PLANT NUTRITION AND TRANSPORT The cellular and tissue

PLANT NUTRITION AND TRANSPORT The cellular and tissue

PLANT NUTRITION AND TRANSPORT The cellular and tissue structure of a dicotyledenous leaf. Cuticle is a waxy layer which reduces water loss through the upper epidermis. Epidermis. The upper and lower surfaces of leaf are covered by upper and lower epidermis respectively. Upper epidermis: Upper epidermis is a flattened layer of cell that forms the surface of the leaf and makes the cuticle. It consists of a single layer of closely fitted cells without

chloroplasts. The stomata are usually absent. cuticle vein xylem phloem LEAF ANATOMY upper epidermis palisade mesophyll spongy mesophyll

lower epidermis one stoma Lower epidermis: It is provided with pore called stomata which are guarded by kidney shaped guard cells. The guard cells contain chloroplasts. The stomatal pores open to facilitate gaseous exchange. As a result transipiration also occur. Palisade Layer: This is the main photosynthetic region of the leaf. The cells contain numerous chloroplasts and are mainly photosynthetic in function.

DERMAL TISSUE SYSTEM cuticle waxy no cells protection prevents H2O loss epidermis single cell layer protection stomata (opening) gas exchange surrounded by guard cells

open & close to prevent H2O loss Spongy mesophyll: contains spaces that allows the movement of gases and water through the leaf tissue. They have less chloroplasts. Vascular bundle: contains the transport system and vascular tissue (x-xylem, pphloem). ) Phloem transports the products of photosynthesis (sugars, amino acids). Xylem transports water and minerals into the leaf tissue from the stem and roots. Photosynthesis Anabolic (small molecules combined)

Endergonic (stores energy) Carbon dioxide (CO2) requiring process that uses light energy (photons) and water (H2O) to produce organic macromolecules (glucose). SUN photons glucose 8 Focusing on the location of photosynthesis in a plant Transpiration

The process of transpiration A leaf section The loss of water vapour from the surfaces of plants due to evaporation. 1) Water on the surface of the mesophyll cells evaporates into the air space. 10

How is water lost in transpiration? All organisms lose water all the time. In plants: through transpiration H2O H2O H2O 11 The water lost must be quickly replaced. by absorption from soil in the roots H2O

H2O 12 Transpiration stream Water enters the large surface area of the root hair cell. Water moves from the root cell Water moves through the stem in the xylem( this is lignified so that it is waterproof.) Water arrives at the leaf and enters

the palisade cell for photosynthesis As the leaf is warmed by light some of the water evaporates through the stomata if they are open Absorption of water in roots 1 Water moves into the root hairs by osmosis. Absorption of water in roots 2a Water moves into the neighbouring cortex cells by osmosis.

it moves inwards from cell to cell Absorption of water in roots 2b Some water moves along the cell wall. Absorption of water in roots xylem vessel in the stem 3 Water is drawn up the xylem

vessel by transpiration pull. Absorption of water in roots 4 Water evaporates from the leaf cells and diffuses out through the stomata as water vapour. water vapour Transpiration is fast on a dry windy and hot day as the water particles have a lot of kinetic energy . They are more likely to evaporate and escapes through the open

stomata of the leaf. d l o c , d i m u h a n o

r e w o l s s i n o i t r a e

t a w e h t Transpir s a y d n i w t

y o e n h s i T t . y a g h t

r e y n e da c i t e n i k s s

e l e e p v a a c h s s e e l

d c n i a s part e t a r o p a v

e o t y l e k i l are less . a t a m

o t s n e p o e h t h throug Did you ever wonder: How does water move from roots to leaves

when a tree doesnt have a heart to pump the water? CohesionAdhesion Theory -As water evaporates from leaves, it tugs on the water molecules below -Cohesion and adhesion pull water up and replace missing water molecules -Water enters the roots by osmosis www.emc.maricopa.edu/.../BioBookPLANTHORM.html The creation of transpiration pull

A leaf section 1) Water is lost from the permeable cell wall, which is replaced by water in the cell. Each cell then draws water from its neighbouring cells. 21 The creation of transpiration pull A leaf section 2)

Cells draw water from the xylem vessels, pulling water up the plant. transpiration pull is created Transpiration pull is the suctional force generated by transpiration. 22 Cohesion Cohesion is the property of water that causes it to be attracted to itself.

http://www.realeyz.com/photo/macro/photos/leaf_drops.jpg Adhesion Attraction between molecules of different substances Ex: glass and water Capillarity Water molecules will tow each other along when in a thin glass tube. http://staff.um.edu.mt/rlib1/sm/wpe32.jpg hydrogen bonding Water will make

hydrogen bonds with other surfaces such as glass, soil, plant tissues, and cotton. Importance of transpiration 1) produces a cooling effect in the plant and helps leaves withstand high temperatures 2) helps in the absorption of water and minerals from the soil

3) causes the transport of water and minerals in plants > 90% of the total water loss from stomata 27 A leaf section Water vapour diffuses through the stomata to the outside. 28

