Session 4b - Carbon Sequestration Policy, Business ...

Session 4b - Carbon Sequestration Policy, Business ...

KSU Winter Intersession 2010 Carbon Sequestration Policy, Business Development, and Regulatory Issues Michael E. Moore VP CCS Business Development and External Affairs Blue Source, LLC Executive Director North American Carbon Capture Storage Association January 7, 2010 1 Session 4b Carbon Sequestration Policy,

Business Development, and Regulatory Issues Start 1:50-2:40 Thursday 40 minutes 10 QA Policy and Regulatory H.R. 2454, The American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009

Provide substantial support for early movers in carbon capture and storage Bonus allowance for early movers could be as high as $100/ton Recognizes the use of geologic sequestration (Section 813) Primary sequestration mediums are saline formations , depleted oil and gas fields and deep coal seams (June 5th Committee Report) EPA sets up Task force to study legal framework within six months of enactment

and due within 18 months to Congress of enactment could be interpreted as also including BAU Class II EOR wells. EPA tasked with establishing itself (1 yr report to Congress), the geologic sequestration regulations (2 yrs), Safe Drinking Water regulations (3 yrs) and requirements for geologic sequestration both subsurface and atmospheric reporting (4 yrs) Using Enhanced hydrocarbon recovery results in reduced bonus allowance values at the EPA Administrators discretion 17% reduction of 2005 CO2 levels by 2020 4 Interesting Finding on Oil In WM but not in Boxer-Kerry

SEC. 127. OPEN FUEL STANDARD. 17 (a) FINDINGS. The Congress finds that(1) the status of oil as a strategic commodity, which derives from its domination of the transportation sector, presents a clear and present danger to the United States; Final version language on page 120. Language found on page 117 of June 19th HR 2454 this language also found on page 115 of the Amendment in the Nature of a Substitute 946 page version of HR 2454 not in the May 21, 932 page version but also on page 33 in the Committee report June 5th. Note: Clear and present danger was used by Ronald Reagan in Policy Memorandum No.3 Foreign Policy and National Security to convey his feelings about the threat from Russia and its nuclear weapons. Fall of 1979 while running for President. Effectively set the stage for the Star Wars initiative

5 Senates American Clean Energy Leadership Act of 2009 S. 1462 Accelerate the introduction of new clean energy technologies in the United States, creating new jobs and helping businesses grow through clean energy project financing, a renewable electricity standard, and a robust and secure national electricity transmission highway Increase energy efficiency in buildings, major equipment, and appliances, saving consumers and businesses billions of dollars on their energy bills Enhance Americas energy independence by increasing clean energy supplies and energy security, including new access to over 20 trillion cubic feet of clean natural gas resources

Strengthen America as the world leader in energy innovation, by doubling our national investment in energy research and technology Build a new energy workforce for the future Protect consumers by making energy markets more transparent and fair, and by providing new tools to fight market manipulation; Tackle future energy and climate challenges with smarter, more integrated planning. 20% reduction of 2005 CO2 levels by 2020 Promoting the development of domestic sources of oil and natural gas Demonstrating the large-scale geologic storage of industrial sources of carbon dioxide; 6 Senator Cantwells CLEAR Cap and Refund Act

Unlike the Waxman Markey bill, this legislation envisions: 100% auction of "carbon shares"; reduced trading with trading limited to energy producers; a price collar $7-12 with escalator; no offsets; emission cap limited to only CO2 (not other GHGs); and program run by DOE. A "carbon share" is the right to sell or otherwise place into commerce in the United States 1 ton of fossil carbon. Thus, unlike the "allowance" approach of Waxman Markey, which focuses on industrial emissions, the Cantwell bill addresses carbon when it is introduced upstream in fossil fuels (and fossil fuel products) in commerce at the wellhead, mine mouth, or point of entry. For CCS purposes, the bill grants operators of CCS facilities surplus "carbon shares" in a quantity that corresponds to the quantity of fossil carbon permanently sequestered. (A similar incentive is provided for the beneficial reuse of CO2.) The "carbon shares" could be used by the facility or sold in the market. Background materials accompanying the draft legislation describe these bonus "carbon shares" as a "strong, positive incentive for fossil fuel power plants to reduce their net carbon dioxide emissions through permanent sequestration ....

