ROME: RISE AND FALL OF AN EMPIRE Mr. Lal Comp. Civ. 12 THE AGE OF AUGUSTUS Octavian came to power in 31 B.C.E. Saw disorder and instability in the empire; believed that the empire had become too large for republican rule.
Although he kept all power for himself, he won the support of the Senate by asking its advice, permitting it to run some of the provinces, and have its own treasury. THE AGE OF AUGUSTUS In 27 B.C.E., the senators bestowed the title of
Augustus on Octavian, a meaning honored and majestic, and one formerly only bestowed on gods. From that point forward, Octavian became Augustus Caesar, emperor of the entire Roman world. AUGUSTUS REFORMS Took control of the
Roman army in order to abolish the tradition of dictator-generals Granted citizenship to people in the provinces (led to increased loyalty) Used army to control troublesome provinces; gave Senate control of peaceful ones
AUGUSTUS REFORMS Restored traditional Roman values: Patriotism, close family ties, hard work, discipline, simple living Passed laws encouraging early marriage and raising large families
Helped the poor by providing free or low-cost grain Sponsored public works projects: roads, buildings, water systems (improved life for Romans and provided jobs for those in need) PAX ROMANA The Roman Peace Time of stability, expansion, power, and
prosperity that lasted over 200 years (27 B.C.E to 180 C.E.; Augustus died in 14 C.E.) AUGUSTUS SUCCESSORS: AN OVERVIEW At the time of Augustus death, the empire had no law of succession no rule stating how
the next emperor would be chosen. The first four emperors after Augustus were related to him AUGUSTUS SUCCESSORS: AN OVERVIEW Tiberius (14-37 C.E.) Augustus stepson ran the empire
well Caligula (37-41 C.E.) Cruel, incompetent, and bizarre (made his horse a consul?) Assassinated by members of the royal guard Many sources state that he was insane AUGUSTUS SUCCESSORS: AN OVERVIEW Claudius (41-54 C.E.)
Scholar chosen by the royal guard to be emperor Restored order and stability Sponsored military expeditions, one of which added Britain to the empire AUGUSTUS SUCCESSORS: AN OVERVIEW Nero (54-68 C.E.) Claudius stepson; over time, his reign became
increasingly bloodthirsty Many historians believe that he started the infamous fire which destroyed Rome in 64 (good point: it allowed Rome to be rebuilt in Greek tradition). Committed suicide in 68 when the army rebelled against him
THE MILITARY EMPERORS Following Neros death, lawlessness swept Rome as military commanders battled for the throne. Most notable: Vespasian (69-79 C.E.) Restored discipline to army and government Swiftly put down
rebellions in Gaul and Judea (located where the state of Israel lies today) THE GOOD EMPERORS Nerva adopted new tradition of naming a successor Trajan under him, the Roman Empire reached
its greatest size THE GOOD EMPERORS Hadrian devoted his reign to protecting and fortifying Roman borders; most recognizable legacy: Hadrians Wall built at the northern frontier of Britain; stretched 73 miles and rose 20 feet high
THE GOOD EMPERORS Antonius Pius (not especially notable) Marcus Aurelius (161-180 C.E.) scholarly; influenced by Greek Stoics; forced to concentrate on border wars with Germanic tribes to the north (near Danube River); the reign of his son and
successor, Commodus, marked the end of Pax Romana. EFFECTS OF PAX ROMANA This era of political and social stability, military dominance, and economic prosperity would
allow the Roman culture to flourish and spread throughout the Western world. ART ARCHITECTURE LITERATURE DRAMA SCIENCE & MEDICINE
ENTERTAINMENT & SPORT RELIGION & SPIRITUALITY LAW CRISIS IN THE 3RD CENTURY 1) Weakened defenses Barbarian invasions began on the northern frontier as well as in Greece, Spain, Asia Minor Sassanians (an Iranian dynasty) seized control of Mesopotamia in the East and began to penetrate far Roman territories.
