SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY IN THE ENVIRONMENT 14.01 Define terms relating to science and technology and environmental science, natural resources, and conservation GENERAL TERMS Organism any living thing Biological Science the study of living organisms Cell the basic building block of life Life span the period of life of an organism Life process a function or activity essential for the living condition Living condition the presence of life processes in an organism Growth the process of an organism increasing in size.
Repair the replacement of worn or damaged parts. Earth Science a science the deals with the earth and the area surrounding it Evolution the process of growth development and change Atmosphere - the air that surrounds the earth. BASIC LIFE PROCESSES 14.02 Describe basic life processes in relation to structures of living organisms. CELLS All organisms are made of cells, similar to a building being made of blocks A cell is the basic building block of life.
STRUCTURE Cell wall Rigid cover that gives a cell shape and protects it Cell membrane Thin structure that separates the cell from its surroundings and controls movement of materials in and out of the cell. What adjective describes the membrane? Nucleus Controls cell functions
Nucleoli Bodies within the nucleus that contain protein and RNA Cytoplasm Material inside the cell between the cell membrane and nucleus ANIMAL AND PLANT CELL LIFE SPAN Stages of Life Beginning when life begins
Growing when young organisms grow quickly by increasing the number and size of cells Maturing when an organism is fully developed Growth stops except for repair and replacement of cells When reproduction occurs Declining after maturity, when an organism begins to lose its ability to maintain itself. Also called AGING Dying when life processes stop. DEATH occurs.
Life spans vary. Few minutes or hours to thousands of years, depending on organism. LIFE PROCESSES Growth and Repair Needed for an organism to mature and remain healthy Assimilation The process of changing food substances into new living material Growth The process of an organism increasing in size
Mitosis When cells divide to produce cells for growth and repair Repair The replacement of worn or damaged parts. LIFE PROCESSES Food Acquisition and Use All organisms must have food Metabolism all the chemical reactions in the body Ingestion process of animals taking in food
Digestion the process that changes food into simpler forms that can be absorbed by the cells Absorption transfer of nutrients from digestive system to bloodstream Elimination the removal of an unabsorbed food remain from the body Solid material = feces Liquid material = urine LIFE PROCESSES Digestive system types
Monogastric Stomach with one compartment, needs more concentrated foods Examples: Birds, monkeys, and swine Ruminant Stomach with multiple compartments, has different forms Enables animals to digest roughage Examples Cow, sheep,
LIFE PROCESSES Movement Means to change location through an outside factor or to move parts. Locomotion The ability to move from one place to another CIRCULATION Movement of metabolic material from one location to another in an organism Plants have Vascular systems
Xylem conducts water (H2O) and nutrients Phloem conducts food from where its made to throughout the plant. LIFE PROCESSES Respiration Two main functions External respiration Exchange of oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) by an organism with its environment, often simply called breathing.
Also called mechanical respiration Internal respiration Occurs inside the organism and is the movement of gasses across living tissues by diffusion In animals, it happens in the lungs. LIFE PROCESSES Secretion Process of releasing substances from a living cell or glands
Examples: Tears from eyes Saliva in the mouth LIFE PROCESSES Sensations The detection of a stimulus by an organism Five senses
Sight Hearing Touch Taste Smell Organisms respond to their environment based on information from their sensors. LIFE PROCESSES
Excretion Removal of wastes from a cell or an organism From kidneys = urine From digestive system = feces LIFE PROCESSES Reproduction Process of forming new individuals Most is by sexual means, involving a male and female
STRUCTURES OF LIVING ORGANISMS Unicellular organisms Carry out life within a single cell STRUCTURES OF LIVING ORGANISMS Multi-cellular organisms All have many cells. Most have millions of cells Not all cells are alike Cell specialization
Cells are different so they can do specific functions Tissue Group of cells that are alike Organs A collection of tissues that work together to perform certain functions Organ Systems
Organs working together to perform an activity Animal Structure Made of many cells Can move about Get their food from other sources (heterotrophic) Skeletal System Part of the body made of bones, etc.
Two types Vertebrates animals with backbones Examples: humans, deer Invertebrates animals without backbones Examples: insects, shrimp, and earthworms. STRUCTURES OF LIVING ORGANISMS
STRUCTURES OF LIVING ORGANISMS Animal Structure Vital Organ Systems needed for an animal to live
Muscular Nervous Circulatory Respiratory Excretory Digestive Reproductive STRUCTURES OF LIVING ORGANISM Plant Structure
Vegetative parts work together to carry out life processes Roots Anchor plant and take in water and nutrients Stems Support plant and transport material Leaves Make food by photosynthesis Reproduction Sexually seed formation in the flower
Asexually using a plant part to produce another plant SCIENTIFIC CLASSIFICATION 14.03 Classify living things by their scientific name and environmental role SCIENTIFIC CLASSIFICATION Classified by their similarities and differences System shows the biological relationships and differences of organisms Major divisions or stages are:
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Species
Genus Divisions become more specific from kingdom to species KINGDOM All organisms are classified into five kingdoms
Monera Protista Fungi Plantae Animalia KINGDOM MONERA Monerans Tiny one-celled organisms Prokaryotic, meaning cells lack a nucleus Examples are Bacteria
Blue-green algae KINGDOM PROTISTA Protists One-cell organisms More advance than monerans Examples Amoeba Paramecia KINGDOM FUNGI Fungi
More complex than monerans and protists Cannot make their own food, but instead absorb it from their surroundings. Examples Yeast Mildew Mushrooms KINGDOM PLANTAE Plants
Many (multi) celled organisms Make their food by photosynthesis Small examples are moss and duckweed Large examples are trees Cells have cell walls KINGDOM ANIMALIA Animals Many multi-celled organisms About a million species Small examples are spiders and wasps Large examples are whales and elephants No cell walls in cells
Food is obtained by eating plants and other animals. Can move about (locomotion). Plants cannot move about. NOMENCLATURE System of names for organisms Binomial nomenclature (two names) Genus (first) and species (second) Written in italics, or underlined Used to prevent confusion with other organisms Used universally Examples
Sugar maple is Acer saccharum Blue Spruce is Picea picaungens Cardinal is Cardinalis cardinals Human is Homo sapiens NOMENCLATURE Additional classifications Variety
A way to separate plants that are similar, but not identical Cultivar Specific group within a species that are different, but will breed true Example Some flowers sometimes come in different colors within the same species Breed Species of animals with easily identifiable characteristics.
ENVIRONMENTAL ROLE CLASSIFICATION Different roles in the environment by organisms Producer An organism that takes nutrients and energy from non-living sources and makes them into food Autotrophs Plants Consumer
An organism that feeds on producers Heterotrophs Animals Decomposer Organism that breaks down the bodies of dead plants and animals Bacteria and mushrooms All consumers are decomposers Examples buzzards, lions, and squirrels.
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