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SI SESSION AUGUST 1, 2017 CHAPTER 11, 44, 45 CATEGORIZE CHEMICAL SIGNALS IN TERMS OF THE PROXIMITY OF THE COMMUNICATING CELLS. Which of the following is characterized by a cell releasing a signal molecule into the environment, followed by a number of cells in the immediate vicinity responding? A) hormonal signaling B) autocrine signaling C) paracrine signaling D) endocrine signaling E) synaptic signaling

Answer: C REVIEW THE THREE MAJOR STEPS OF A SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAY AND THE DIFFERENT PARTS INVOLVED IN EACH STEP. When a neuron responds to a particular neurotransmitter by opening gated ion channels, the neurotransmitter is serving as which part of the signal pathway? A) receptor B) relay molecule C) transducer D) signal molecule E) endocrine molecule

Answer: D COMPARE AND CONTRAST G- PROTEIN LINKED RECEPTORS, TYROSINE-KINASE RECEPTORS, AND LIGAND GATED ION CHANNELS. Which of the following is true for the signaling system in an animal cell that lacks the ability to produce GTP? A) It would not be able to activate and inactivate the G protein on the cytoplasmic side of the plasma membrane. B) It could activate only the epinephrine system. C) It would be able to carry out reception and transduction but would not be able to respond to a signal. D) It would use ATP instead of GTP to activate and inactivate the G protein on the cytoplasmic side of the plasma membrane.

E) It would employ a transduction pathway directly from an external messenger. Answer: A COMPARE AND CONTRAST G- PROTEIN LINKED RECEPTORS, TYROSINE-KINASE RECEPTORS, AND LIGAND GATED ION CHANNELS. One of the major categories of receptors in the plasma membrane reacts by forming dimers, adding phosphate groups, and then activating relay proteins. Which type does this? A) G protein-coupled receptors B) ligand-gated ion channels C) steroid receptors D) receptor tyrosine kinases

Answer: D COMPARE AND CONTRAST G- PROTEIN LINKED RECEPTORS, TYROSINE-KINASE RECEPTORS, AND LIGAND GATED ION CHANNELS. Which of the following would be inhibited by a drug that specifically blocks the addition of phosphate groups to proteins? A) G protein-coupled receptor signaling B) ligand-gated ion channel signaling C) adenylyl cyclase activity D) phosphatase activity E) receptor tyrosine kinase activity

Answer: E REVIEW HOW INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING WORKS AND WHAT KIND OF SIGNALING MOLECULES USE INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING. Testosterone functions inside a cell by A) acting as a signal receptor that activates tyrosine kinases. B) binding with a receptor protein that enters the nucleus and activates specific genes. C) acting as a steroid signal receptor that activates ion channel proteins. D) becoming a second messenger that inhibits adenylyl cyclase. E) coordinating a phosphorylation cascade that increases spermatogenesis.

Answer: B KNOW HOW GROWTH FACTORS WORK AND HOW THEY PROMOTE TRANSCRIPTION. The receptors for a group of signaling molecules known as growth factors are oft A) ligand-gated ion channels. B) G protein-coupled receptors. C) cyclic AMP. D) receptor tyrosine kinases. E) neurotransmitters. Answer: D

COMPARE AND CONTRAST THE SECOND MESSENGERS, CAMP AND INOSITOL TRIPHOSPHATE, AND HOW THEY ARE FORMED. An inhibitor of phosphodiesterase activity would have which of the following effect A) block the response of epinephrine B) decrease the amount of cAMP in the cytoplasm C) block the activation of G proteins in response to epinephrine binding to its recept D) prolong the effect of epinephrine by maintaining elevated cAMP levels in the cytoplasm E) block the activation of protein kinase A

