Sections 10.1 and 10.2 Properties of Gases Historical Gas Laws
Sections 11.1 11.3 Properties of Liquids Bill Vining SUNY Oneonta
Properties of Liquids In these sections a. Phases of Matter b. Phase Changes c. Properties of Liquids: 1. Enthalpy of Vaporization
2. Boiling Point 3. Relating Vapor Pressure, Boiling Point and Enthalpy of Vaporization 4. Surface Tension, Viscosity and Capillary Action Phases of Matter on the Bulk Scale
Densities of H2O: Phases of Matter on the Molecular Scale All have molecules in motion. Gases and Liquids have molecules that can move freely.
Liquid and Solids have molecules in close proximity. Only Solids have molecules that cannot change positions with one another. Solids and Liquids have molecules held near one another by Intermolecular Forces (IMFs)
Phase Changes on the Bulk Scale Phase Changes on the Molecular Scale Phase Changes on the Molecular Scale
Different Liquids have Different Properties CH3CH2OH H2O
In this case: ethanol has higher vapor pressure Properties of Liquids Enthalpy of Vaporization: Energy required to vaporize a liquid. Vapor Pressure: The gas pressure of a vapor (a vapor is a gas that comes from a liquid vaporizing.)
Boiling Point: Temperature at which vapor pressure reaches external atmospheric pressure. Surface Tension: The tendency of a liquid surface to resist change. Viscosity: The resistance of a liquid to flowing. Enthalpy of Vaporization
Also called heat of vaporization, Hvap. Energy required to vaporize a liquid to form a gas. 1 mol H2O(l) 1 mol H2O(g) So, Hvap(H2O) = 40.7 kJ/mol
H = 40.7 kJ Enthalpy of Vaporization: Trends Stronger IMFs lead to larger enthalpy of vaporization.
Vapor Pressure The pressure exerted by a vapor in equilibrium with the liquid from which it vaporizes. Vapor pressure represents a
Strong IMFs lead to low vapor pressure. simulation Vapor Pressure: Trends on the Molecular Scale
Vapor pressure increases with increasing temperature. Vapor Pressure: Trends on the Molecular Scale Strong IMFs lead to low vapor pressure.
Vapor Pressure and Temperature Vapor Pressure and Boiling Point Boiling Point: The temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid reaches the external atmospheric pressure.
Normal Boiling Point Normal Boiling Point: The temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid reaches 1 atm (760 mm Hg). Normal Boiling Point: Trends
Normal Boiling Point increases with increasing IMF strength. Trends Summary As IMF Strength Vapor Pressure Curves: Will it rain?
If the partial pressure of a vapor > vapor pressure, gas will condense to liquid until pressure drops to vapor pressure. Vapor Pressure, Temperature and Hvap Vapor pressure of
CH3OH. The Clausius-Clapeyron Equation: Vapor Pressure, Temperature and Hvap Relationship:
Straight line version: Two point version: R = 8.3145 J/Kmol
Determining Hvap Using Vapor Pressure Data Straight line version: Vapor Pressure date for SO2: Make a plot of ln(P) vs. 1/T.
Slope = -Hvap/R Using the Two-Point Version of the ClausiusClapeyron Equation Two point version: The vapor pressure of liquid aluminum is 400. mm Hg at 2590 K. Assuming that Hvap for
Al (296 kJ/mol) does not change significantly with temperature, calculate the vapor pressure of liquid Al at 2560 K. Surface Tension Surface tension is a measure of force required to "break" the surface of a liquid. Surface tension
tries to minimize the amount of surface area. Surface Tension: Drops! A sphere has the smallest surface area per volume, so liquids want to be spheres.
A drop is a contest between surface tension and gravity. Surface Tension: Trends, such as they are Viscosity Viscosity is a measure of a liquids resistance to flow.
Water vs. Honey Corn starch Mercury Trends: Long molecules have high viscosity.
No good correlation with IMF strength. Capillary Action Movement of a liquid up a capillary tube or up a paper towel are examples of capillary action. Capillary action represent an
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