Sections 10.1 and 10.2 Properties of Gases Historical Gas Laws

Sections 10.1 and 10.2 Properties of Gases Historical Gas Laws

Sections 11.1 11.3 Properties of Liquids Bill Vining SUNY Oneonta

Properties of Liquids In these sections a. Phases of Matter b. Phase Changes c. Properties of Liquids: 1. Enthalpy of Vaporization

2. Boiling Point 3. Relating Vapor Pressure, Boiling Point and Enthalpy of Vaporization 4. Surface Tension, Viscosity and Capillary Action Phases of Matter on the Bulk Scale

Densities of H2O: Phases of Matter on the Molecular Scale All have molecules in motion. Gases and Liquids have molecules that can move freely.

Liquid and Solids have molecules in close proximity. Only Solids have molecules that cannot change positions with one another. Solids and Liquids have molecules held near one another by Intermolecular Forces (IMFs)

Phase Changes on the Bulk Scale Phase Changes on the Molecular Scale Phase Changes on the Molecular Scale

Different Liquids have Different Properties CH3CH2OH H2O

In this case: ethanol has higher vapor pressure Properties of Liquids Enthalpy of Vaporization: Energy required to vaporize a liquid. Vapor Pressure: The gas pressure of a vapor (a vapor is a gas that comes from a liquid vaporizing.)

Boiling Point: Temperature at which vapor pressure reaches external atmospheric pressure. Surface Tension: The tendency of a liquid surface to resist change. Viscosity: The resistance of a liquid to flowing. Enthalpy of Vaporization

Also called heat of vaporization, Hvap. Energy required to vaporize a liquid to form a gas. 1 mol H2O(l) 1 mol H2O(g) So, Hvap(H2O) = 40.7 kJ/mol

H = 40.7 kJ Enthalpy of Vaporization: Trends Stronger IMFs lead to larger enthalpy of vaporization.

Vapor Pressure The pressure exerted by a vapor in equilibrium with the liquid from which it vaporizes. Vapor pressure represents a

dynamic equilibrium. Vapor Pressure: Trends Vapor pressure increases with increasing temperature.

Strong IMFs lead to low vapor pressure. simulation Vapor Pressure: Trends on the Molecular Scale

Vapor pressure increases with increasing temperature. Vapor Pressure: Trends on the Molecular Scale Strong IMFs lead to low vapor pressure.

Vapor Pressure and Temperature Vapor Pressure and Boiling Point Boiling Point: The temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid reaches the external atmospheric pressure.

Normal Boiling Point Normal Boiling Point: The temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid reaches 1 atm (760 mm Hg). Normal Boiling Point: Trends

Normal Boiling Point increases with increasing IMF strength. Trends Summary As IMF Strength Vapor Pressure Curves: Will it rain?

If the partial pressure of a vapor > vapor pressure, gas will condense to liquid until pressure drops to vapor pressure. Vapor Pressure, Temperature and Hvap Vapor pressure of

CH3OH. The Clausius-Clapeyron Equation: Vapor Pressure, Temperature and Hvap Relationship:

Straight line version: Two point version: R = 8.3145 J/Kmol

Determining Hvap Using Vapor Pressure Data Straight line version: Vapor Pressure date for SO2: Make a plot of ln(P) vs. 1/T.

Slope = -Hvap/R Using the Two-Point Version of the ClausiusClapeyron Equation Two point version: The vapor pressure of liquid aluminum is 400. mm Hg at 2590 K. Assuming that Hvap for

Al (296 kJ/mol) does not change significantly with temperature, calculate the vapor pressure of liquid Al at 2560 K. Surface Tension Surface tension is a measure of force required to "break" the surface of a liquid. Surface tension

tries to minimize the amount of surface area. Surface Tension: Drops! A sphere has the smallest surface area per volume, so liquids want to be spheres.

A drop is a contest between surface tension and gravity. Surface Tension: Trends, such as they are Viscosity Viscosity is a measure of a liquids resistance to flow.

Water vs. Honey Corn starch Mercury Trends: Long molecules have high viscosity.

No good correlation with IMF strength. Capillary Action Movement of a liquid up a capillary tube or up a paper towel are examples of capillary action. Capillary action represent an

adhesive force.

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • Author Study Unit Kevin Henkes Integrating all 2017

    Author Study Unit Kevin Henkes Integrating all 2017

    use precise nouns, verbs, and adjectives . Strand: Research. 3.10a) Construct questions about the topic. develop a list of questions pertaining to a specific topic. 3.10b) Access appropriate resources. use appropriate resources to gather information . 3.10c) Collect and organize...
  • What is Concept Mapping? A visual manipulative approach

    What is Concept Mapping? A visual manipulative approach

    An advantage of the herringbone technique is it helps you encode information in a manner that enhances your ability to answer essay questions. It is a very useful strategy for history courses and other courses that require remembering details for...
  • Types and Characteristics of Processors

    Types and Characteristics of Processors

    Processors are rated by speed of the system bus, the socket and chipset, processor architecture, multi-core rating, internal memory cache, amount and type of RAM and computing technologies Memory cache inside the processor housing can be L1, L2, and L3...
  • Pancreatic secretion - Dr. DanaZaha

    Pancreatic secretion - Dr. DanaZaha

    A person's appetite is a desire for food, often of a particular type, and is useful in helping to choose the quality of the food to be eaten. The Hypothalamus contains hunger and satiety centers. The lateral nuclei of the...
  • eprints.hud.ac.uk

    eprints.hud.ac.uk

    * The Academic Skills in Black are those generally listed in texts This could be added to BUT is SKILLS the right word? * JME - OK then let's put skills into yet another modul
  • Gustar - Chandler Unified School District

    Gustar - Chandler Unified School District

    VerboGustar(To be pleasing to) Remember that the verb GUSTAR is not used like other verbs. You don't conjugate GUSTAR into each form like you normally do with most verbs. ... me/te/le/nos/les. According to the appropriate subject. STEP 3:
  • Introduction to the Brunton Compass  Parts of the

    Introduction to the Brunton Compass Parts of the

    Parts of the Compass Compass Face - Arrow (white tip North) - Directional Degrees (Quadrant or Azimuth) Clinometer: Scales in Degrees and % Grade Levels - Bullseye Level - Cylindrical Level Mirror Sighting Arm Dampener Magnetic Declination (~6.5° E of...
  • mon, ma, mes

    mon, ma, mes

    mon or ma C'est _____ crayon. C'est mon crayon. mon or ma C'est _____ stylo. ... Il/elle Tu Je Subject leurs leur leur Their nos notre notre Our vos votre votre Your ses sa son His/Her tes ta ton Your...