Answer: D COMPARE AND CONTRAST THE SECOND MESSENGERS, CAMP AND INOSITOL TRIPHOSPHATE, AND HOW THEY ARE FORMED. Adenylyl cyclase has the opposite effect of which of the following? A) protein kinase B) protein phosphatase C) phosphodiesterase D) phosphorylase E) GTPase

Answer: C COMPARE AND CONTRAST THE SECOND MESSENGERS, CAMP AND INOSITOL TRIPHOSPHATE, AND HOW THEY ARE FORMED. Consider this pathway: epinephrine G protein-coupled receptor G protein adenylyl cyclase cAMP. Identify the second messenger. A) cAMP B) G protein C) GTP D) adenylyl cyclase E) G protein-coupled receptor Answer: A

WHAT IS THE ROLE OF AMPLIFICATION AND PHOSPHORYLATION IN CELL Which of the following is the best explanation for the fact that most COMMUNICATION? transduction pathways have multiple steps? A) Most of the steps were already in place because they are steps in other pathways. B) Multiple steps in a pathway require the least amount of ATP. C) Multiple steps provide for greater possible amplification of a signal. D) Each individual step can remove excess phosphate groups from the

cytoplasm. E) Each step can be activated by several G proteins simultaneously. Answer: C WHAT IS THE ROLE OF AMPLIFICATION AND PHOSPHORYLATION IN CELL COMMUNICATION? Phosphorylation cascades involving a series of protein kinases are useful for cellular signal transduction because A) they are species specific. B) they always lead to the same cellular response. C) they amplify the original signal many fold. D) they counter the harmful effects of phosphatases.

E) the number of molecules used is small and fixed. Answer: C DESCRIBE HOW TARGET CELLS DISCRIMINATE AMONG SIGNALS AND HOW THE SAME SIGNAL CAN ELICIT MULTIPLE At puberty, an CELLULAR adolescent female body changes in both structure and RESPONSES. function of several organ systems, primarily under the influence of changing concentrations of estrogens and other steroid hormones. How can one hormone, such as estrogen, mediate so many effects?

A) Estrogen is produced in very large concentration and therefore diffuses widely. B) Estrogen has specific receptors inside several cell types, but each cell responds in the same way to its binding. C) Estrogen is kept away from the surface of any cells not able to bind it at the surface. D) Estrogen binds to specific receptors inside many kinds of cells, each of which have different responses to its binding. E) The subcomponents of estrogen, when metabolized, can influence UNDERSTAND APOPTOSIS. Which of the following describes the events of apoptosis? A) The cell dies, it is lysed, its organelles are phagocytized, and its contents are

recycled. B) Its DNA and organelles become fragmented, it dies, and it is phagocytized. C) The cell dies and the presence of its fragmented contents stimulates nearby cells to divide. D) Its DNA and organelles are fragmented, the cell shrinks and forms blebs, and the cell self-digests. E) Its nucleus and organelles are lysed, then the cell enlarges and bursts. Answer: D UNDERSTAND APOPTOSIS. Why is apoptosis potentially threatening to the healthy "neighbors" of a dying cell? A) Cell death would usually spread from one cell to the next via paracrine

signals. B) Lysosomal enzymes exiting the dying cell would damage surrounding cells. C) Released cellular energy would interfere with the neighbors' energy budget. D) Bits of membrane from the dying cell could merge with neighbors and bring in foreign receptors. E) Neighboring cells would activate immunological responses. Answer: B UNDERSTAND APOPTOSIS. Apoptosis involves all but which of the following? A) fragmentation of the DNA B) cell-signaling pathways C) activation of cellular enzymes

D) lysis of the cell E) digestion of cellular contents by scavenger cells Answer: D MISC. CHAPTER 11 QUESTION Which of the following is a correct association? A) kinase activity and the addition of a tyrosine B) phosphodiesterase activity and the removal of phosphate groups C) GTPase activity and hydrolysis of GTP to GDP D) phosphorylase activity and the catabolism of glucose E) adenylyl cyclase activity and the conversion of cAMP to AMP Answer: C

CHAPTER 45 WARM UP All hormones A) are produced by endocrine glands. B) are lipid-soluble molecules. C) are carried to target cells in the blood. D) are protein molecules. E) elicit the same biological response from all of their target cells. Answer: C CHAPTER 45 WARM UP Which of the following statements about hormones is incorrect? A) They are produced by endocrine glands. B) They are modified amino acids, peptides, or steroid molecules.