75% of auction revenues go back to public The bill does not define "sequestration" and is silent on issues such as permitting and long-term stewardship. 7 Senators Kerry, Lieberman & Graham Compromise Bill Cap and Trade Expanded offshore leasing for oil and gas production More carbon capture & storage and clean coal support More loans and incentives for nuclear power

17% CO2 emissions cut by 2020 Federal CCS Funding Opportunities U.S. Department of Energy-National Energy Technology Laboratory Recovery Act: Carbon Capture and Sequestration from Industrial Sources and Innovative Concepts for Beneficial CO2 Use Funding Opportunity Number: DE-FOA-0000015 Announcement Type: Initial CFDA Number: 81.089 Fossil Energy Research and Development. Announcement June 8, 2009 application due August 7, 2009 $1,321,765,000.00 Available Carbon Capture Storage from Industrial Sources-can be with/from steel, aluminum, cement, manufacturing, muni-waste, petcoke fuel source. Exclusions

on power plants with energy output over 50% and fuel is over 55% coal. Efficiency in capture technology min 10% CO2 content with 75% capture of emitted CO2 stream storage, 1 million tons/year in CO2-EOR-EGR, basalt, stacked and ECBM, required site characterizations and MVA as program components Phase I: concept and planning. Seven months. 10-12 awards, $500K to $3 million. DOE 80% cost share Phase II: Design, Construction and Operations. 60 months. 4-6 awards must be

in Phase I to qualify. $50 to $400 million award size. DOE targets 50% but cannot exceed 80% cost share. No min-max on awards and qualifications open-financial ability in Phase II. Applications in by August 7, 2009 9 EPA UIC Codes/Geologic Sequestration Well Protocols- Docket ID No. EPA-HQ-OW-2008- 0390- Proposed rule: 40 CFR

Parts 144 and 146 Federal Requirements Under the Underground Injection Control (UIC) Program for Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Geologic Sequestration (GS) Wells EPA proposes adding Class VI, MSG proposes Class IIb and Class VII Public comment period ended December 24, 2008 Expect out sometime end 2010 or early 2011

Mandatory GHG Reporting- Docket ID No. EPA-HQ-OAR-2008-0508 FY2008 Consolidated Appropriations Act (H.R. 2764; Public Law 110161), EPA has proposed a rule that requires mandatory reporting of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from large sources(>25,000tns) in the United States. Public comment period ended June 9, 2009 In effect Jan 1, 2010, first reporting due 2011

Industry data collection under the draft rule would begin in January 2010, with the first reports due to EPA in March 2011. Endangerment Finding-issued under Section 202(a)(1) of the Clean Air Act, OMB approved Dec. 7 Given that similar endangerment findings serve as the bases for other programs under the Clean Air Act, it is anticipated that, unless Congress acts, EPA will also begin to regulate GHGs from stationary sources and set ambient air quality. The endangerment determination may include an assessment of current and future risks rather than being limited to proof of actual harm.

EPA cannot control how a federal court would rule in the event of a citizens suit to force regulation of all sources that emit GHGs in excess of the statutory thresholds. On May 12, EPA Administrator Lisa Jackson told the U.S. Senate Environment and Public Works committee: "It is true that if the endangerment finding is finalized, EPA would have the authority to regulate green-house-gas emissions and...we would be judicious, we would be deliberative, we would follow the science, we would follow the law." 10 EPA Endangerment finding gives the EPA authority to

regulate greenhouse gasses/CO2 under the Clean Air Act Fuel switching may be triggered pushing coal gasification (IGCC) over to natural gas for gas turbine generation EPA pushes Kentucky regulators in determining permit applications from the Cash Creek IGCC plant in Kentucky to consider if natural gas would not be BACT or best available control technology for generating electricity at this project Two Markets for Same Molecule Commodity CO2 for use in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) in the US where available (~89 bln bbls) Alternative commodity uses developing

Stored CO2 for compliance and resulting tradable offsets or credits Carbon Capture Storage (CCS) could readily utilize values from both markets Commodity CO2 Markets and Infrastructure for CO2-EOR-Sequestration Geologic Sequestration

CO2-Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) Graphic courtesy of USDOE National Energy Technology Laboratory 15 DOE-ARI US Oil Basin Assessments 16

