Science & Technology in the Environment -

Science & Technology in the Environment -

Science & Technology in the Environment Chemistry Chemistry 15.01 Define terms and the state, properties, and classification of matter related to density and the environment. General Terms Chemical Chemistry

Matter Mass Volume Energy Chemistry Terms Chemical A substance produced by or used in a chemical process Chemistry The study of the composition of matter and the energy created by the interaction of matter

Matter Anything that has mass and volume Chemistry Terms Mass The quantity of matter in an object

A measure of an objects resistance to moving or being moved Often determined by weighing with a scale Weight and mass can be different in differing places altitude Volume Means that something occupies space Energy The ability to do work or cause change Energy

Potential Energy of matter because of its position or compositions It is stored in the matter Kinetic The energy of an object in motion States of Matter Solid Definite shape and volume Examples: wood, stone, glass, etc.

Liquid Has a definite volume and takes the shape of its container Examples: water, oil, etc. Gaseous Has neither a definite shape or volume Can expand and contract and move around Example: air. It can be made to fit in various shapes, like a tire, and can be compressed. Why States of Matter Change Matter may change from one state to another

Usually related to temperature and pressure When water is cooled, it turns to ice, a solid When water is boiled, it turns to steam, a gas The properties do not change Properties of Matter Property A characteristic or feature that makes it possible to distinguish between kinds of matter Two Properties

Physical Can be observed or measured without altering the matter Mass, Color, Shape, Length Chemical Describes the changes matter goes through when its identity is altered or changed to create substances in different forms Describes the change it undergoes in altering its identity. Burning wood. Wood becomes ash and carbon dioxide, as well as heat and light. Classification of Matter

Pure substances Matter that has uniform and consistent composition and properties from one sample to another. Salt and Sugar Mixtures A combination of two or more different kinds of matter, and it is not definite in the proportions of its contents. Types Solution Homogenous mixture. Can be solid, liquid, or gas

Suspension when particles are dispersed in a fluid medium. Water in a stream. Chemistry 15.02 Discuss chemical elements, compounds, reactions, formulas, and equations. Compounds Elements form compounds Pure substances are either elements or compounds

Elements do not decompose An element is a pure substance that cannot be broken down into other substances. Examples: gold, silver, and iron Elements A substance consisting entirely of atoms of the same atomic number Everything on Earth is made of chemical elements 114 chemical elements have been identified 92 are natural elements found on Earth The rest are made in a laboratory

Names and Symbols All have a name and symbol Symbols are either one or two letters Some officially unnamed have three letters Letters used are often letters from the English spelling of the word

AL for Aluminum N for Nitrogen O for Oxygen C for Carbon Some are from Latin Ag for Silver, old name was argentum K for Potassium Fe for Iron Organizing the Elements Grouped in the Periodic

Table An arrangement of chemical elements in the order of increasing atomic number. It is in rows and columns. Types of Elements Metals

An element with metallic luster Can be shaped Are electrical conductors Iron, Aluminum, and Copper Nonmetals Poor conductor of heat and electricity Oxygen, Nitrogen, Carbon, and Sulfur Eleven elements classified as nonmetallic

Types of Elements (continued) Metalloids Between metals and nonmetals both in the periodic table and in properties Arsenic Six elements classified as metalloids Noble Gases Do not normally react with other elements Neon and Helium

Six elements are classified as noble gases. Atoms, Atomic Number, and Masses Atom Small part of an element that can take part in a reaction Atomic Structure The arrangement of the parts of atoms Atomic Number

The number of protons in the nucleus Atomic Mass The total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus. Chemical Reactions and Compounds What occurs when a substance becomes another substance with different characteristics Types Composition 2 or more substances react to form a more complex product

Decomposition when chemical compounds break down Single Replacement when one element replaces another in a compound Double Replacement When two compounds exchange elements Compounds Forms when two or more elements unite to form a substance with qualities different from the elements alone Chemical Bonding New compounds are formed when elements bond

Chemical bonding is two or more elements joining together to form a compound. Molecules Smallest amount of a substance that can exist independently and keep the properties of the substance Water two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom Calcium Carbonate (limestone) C2CO3 Carbon dioxide CO2 Glucose C6H12O6 Formulas and Equations

The combination of chemical symbols and numbers that depict a compound Shows the element symbols and formulas, the reactants, and the products of a chemical reaction. Example: Photosynthesis Equation 12H2O + 6CO2 + sunlight and chlorophyll = C6H12O6 + 6O2 + 6 H2O Chemistry 15.03 Demonstrate the ability to determine the pH and salts of material and relate it to environmental conditions.

pH Strength of hydrogen ion concentration, measured as potential hydrogen or pH 14 point scale is used Water is neutral = 7 Solutions below 7 (0 to 6.9) are acid Solutions above 7.0 (7.1 to 14) are basic or alkaline The greater the distance from 7, or neutral, the stronger the substance. 9 is more basic or alkaline than 7.1 5 is more acidic than 6.9

pH Plants need the correct pH to grow properly Different plants require different pH Range is 5.0-8.0 for most plants Important for animals, especially fish Relates to decomposition Microorganisms cannot survive well in an improper pH and decay will be stopped

Acids are used to preserve food, like pickles in vinegar (acetic acid) pH Measurements are normally performed with: pH or litmus paper pH meter Most acids contain hydrogen Sulfuric acid is H2SO4 Acetic acid (vinegar) is CH3CO2H

Bases produce hydroxide ions React with acids to produce salts Baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) NaHCO3 and limestone (calcium carbonate) CaCO3 are examples. Salts Formed when acids and bases are combined NaCl = table salt Concentrations can build up in water and soil Often by soil and water reacting Example

Irrigation water containing a base is used on an acidic soil; can be on fields or in a container Can result in unproductive land Can also result from using certain fertilizers Chemistry 15.04 Discuss chemical sources of environmental hazards. Chemical Sources of Environmental Hazards

Heavy Metals An element with a high atomic weight or mass Lead, mercury, and cadmium Are poisonous in small amounts Organic Compounds Detergents contained phosphates that caused phosphate build-up and damaged ponds Pesticides materials used to control pests Petroleum fossil fuel used in making gasoline, diesel fuel, lubricants, and other products. Chloroflurocarbons (CFCs) used in aerosols and refrigerants (AC and Fridge); may have

contributed to the damage of the ozone layer Chemical Sources of Environmental Hazards Nonmetal Oxides Elements whose oxides form acids Sulfur forming into sulfur oxide and then reacting with water to form sulfuric acid S + O SO2 or SO3 + H2O H2SO4 May cause air pollution Radioactivity

Caused by the instability of the atomic nucleus of certain atoms Radium decaying into radon, which can enter buildings and cause injury to people Health Affects of Pollution

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