C) They are carried by the circulatory system. D) They are used to communicate between different organisms. E) They elicit specific biological responses from target cells. Answer: D EXPLAIN HOW TO ACCOUNT FOR SPECIFICITY IN TARGET CELL RESPONSE TO HORMONE SIGNALS. Different body cells can respond differently to the same peptide hormones because A) different target cells have different sets of genes.

B) each cell converts that hormone to a different metabolite. C) a target cell's response is determined by the components of its signal transduction pathways. D) the circulatory system regulates responses to hormones by routing the hormones to specific targets. E) the hormone is chemically altered in different ways as it travels through the circulatory system. Answer: C DESCRIBE THE MECHANISM OF THE POLYPEPTIDE HORMONE ACTION AND If a biochemist discovers a new molecule,

which of the following pieces of data would STEROID HORMONE ACTION. allow her to draw the conclusion that the molecule is a steroid hormone? I) The molecule is lipid soluble. II) The molecule is derived from a series of steps beginning with cholesterol. III) The molecule acts at a target tissue some distance from where it is produced. IV) The molecule uses a carrier protein when in an aqueous solution such as blood. (Extra review for IV click here) A) only I and III B) only II and IV C) only I, III, and IV

D) I, II, III, and IV Answer: D DESCRIBE THE MECHANISM OF THE POLYPEPTIDE HORMONE ACTION AND STEROID HORMONE ACTION. What property of steroid hormones allows them to cross the phospholipid bilayer? A) Steroid hormones are lipid soluble and easily cross the phospholipid bilayer. B) Steroid hormones can act in very small concentrations and very few molecules of steroids need to cross the lipid bilayer.

C) Steroid hormones act on cells close to where they were produced and very few molecules are required to travel such a short distance to cross the lipid bilayer. D) Steroid hormones act on the same cells in which they are produced and, therefore, are within the cell they are acting upon. LIST ALL HORMONES ASSOCIATED WITH THE POSTERIOR PITUITARY AND WHAT EACH DOES. Hormones secreted by the posterior pituitary gland are made in the _____. A) cerebellum

B) thalamus C) hypothalamus D) medulla oblongata Answer: C LIST ALL HORMONES ASSOCIATED WITH THE POSTERIOR PITUITARY AND WHAT EACH DOES. During mammalian labor and delivery, the contraction of uterine muscles is enhanced by oxytocin. This is an example of A) a negative feedback system. B) a hormone that acts in an antagonistic way with another hormone.

C) a hormone that is involved in a positive feedback loop. D) signal transduction immediately changing gene expression in its target cells. E) the key role of the anterior pituitary gland in regulating uterine contraction. Answer: C LIST ALL HORMONES ASSOCIATED WITH THE POSTERIOR PITUITARY AND WHAT EACH DOES. If a person loses a large amount of water in a short period of time, he or she may die from dehydration. ADH can help reduce water loss through its interaction with it target cells in the

A) anterior pituitary. B) posterior pituitary. C) adrenal gland. D) bladder. E) kidney. Answer: E LIST ALL HORMONES ASSOCIATED WITH THE POSTERIOR PITUITARY AND WHAT EACH DOES. In a lactating mammal, the two hormones that promote milk synthesis and milk release, respectively, are A) prolactin and calcitonin. B) prolactin and oxytocin.

C) follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone. D) luteinizing hormone and oxytocin. E) prolactin and luteinizing hormone. Answer: B LIST ALL HORMONES ASSOCIATED WITH THE POSTERIOR PITUITARY AND WHAT EACH DOES. Oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone are synthesized in the A) hypothalamus. B) adenohypophysis. C) anterior pituitary. D) adrenal cortex. E) posterior pituitary.

Answer: A LIST ALL HORMONES ASSOCIATED WITH THE POSTERIOR PITUITARY AND WHAT EACH DOES. When a person drinks alcohol, the rate of urination increases. This suggests that antidiuretic hormone (ADH) may be affected by alcohol consumption in some way. Which of the following best accounts for the increase in urination? A) Alcohol stimulates the release of ADH. B) Alcohol inhibits the release of ADH. C) Alcohol inhibits the binding of ADH to receptors in the nephron. D) Alcohol could inhibit ADH release or the binding of ADH to receptors in the nephron.

Answer: B DESCRIBE THE ROLE OF THE HYPOTHALAMUS IN THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM The interrelationships between the endocrine and the nervous systems are especially apparent in A) a neuron in the spinal cord. B) a steroid-producing cell in the adrenal cortex. C) a neurosecretory cell in the hypothalamus. D) a brain cell in the cerebral cortex. E) a cell in the pancreas that produces digestive enzymes.

Answer: C DESCRIBE THE ROLE OF THE HYPOTHALAMUS IN THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM Portal blood vessels connect two capillary beds found in the A) hypothalamus and thalamus. B) anterior pituitary and posterior pituitary. C) hypothalamus and anterior pituitary. D) posterior pituitary and thyroid gland. E) anterior pituitary and adrenal gland.

Answer: C DESCRIBE THE ROLE OF THE HYPOTHALAMUS IN THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM The hypothalamus A) functions only as an endocrine target, by having lots of receptors on its cells. B) functions only in neuronal transmission. C) does not have any hormone receptors on its cells. D) secretes tropic hormones that act directly on the gonads. E) includes neurosecretory cells that terminate in the posterior pituitary.

Answer: E LIST ALL HORMONES ASSOCIATED WITH THE ANTERIOR PITUITARY AND WHAT EACH DOES. Abnormally reduced somatic growth (dwarfism) can be a consequence of decreased hormone secretion from the A) kidneys. B) pancreas. C) adrenal gland. D) posterior pituitary gland. E) anterior pituitary gland. Answer: E

LIST ALL HORMONES ASSOCIATED WITH THE ANTERIOR PITUITARY AND WHAT EACH DOES. A product of the anterior pituitary gland that causes color changes in its target cells is _____. A) follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) B) luteinizing hormone (LH) C) thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) D) melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) Answer: D LIST ALL HORMONES ASSOCIATED WITH THE ANTERIOR PITUITARY AND

WHAT EACH DOES. Which endocrine disorder is correctly matched with the malfunctioning gland? A) dwarfism the adrenal cortex B) gigantism the anterior pituitary gland C) goiter the adrenal medulla D) diabetes mellitus the parathyroid glands Answer: B DEFINE TROPIC AND NONTROPIC HORMONES. A tropic hormone from the anterior pituitary gland regulates the secretion of

A) parathyroid hormone. B) calcitonin. C) epinephrine. D) thyroxine. E) glucagon. Answer: D DEFINE TROPIC AND NONTROPIC HORMONES. Which of the following have nontropic effects only? A) FSH B) LH C) TSH

D) MSH E) ACTH Answer: D DEFINE TROPIC AND NONTROPIC HORMONES. Tropic hormones from the anterior pituitary directly affect the release of which of the following? A) parathyroid hormone B) calcitonin C) epinephrine D) thyroxine E) glucagon

Answer: D DEFINE TROPIC AND NONTROPIC HORMONES. The main target organs for tropic hormones are A) muscles. B) blood vessels. C) endocrine glands. D) kidneys. E) nerves. Answer: C

