You and the Author (why do you think something occurred or was told to the reader in a certain way) Invent/design/develop/ On Your Own (requires create ideas and texts judgment or personalization) Translate/represent ideas

CONNECTIONS: Text-to-Self, differently Text-to-World, Text-to-Text Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All 96 Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All 97 Literate Language Compared to oral language, text uses more difficult words, more

elaborate syntax, more figurative language, less redundancy, and no paralanguage Much of literate language is the vocabulary of text Certain words, phrases and sentences are seldom used aloud but are use often in text Teach how books talk, which is different from how people talk at the word and sentence levels Two-column chart: How the

book says it, how we say it Skim for text features, headings, chapter titles, captions discuss what these sections might say Use text conventions, such as dialogue, to anticipate meaning and aid comprehension Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All 98 Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All 99

Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All 100 Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All 101 Selected Sources Reutzel, D. R., & Cooter, R.B. (2003). (2nd ed.). Strategies for reading assessment and instruction: Helping every child succeed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice Hall. Sheron Brown, All Sorts of Sorts (3 volumes, amazon.com)

Allen, J. (2000). Yellow brick roads. Portland, ME: Stenhouse. http://www.literacy.uconn.edu/index.htm Gordon Pershey '05 Literacy For All 102

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