Recent US Commodity CO2 Assessment WTI Curve: November 13, Barclays Daily Commodity Report 10 year mid WTI/Brent Oil price ~$88./bbl. Value of CO2 created by oil price. Permian Basin rule of thumb: 1000 cubic ft of CO2 is valued as 2.0% of bbl of oil value delivered to well head ~34.14/tn ~1.76/mcf Note: This is an implied value the crude oil quality, field characteristics, CO 2 utilization/bbl and distance to/from markets will influence ultimate commodity CO 2 value/price Example: Kansas crude oil basket runs ~ $5 to 10.00/bbl discount to WTI CO2 Pricing Considerations-EOR

Quality of produced crude oil Local transportation/storage costs/access Regional oil market demand/pricing Local/distant refinery requirements Competitive alternatives-Canadian syncrude avails in midwest markets Utilization factor Operators margins

Up front cost considerations-discount on first yearspremium on back years Commodity CO2 Valuation Issues Quality i.e. too much H2S could change permitting, oversight and public acceptance Regional volumes-too much/not enough Funding-cost per barrel produced too high Recognition of concurrent oil production and storage Who holds ultimate carbon compliance responsibility Current CO2 Pipeline Network

20 Expected CO2 Supplies and Opportunity 480,000 Miles of Natural Gas and HL Pipelines 22 INGAA High EOR CO2 Pipelines CARBON SEQUESTRATION & STORAGE: DEVELOPING A TRANSPORTATIONINFRASTRUCTURE Prepared for The INGAA Foundation, Inc. by:ICF International Feb 2009

23 ~400 Lower 48 Gas Storage Facilities 24 States with Geologic Storage Legislation and Regulation

Texas Wyoming Kansas New Mexico Oklahoma Montana

Pennsylvania Indiana Kentucky New York

Washington Louisiana Michigan Mississippi North Dakota South Dakota West Virginia Illinois 25 Public Acceptance is Crucial Carbon Markets Global Credits and Offsets CFTCs Commissioner Chilton Commissioner Bart Chilton of the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) told an audience here that Green CAT Markets (cap and trade) that are currently trading on a voluntary basis in Chicago and New York could become the largest of all commodity markets.

Globally, these environmental markets have already grown on average 329 percent per year since 2002, Chilton said. With the passage of legislation, such as H.R. 2454 introduced by Representatives Henry Waxman (D-CA) and Edward Markey (DMA), Chilton estimates "Green CAT Markets could become $2 trillion endeavors in five years. Carbon Markets EU Emissions Trading Scheme (EUAs) Kyoto Protocol and its successor (CERs, ERUs, AAUs) North America (RGGI allowances, prospective

federal allowances, Canadian allowances) Australia (CPRS allowances) Voluntary Market (VCS, GS CER, CAR, ACR, CCX, WCI, MGGA, EPA Climate Leaders) Carbon Market Assessment RGGI Auction Results Chicago Climate Exchange

European Climate Exchange US Voluntary Market: Carbon Market Values & Volumes Source: 2009 Global carbon market value ~$122 bln 2008 Global carbon market value ~$119 bln 2007 Global carbon market value ~$ 65 bln 2009 global carbon volume ~7.588 bln tonnes 2009 volumes increased 103% over 2008

Estimated Size of Global Carbon Markets Expected Size of Global Carbon Market Expected Global Carbon Price by 2020 Expected CO2 Price End of First Yr US Cap & Trade Compliance Potential Size of Offsets per HR 2454 Source:

Issues of Confidence in Carbon Markets The recent announcements of carousel fraud in the European Unions $90 billion emissions trading scheme has prompted the European Commission to propose a temporary solution later this month to stop tax fraud in the European carbon emissions market, reports Reuters. However, experts are warning that a patchwork of unilateral actions by member states like the UK and France to prevent carousel fraud in spot trading of EU carbon permits could push the suspected activity into neighboring states, according to Reuters. Contact Information

Michael E. Moore VP External Affairs and Business Development CCS Blue Source LLC Executive Director North American Carbon Capture Storage Association

WWW.NACCSA.Org VP and Founding member Board of Directors Texas Carbon Capture Storage Association WWW.TXCCSA.Org [email protected]

Tel: 281-668-8475 38

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