DISTINGUISH BETWEEN OSMOREGULATORS AND OSMOCONFORMERS. GIVE The body fluids of an osmoconformer would be ________ with its AN ________ environment. EXAMPLE OF EACH. A) hyperosmotic; freshwater B) isotonic; freshwater C) hyperosmotic; saltwater D) isoosmotic; saltwater E) hypoosmotic; saltwater

Answer: D DESCRIBE HOW A PROTONEPHRIDIA SYSTEM, METANEPHRIDIA EXCRETORY TUBULE, AND MALPIGHIAN TUBULE EXCRETORY SYSTEM FUNCTIONS. Unlike an earthworm's metanephridia, a mammalian nephron A) is intimately associated with a capillary network. B) forms urine by changing fluid composition inside a tubule. C) functions in both osmoregulation and excretion. D) receives filtrate from blood instead of coelomic fluid. E) has a transport epithelium.

Answer: D DESCRIBE HOW A PROTONEPHRIDIA SYSTEM, METANEPHRIDIA EXCRETORY TUBULE, AND MALPIGHIAN TUBULE EXCRETORY SYSTEM FUNCTIONS. Excretory organs known as Malpighian tubules are present in A) earthworms. B) flatworms. C) insects. D) jellyfish. E) sea stars.

Answer: C DESCRIBE HOW A PROTONEPHRIDIA SYSTEM, METANEPHRIDIA EXCRETORY TUBULE, AND MALPIGHIAN TUBULE EXCRETORY SYSTEM FUNCTIONS. The osmoregulatory/excretory system of a freshwater flatworm is based on the operation of A) protonephridia. B) metanephridia. C) Malpighian tubules. D) nephrons.

E) ananephredia. Answer: A DESCRIBE THE OSMOREGULATION DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SALTWATER BONY FISHES AND FRESHWATER FISHES. Which of the following animals generally has the lowest volume of urine production? A) a vampire bat B) a salmon in fresh water C) a marine bony fish D) a freshwater bony fish E) a shark inhabiting freshwater Lake Nicaragua

Answer: C HOW DO SHARKS DIFFER FROM THE BONEY MARINE FISH IN HOW THEY Unlike most bony fishes, sharks maintain body fluids that are OSMOREGULATE? isoosmotic to seawater, so they are considered by many to be osmoconformers. Nonetheless, these sharks osmoregulate at least partially by A) using their gills and kidneys to rid themselves of sea salts. B) monitoring dehydration at the cellular level with special gated

aquaporins. C) tolerating high urea concentrations that balance internal salt concentrations to seawater osmolarity. D) synthesizing trimethylamine oxide, a chemical that binds and precipitates salts inside cells. E) possessing a special adaptation that allows their cells to operate at an extraordinarily high salt concentration. WHERE DOES THE NITROGENOUS WASTE IN ANIMALS COME FROM? In animals, nitrogenous wastes are produced mostly from the catabolism of A) starch and cellulose. B) triglycerides and steroids.

C) proteins and nucleic acids. D) phospholipids and glycolipids. E) fatty acids and glycerol. Answer: C WHAT ARE THE 3 MAJOR WAYS THAT ANIMALS GET RID OF THIS Urea is WASTE? A) insoluble in water. B) more toxic to human cells than ammonia. C) the primary nitrogenous waste product of humans. D) the primary nitrogenous waste product of most birds.

E) the primary nitrogenous waste product of most aquatic invertebrates. Answer: C WHAT ARE THE 3 MAJOR WAYS THAT ANIMALS GET RID OF THIS WASTE? The nitrogenous waste that requires the most energy to produce is A) ammonia. B) ammonium. C) urea. D) uric acid.

Answer: D WHAT ARE THE 3 MAJOR WAYS THAT ANIMALS GET RID OF THIS WASTE? The advantage of excreting nitrogenous wastes as urea rather than as ammonia is that A) urea can be exchanged for Na+. B) urea is less toxic than ammonia. C) urea requires more water for excretion than ammonia. D) urea does not affect the osmolar gradient.