The guard cells control the opening and closing of the stomata Guard cells flaccid Guard cells turgid Thin outer wall Thick inner wall Stoma closed Stoma open 29 Distribution of stomata on leaves in terrestrial

and aquatic plants Terrestrial dicotyledonous plants more stomata in the lower epidermis than the upper epidermis fewer stomata in the upper epidermis: reduce water loss Distribution of stomata on leaves in terrestrial and aquatic plants Submerged leaves of aquatic plants no cuticle

gases, water and minerals diffuse directly all over their surface few or no stomata in the upper and lower epidermis Distribution of stomata on leaves in terrestrial and aquatic plants Floating leaves of aquatic plants have stomata in the upper epidermis only no stomata in the lower epidermis

Distribution of stomata on leaves in terrestrial and aquatic plants Plant species Number of stomata per cm2 Upper epidermis Lower epidermis 0 1 200 14 100 13 000

0 0 9 500 0 Terrestrial dicotyledons Apple Tomato Submerged leaves of aquatic plants

Hydrilla Floating leaves of aquatic plants Water lily very small amount of water lost through cuticle 35 4 Environmental Factors Affecting Transpiration 1. Humidity:- The lower the humidity outside the leaf the faster the rate of transpiration. 2. Air Movement:- increase air movement increases the rate of transpiration. 3. Temperature:- increase in temperature increases the rate of transpiration.

4. Light intensity :- greater light intensity increases the rate of transpiration because it causes the stomata to open, so increasing evaporation through the stomata. 36 Intrinsic Factors Affecting the Rate of Transpiration. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Leaf surface area

Thickness of epidermis and cuticle Stomatal frequency Stomatal size Stomatal position 37 Effects of the environmental factors on the rate of transpiration 1Light intensity rate of transpiration

light intensity light intensity, the stomata open wider more water vapour in the air space can diffuse out rate of transpiration Effects of the environmental factors on the rate of transpiration 2Temperature rate of transpiration

temperature (1) rate of evaporation and rate of diffusion of water vapour out of stomata (2) relative humidity temperature rate of transpiration Effects of the environmental factors on the rate of transpiration

3 Humidity rate of transpiration humidity Humidity the concentration gradient of water vapour between the air space and the atmosphere. less water vapour diffuse out through stomata rate of transpiration

Effects of the environmental factors on the rate of transpiration 4Air movement rate of transpiration wind velocity air movement the concentration gradient of water vapour between the leaf and the drier air outside

rate of diffusion rate of transpiration 41 Sally has bought a bunch of coloured flowers. Have you seen artificially coloured flowers before? 42 Sally has bought a bunch of coloured flowers. How are flowers artificially made? 43

You can make coloured flowers by putting white flowers, e.g. carnations, into a solution of food colouring. The solution is absorbed and transported to the petals so that they turn to the colour of the food colouring after several days. 44 How are water, minerals and organic nutrients transported inside plants? Transport in flowering plants is provided by the vascular tissues. This is driven by Transpirational pull. xylem

phloem 45 How are water, minerals and organic nutrients transported inside plants? leaf vein LEAF mid-rib vein xylem phloem

46 Xylem 47 Summary Summary for for the the transport transport of of water, water, minerals minerals and

and organic organic nutrients nutrients in in aa plant plant Transport of water and minerals 1 Water and minerals are absorbed into the roots. 48

Summary Summary for for the the transport transport of of water, water, minerals minerals and and organic organic nutrients nutrients in in aa plant plant Transport of water

and minerals 2 Water and minerals move up to other parts of the plant. 49 Summary Summary for for the the transport transport of of water, water, minerals

minerals and and organic organic nutrients nutrients in in aa plant plant Transport of water and minerals 3a Water and minerals are used for metabolism. 50

Summary Summary for for the the transport transport of of water, water, minerals minerals and and organic organic nutrients nutrients in in aa plant plant

Transport of water and minerals 3b Water is lost in transpiration. 51 Transport of organic nutrients Organic nutrients are transported in phloem in 2 ways. up or down to the growing points for development down to the roots or other storage organs

The process is called translocation 52 Summary Summary for for the the transport transport of of water, water, minerals minerals and and organic organic nutrients nutrients in

in aa plant plant Transport of organic nutrients 1 Organic nutrients are made in photosynthesis. 53 Summary

Summary for for the the transport transport of of water, water, minerals minerals and and organic organic nutrients nutrients in in aa plant plant Transport of organic nutrients

2a Organic nutrients move down to growing fruit and roots for storage. 54 Transport of water, minerals and organic matter in plants. Phloem moves sugar and water it always moves it from the source to the sink (from an area where it is produced (high conc.) to an area where it is consumed (low conc.))

Summary concept diagram transpiration creates affected by transpiration pull light intensity temperature relative humidity

air movement 56 Summary concept diagram Plants transport takes place in vascular tissues consist of xylem phloem

mainly consists of xylem vessels transport water transports organic nutrients minerals 57

Factors affecting photosynthesis Temperature Light intensity Carbon dioxide concentration Limiting factors If any of the factors is less than its optimum level it can slow down or limit the rate of a reaction. This is the factor on which the rate of the reaction then depends and it is called the limiting factor. Example:

Try answering 1. A burning fossil fuel can both help and hinder photosynthesis. Explain this statement. 2. What limiting factor is likely to affect photosynthesis: A) On a cloudy spring day B)on a bright sunny day in winter C) in the middle of a crop field on a sunny, warm july day?

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