EMPIRE IN CRISIS, 3RD CENTURY C.E. CRISIS IN THE 3RD CENTURY 2) Weak, ineffective government 235-285 C.E. over 20 emperors held power Emperors and their armies often fought one another for power. Armies were increasingly made up of mercenaries who were loyal to whomever paid them the most CRISIS IN THE 3RD CENTURY
2) Weak, ineffective government, continued Effects on social order: All power was in the hands of the emperor Senate/ruling class were practically gone Two distinct classes emerge: Honestiores aristocrats (nobility, senators, equestrians, high-ranking soldiers) Humiliores lower classes CRISIS IN THE 3RD CENTURY 3) Drained imperial
treasury An attempt to lower the value of coins backfired; people lost confidence in Roman money and turned to barter Domino effects: Deteriorated roads (hindered trade)
CRISIS IN THE 3RD CENTURY 4) The impact of Christianity ROMAN VALUES CHRISTIAN VALUES Cult of Emperor (Emperor is divine) Religion before government
Dignitas: How peers judge you Loyalty to Empire Ideal citizen is the soldier/farmer Violence is a way of life Rewards come in this life Morals: How God sees you. Loyalty to God
Ideal citizen follows teachings of Jesus Christ Non-violence Rewards in the afterlife CRISIS IN THE 3RD CENTURY 5) The tent effect Diocletian Splits the Empire in Two: 294 C.E.
RISE OF THE TETRARCHY System designed to help rule the massive empire, which is split into two halves, East and West In each Empire, there is an Augustus (think President), and a Caesar (think VicePresident) After the retirement of Augustus of the East Diocletian, the tetrarchy system was plagued by infighting and mutually destructive civil wars, until one man emerged as sole ruler on either side: Licinus in the East, and Constantine in the West Eventually Constantine, later named the Great, was able to unite the empire in 324 C.E., and claim the title of sole Augustus (emperor)
THE IMPACT OF CONSTANTINE Disbands the Praetorian Guard Moved the capital from Rome to Byzantium (330 C.E.); renamed the city Constantinople. Why move the capital? Port city great for trade and commerce Strategic location surrounded on three sides by water; easy to
defend Its NOT Rome Rome seen as a pagan city plagued with problems. CONSTANTINOPLE: THE 2ND ROME THE IMPACT OF CONSTANTINE Converts to Christianity, leading to subsequent rulers taking up this religion
Declared Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire. (This coincides with a shift of power to the East.) Called the Council of Nicaea to determine the Churchs official doctrine. Result: the Nicene Creed (We believe in one God, the Father Almighty, Creator of Heaven and Earth, of all that is seen and unseen.)
THEODOSIUS Constantine died in 337 CE, replaced by Theodosius Theodosius could not rule the empire, divided in two again Western Roman Empire with capital in Rome Eastern Rome Empire with capital in Constantinople
ROME INVADED Western Empire unable to hold off German tribes on its borders Ostrogoths, Visigoths, Franks, Vandals, Saxons German tribes wanted warmer area, Roman riches, and to flee the Huns VISIGOTHS
Rome agreed to allow the Visigoths to live inside of Roman boundaries Romans treated Visigoths badly Visigoths rebelled and defeated the Romans Visigoth leader, Alaric, captured Rome in 410 CE VANDALS
Vandals followed Visigoths and spent 12 days stripping Rome of valuables (vandalism) Many more German invaders followed Finally, a German general named Odoacer defeated the western emperor Romulus Augustulus, who was 14
at the time THE FALL Augustulus was defeated in 476 CE For this reason, this date is given as the fall of the Western Roman Empire Western Empire was divided into many kingdoms that adopted many of the customs
of Rome ODOACER EASTERN ROMAN EMPIRE Although the Western Empire fell in 476 CE, the Eastern Roman Empire continued to prosper for 1,000 more years Became known as the
Byzantine Empire LEGACY OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE Cultural contributions Art Architecture Science Literature I
V X L C 1 5
10 50 100 D M
500 1000 LEGACY OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE Roman Engineering Aqueducts Sewage systems Dams Cement Arch LEGACY OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE
Cultural contributions Latin unifying language; foundation of many other Romance languages also the language of the Catholic Church Caveat emptor! Buyer beware!
Carpe diem! Seize the day! Et tu, Brute? And you, Brutus? (Julius Caesar) Amor vincit omnia. Love conquers all. veni vidi vici. I came, I saw, I conquered .
(Julius Caesar's report of victory in 47 B.C.E. over Pharnaces, king of Pontus) -- Law and Politics Republican government Legal codes LEGACY OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE Roman Catholicism and European Unity The idea of a united Europe will
continue to inspire leaders well into the Middle Ages Christianity becomes the uniting religious force in Western civilizations.
India Unity Diversity Indian Culture, Indian Music, Indian Architect, Heritage, Festivals of India, Multicultaralism, Multicultural Education India Few countries in the world have such an ancient and diverse culture as India's.
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