E) less nitrogen is removed from the body. Answer: B WHAT ARE THE 3 MAJOR WAYS THAT ANIMALS GET RID OF THIS Birds that live in marine environments and thus lack access to fresh WASTE? drinking water A) osmoregulate without using a transport epithelium for this purpose. B) drink seawater and secrete excess ions through their kidneys only. C) drink seawater and secrete excess ions mainly through their nasal salt glands.

D) have plasma that is isoosmotic to ocean water. E) obtain water by eating only osmoregulating prey. Answer: C WHAT ARE THE 3 MAJOR WAYS THAT ANIMALS GET RID OF THIS The primary nitrogenous waste excreted by birds is WASTE? A) ammonia. B) nitrate. C) nitrite. D) urea. E) uric acid.

Answer: E WHAT ARE THE 3 MAJOR WAYS THAT ANIMALS GET RID OF THIS WASTE? Birds secrete uric acid as their nitrogenous waste because uric acid A) is readily soluble in water. B) is metabolically less expensive to synthesize than other excretory products. C) requires little water for nitrogenous waste disposal, thus reducing body mass. D) excretion allows birds to live in desert environments.

Answer: C DESCRIBE AND SHOW THE RELATIONSHIP AMONG THE PROCESSES OF FILTRATION, SECRETION, AND REABSORPTION. Materials are returned to the blood from the filtrate by which of the following processes? A) filtration B) ultrafiltration C) selective reabsorption D) secretion

E) active transport Answer: C DESCRIBE AND SHOW THE RELATIONSHIP AMONG THE PROCESSES OF FILTRATION, SECRETION, AND REABSORPTION. The osmoregulatory process called secretion refers to the A) formation of filtrate at an excretory structure. B) reabsorption of nutrients from a filtrate. C) selective elimination of excess ions and toxins from body fluids. D) formation of an osmotic gradient along an excretory structure.

E) expulsion of urine from the body. Answer: C DESCRIBE AND SHOW THE RELATIONSHIP AMONG THE PROCESSES OF FILTRATION, SECRETION, AND REABSORPTION. Which process in the nephron is least selective? A) filtration B) reabsorption C) active transport D) secretion E) salt pumping by the loop of Henle

Answer: A KNOW EVERYTHING ABOUT THE NEPHRON DIAGRAM WE DISCUSSED IN CLASS. KNOW WHAT SUBSTANCES MOVE EACH WAY. KNOW IF THESE SUBSTANCES MOVE BY ACTIVE OR PASSIVE TRANSPORT. The transfer of fluid from the glomerulus to Bowman's capsule A) results from active transport. B) transfers large molecules as easily as small ones. C) is very selective as to which subprotein-sized molecules are transferred. D) is mainly a consequence of blood pressure in the capillaries of the

glomerulus. E) usually includes the transfer of red blood cells into Bowman's capsule. Answer: D KNOW EVERYTHING ABOUT THE NEPHRON DIAGRAM WE DISCUSSED IN CLASS. KNOW WHAT SUBSTANCES MOVE EACH WAY. KNOW IF THESE SUBSTANCES MOVE BY ACTIVE OR PASSIVE TRANSPORT. The filtrate in the proximal convoluted tubule of the human does not normally include A) ions. B) glucose.

C) plasma proteins. D) amino acids. E) dissolved gasses. Answer: C KNOW EVERYTHING ABOUT THE NEPHRON DIAGRAM WE DISCUSSED IN CLASS. KNOW WHAT SUBSTANCES MOVE EACH WAY. KNOW IF THESE SUBSTANCES MOVE BY ACTIVE OR PASSIVE TRANSPORT. Low selectivity of solute movement is a characteristic of A) salt pumping to control osmolarity. B) H+ pumping to control pH. C) reabsorption mechanisms along the proximal tubule.

