Robbins & Judge Organizational Behavior 13th Edition Chapter 8: Emotions and Moods Student Study Slideshow Bob Stretch Southwestern College 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8-1 Chapter Objectives Upon completion of this chapter you will be able to: Differentiate emotions from moods, and list the basic emotions and moods. Discuss whether emotions are rational and what functions they serve. Identify the sources of emotions and moods.
Show the impact emotional labor has on employees. Describe Affective Events Theory and identify its applications. Contrast the evidence for and against the existence of emotional intelligence. Apply concepts about emotions and moods to specific OB issues. Contrast the experience, interpretation, and expression of emotions across cultures. 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8-2 Why Were Emotions Ignored in OB? The Myth of Rationality Emotions were seen as irrational Managers worked to make emotion-free environments View of Emotionality
Emotions were believed to be disruptive Emotions interfered with productivity Only negative emotions were observed Now we know emotions cant be separated from the workplace 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8-3 What are Emotions and Moods? Affect A broad range of emotions that people experience Made up of: Emotions Intense feelings that are directed at someone or something Moods Feelings that tend to be less intense than emotions and that lack a contextual stimulus Exhibit 8-1
2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8-4 The Basic Emotions While not universally accepted, there appear to be six basic emotions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Anger Fear Sadness Happiness Disgust Surprise
All other emotions are subsumed under these six May even be placed in a spectrum of emotion Happiness surprise fear sadness anger - disgust 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8-5 Basic Moods: Positive and Negative Affect Emotions cannot be neutral. Emotions (markers) are grouped into general mood states. Mood states affect perception and therefore perceived reality. Exhibit 8-2 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8-6
What is the Function of Emotion? Do Emotions Make Us Irrational? Expressing emotions publicly may be damaging to social status Emotions are critical to rational decision-making Emotions help us understand the world around us What Functions Do Emotions Serve? Darwin argued they help in survival problem-solving Evolutionary psychology: people must experience emotions as there is a purpose behind them Not all researchers agree with this assessment 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8-7 Sources of Emotion and Mood
Personality There is a trait component affect intensity Day and Time of the Week There is a common pattern for all of us: Happier in the midpoint of the daily awake period Happier toward the end of the week Exhibits 8-3 & 8-4 Weather Illusory correlation no effect Stress Even low levels of constant stress can worsen moods Social Activities
Physical, informal, and dining activities increase positive moods 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8-8 More Sources of Emotion and Mood Sleep Poor sleep quality increases negative affect Exercise Does somewhat improve mood, especially for depressed people Age Older folks experience fewer negative emotions
Gender Women tend to be more emotionally expressive, feel emotions more intensely, have longer lasting moods, and express emotions more frequently than do men Due more to socialization than to biology 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8-9 Emotional Labor An employees expression of organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal transactions at work Emotional Dissonance: Employees have to project one emotion while simultaneously feeling another Can be very damaging and lead to burnout Types of Emotions:
Felt: the individuals actual emotions Displayed: required or appropriate emotions Surface Acting: displaying appropriately but not feeling those emotions internally Deep Acting: changing internal feelings to match display rules - very stressful Pay and Emotional Labor Exhibit 8-5 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8-10 Affective Events Theory (AET) An event in the work environment triggers positive or negative emotional reactions Personality and mood determine response intensity Emotions can influence a broad range of work variables Implications:
1. An emotional episode is actually the result of a series of emotional experiences triggered by a single event 2. Current and past emotions affect job satisfaction 3. Emotional fluctuations over time create variations in job performance 4. Emotion-driven behaviors are typically brief and variable 5. Both negative and positive emotions can distract workers and reduce job performance Emotions provide valuable insights about behavior Emotions, and the minor events that cause them, should not be ignored at work: they accumulate Exhibit 8-6 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8-11 Emotional Intelligence (EI) A persons ability to: Be self-aware Recognizing own emotions when experienced Detect emotions in others
Manage emotional cues and information EI plays an important role in job performance EI is controversial and not wholly accepted Case for EI: Intuitive appeal; predicts criteria that matter; is biologically-based Case against EI: Too vague a concept; cant be measured; its validity is suspect 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8-12 OB Applications of Emotions and Moods Selection EI should be a hiring factor, especially for social jobs. Decision Making
Positive emotions can lead to better decisions. Creativity Positive mood increases flexibility, openness, and creativity. Motivation Positive mood affects expectations of success; feedback amplifies this effect. Leadership Emotions are important to acceptance of messages from organizational leaders. 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8-13
More OB Applications of Emotions and Moods Negotiation Emotions , skillfully displayed, can affect negotiations. Customer Services Emotions affect service quality delivered to customers which, in turn, affects customer relationships. Emotional Contagion: catching emotions from others. Job Attitudes Can carry over to home but dissipate overnight. Deviant Workplace Behaviors Negative emotions lead to employee deviance (actions that violate norms and threaten the organization).
Managers Influence Leaders who are in a good mood, use humor, and praise employees increase positive moods in the workplace. 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8-14 Global Implications Do people experience emotions equally? No. Culture can determine type, frequency, and depth of experienced emotions Do people interpret emotions the same way? Yes. Negative emotions are seen as undesirable and positive emotions are desirable However, value of each emotion varies across cultures
Do norms of emotional expression vary? Yes. Some cultures have a bias against emotional expression; others demand some display of emotion How the emotions are expressed may make interpretation outside of ones culture difficult 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8-15 Summary and Managerial Implications Moods are more general than emotions and less contextual Emotions and moods impact all areas of OB Managers cannot and should not attempt to completely control the emotions of their employees Managers must not ignore the emotions of their co-workers and employees Behavior predictions will be less accurate if
emotions are not taken into account 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8-16 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America. Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
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