School-based Processes to Address Student Supports
School-based Processes to Address Student27% Supports 1020% Developed by: Targeted Sarah Schmittinger-Kashner 8095% Dom Squittiere Universal Corey Bowen School-based Processes to Address Student Supports 27% Intensive 1020%
Targeted 8095% Universal Some Housekeeping. In lieu of answering questions today, please write down your questions on the index cards provided. Before you leave, complete exit ticket. The Etiology of challenging Behavior in School: what some kids bring to school
Physical, medical or psychiatric problems Stresses on or within families History of trauma Inconsistent, inattentive or negative parenting Negative role or peer models The chaos of television and social media Poor diet Irregular sleep Poverty Truancy
The Etiology of Challenging Behavior in School: skills they may not have learned o o o o o o o o Emotional control and regulation (e.g., coping with moods or frustration; self-calming, assessing the size of a problem) Attention and concentration
Sustaining effort and waiting for rewards Negotiating Compromising and sharing power Estimating how difficult or long a task will be Cooperation and staying with the group Social graces appropriate to school work and community The Etiology of Challenging Behavior in School: the stuff they have learned Cooperation with adults pays off in rewards that arent very powerful and usually far in the future Misbehavior pays off in rewards that are strong
and immediate: Attention from adults or peers Attention that is especially intense and exciting Avoidance of or escape from situations that are boring, strenuous or threatening Mischief; the fun of causing discomfort or disruption Release or discharge of tension, frustration or anger Revenge The Etiology of Challenging Behavior in School:
common assumptions among educators The students are old enough to know how to behave. The students should be able to figure out what I want them to do on their own. The students will do it because I said so. I shouldnt have to repeat myself.
If they havent gotten it by now, theyre never going to get it. Hows that working for you? Relationship between Behavior Support and Content-based Instruction Challenging Behavior in the classroom is influenced by what the student brings with them Alternatives to challenging behavior need to be directly taught in the classroom environment. Unless we teach alternatives to challenging behavior, some students may not be available to receive content based instruction. Therefore behavior support IS instruction
How well we teach = How well they learn How well we teach = How well they act Three-Tiered Model Intense, Individualized Supports Targeted Behavior Supports
Group Systems School-wide Behavior Support Systems Instructional and Environmental Contexts Tier 1 School-wide Behavior Support
Proactive Behavior & Academic Supports Team-based Problem Solving Data-based Decisions Expected Behaviors Defined and Taught Reinforcement Strategies Consistent Response to Problem Behaviors Classroom Management Principles Character Education Student Choices and Community Building Basics of teaching behavioral expectations USE: A research-based procedure for teaching the behaviors. Examples and non-examples from classroom and nonclassroom settings. Modeling and role-playing to teach new skills and provide students with practice opportunities. Feedback and acknowledgement to ensure students
display the expected/taught behaviors. Tier 2 Targeted Interventions Group Interventions Check In / Check Out Procedures Mentors (peer and/or adult) Self- Management Strategies Daily schedule/agenda, monitoring form,
point card Contracts w/ Instruction and Reinforcement Social Skills Groups Tier 3 Targeted Interventions Intense, individualized supports Where do I turn for support for a student? Refer to the building Problem Solving Team Confer with: school psychologist guidance counselor behavioral interventionist Nurse
administrative team PLC team Intervention Evaluation & Recommendations Problem Identification Problem Solving Cycle Intervention Design & Implementation
Problem & Data Analysis Functional Behavioral Assessment and Behavior Support Plans Basic Approaches to Behavior Change: Traditional Discipline o o Call home; parent contact ISS, Suspension, etc.
Relies on negative consequences to change behavior Assumes that things like suspension are negative for students May place unwarranted confidence in lecture and discussion to produce behavior change Does not teach or incentivize desirable behaviors Positive Behavior Support o
o o Team collaboratively gathers information/data about the behavior problem; functional behavioral assessment (FBA) A Behavior Support Plan (BSP) is developed , based on the FBA findings All adults with responsibility for the student, know and do their best to follow the plan
Assumes behavior is learned and is usually changeable Adapts environments/routines Teaches positive expectations Uses reinforcement to incentivize behavior change Wheres the Student? Aims of an FBA To explain why a behavior occurs in terms of its relation to other observable events (Setting Events, Antecedents, Behavior Consequence )
Caution: Speculating simplistically about the causes of behavior may inhibit the FBA process. For example Inner thought process of the individual Inner emotional distress or dysfunction Poverty Personality Genetics These ARE real things with real effects. But the FBA
process requires us to focus on the causes we may be able to control, and it connects us with tools that are powerful . Core FBA Outcomes Setting Events (slow triggers): Background factors that influence behavior. Often beyond our control. Illness or fatigue Problems at home Attention deficits Antecedents (fast triggers): Events in the immediate context that happen prior to the behavior
Work demands Corrective feedback Negative peer interaction Behavior: The things a person does or says Consequences: Events that occur following the behavior (often, changes in the behavior of others) that serve as payoffs for the student Peer or adult attention Avoidance of less preferred settings, people or activities Players in the FBA Process
Doing an FBA and developing a BSP is a team process that takes some time One team member takes the lead (often, the school psychologist) Teachers are critical team members, because o o o o YOU are key informants in terms of the
function of the behavior. YOU are key data takers. YOU come to the table with insight about what might work and what probably wont. YOUR input about the practicality (do-ability) of the plan is critical Steps in the FBA/BSP Process: Problem Identification Preliminary conversations/conferences, including teachers or others reporting the problem; review of RAP data, etc. Define behaviors of concern in observable, measurable terms (if I were
in the room when it was happening, what would I see?) Establishment of a data system to capture the behavior of concern Steps in the FBA/BSP Process: FBA Data Gathering Indirect observation methods Checklists and questionnaires filled out by staff who know the student best or encounter the behavior most 1:1 Interviews or structured, group discussions to garner staff and family members impressions and opinions Direct observation methods In vivo (live time) data recorded by a teacher or another observer of the behavior
Observation by an uninvolved observer The FBA is a report summarizing the students needs and motives. The BSP is a script to guide adult behavior. What a Behavior Support Plan Does Describe the challenging behaviors using specific language (so all adults and the student are focused on the same things) Guide the behavior of adults around the following:
Adapting instruction, school routines or interaction to make the challenging behaviors less likely to occur Teaching alternative, more desirable behaviors in place of the challenging behaviors Incentivizing behavior change by providing reinforcement for desirable behaviors Responding to the challenging behaviors, if and when they occur Taking data, so the plan can be objectively evaluated Evaluate, Plan & Revise, as needed
Problem Behaviors reported and problem identification FBA/BSP Process Develop/ Implement support plan, BSP FBA including Data Analysis
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