D) filtration from the glomerular capillaries. E) secretion along the distal tubule. Answer: D KNOW EVERYTHING ABOUT THE NEPHRON DIAGRAM WE DISCUSSED IN CLASS. KNOW WHAT SUBSTANCES MOVE EACH WAY. KNOW IF THESE SUBSTANCES MOVE BY ACTIVE OR PASSIVE TRANSPORT. A primary reason that the kidneys have one of the highest metabolic rates of all body organs is that A) it stores the body's excess fats. B) it has membranes of varying permeability to water. C) it operates an extensive set of active-transport ion pumps.

D) it is the body's only means of shedding excess nutrients. E) it has an abundance of myogenic smooth muscle. Answer: C KNOW EVERYTHING ABOUT THE NEPHRON DIAGRAM WE DISCUSSED IN CLASS. KNOW WHAT SUBSTANCES MOVE EACH WAY. KNOW IF THESE SUBSTANCES MOVE BY ACTIVE OR PASSIVE TRANSPORT. Human urine is usually more acidic than most other body fluids because A) hydrogen ions are actively moved into the filtrate. B) the sodium transporter exchanges one hydrogen ion for each

sodium ion. C) excreted plasma proteins are nearly all acidic ions. D) excreted amino acids are in abundance. E) potassium and sodium exchange generates lots of acidity. Answer: A EXPLAIN HOW THE LOOP OF HENLE ENHANCES WATER CONSERVATION BY THE KIDNEYS The high osmolarity of the renal medulla is maintained by all of the following except A) diffusion of salt from the thin segment of the ascending limb of the

loop of Henle. B) active transport of salt from the upper region of the ascending limb. C) the spatial arrangement of juxtamedullary nephrons. D) diffusion of urea from the collecting duct. E) diffusion of salt from the descending limb of the loop of Henle. Answer: E DESCRIBE THE MECHANISMS INVOLVES WITH THE HORMONAL THE KIDNEY. WhenREGULATION

stimulated by aldosterone, theOF reabsorption of Na+ is increased along A) the loop of Henle. B) the collecting duct. C) Bowman's capsule. D) the proximal tubule. E) the distal tubule. Answer: E

DESCRIBE THE MECHANISMS INVOLVES WITH THE HORMONAL REGULATION OF THE KIDNEY. Increased ADH secretion is likely after A) drinking lots of pure water. B) sweating-induced dehydration increases plasma osmolarity. C) ingestion of ethanol (drinking alcoholic drinks). D) eating a small sugary snack. E) blood pressure is abnormally high. Answer: B

DESCRIBE THE MECHANISMS INVOLVES WITH THE HORMONAL OF THE KIDNEY. AfterREGULATION drinking alcoholic beverages, increased urine excretion is the result of A) increased aldosterone production. B) increased blood pressure. C) inhibited secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH). D) increased reabsorption of water in the proximal tubule.

E) the osmoregulator cells of the brain increasing their activity. Answer: C DESCRIBE THE MECHANISMS INVOLVES WITH THE HORMONAL REGULATION OF THE KIDNEY. Osmoregulatory adjustment via the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system can be triggered by A) sleeping for one hour. B) severe sweating on a hot day.

C) eating a bag of potato chips. D) eating a pizza with olives and pepperoni. E) drinking several glasses of water. Answer: B DESCRIBE THE MECHANISMS INVOLVES WITH THE HORMONAL REGULATION THElevelKIDNEY. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) functionsOF at the cellular by A) stimulating the reabsorption of glucose through channel proteins.

B) triggering the synthesis of an enzyme that makes the phospholipid bilayer more permeable to water. C) causing membranes to include more phospholipids that have unsaturated fatty acids. D) causing an increase in the number of aquaporin molecules of collecting duct cells. E) decreasing the speed at which filtrate flows through the nephron, leading to increased reabsorption of water. Answer: D

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