Rivers - Hydrological cycle (P.6)

Rivers - Hydrological cycle (P.6)

This is a focussed revision guide for use closer to the final exam a star* next to the slide number indicates a slide you must become an expert about as the exam approaches Ideas how to use the revision cards: - Colour code the cards to show how confident you are with the topic 1 - Ask someone at home to test you - Test yourself & highlight key words - Annotate (label) the cards - Re-write your own definitions - Look, cover, check - Draw a mind map for some topics - Expand on key words - Explain a topic to someone else - Cut out cards & stick around a room 64* Extreme Environments Mountain Environments What do we know about mountains? What a mountain environment is like physical characteristics:

Mountain ranges are considered to be extreme environments due to their height and the difficulties people face living in them. Altitude mountains are over 610m above sea level the higher you climb the less oxygen there is muscles become less efficient and it is difficult to move. Terrain moving around is difficult due to the steep gradients steep-sided mountain slopes and valley sides. Weather and climate weather can change very quickly due to relief rainfall cumulonimbus clouds gather quickly because warm air is pushed over mountains the air cools and water vapour condenses forming clouds which soon turn into storm clouds. Storms can last a few hours or a few days. Snow is common snow and ice at altitude make travelling hard. It is also colder the higher up you are and you can also be exposed to strong winds. 65* Extreme Environments Mountain Environments What do we know about mountains? The Andes mountain environments have an impact on humans: At 7000km long the Andes run through Peru, Bolivia, Argentina, Columbia, Ecuador and Chile. Economic activity: Low population density of about

1-10 people per sq/km: very low densities in the high Andes where living conditions are most difficult highest densities on the Altiplano a plateau (flat land high up in the Andes) still sparsely populated despite being home to the worlds highest city La Paz in Bolivia (population 2 million and growing rapidly) The Altiplano is home to the Aymara Indians subsistence farmers (grow just enough for themselves) who struggle to scrape a living in the harsh Aymara Indians main job is agriculture - they farm potatoes and quinoa (a grain crop) on steep mountain sides. This makes farming difficult so it is all done by hand. Alpaca farming: alpaca fibre and meat

are exported to places around the world - although it is not as profitable as it used to be. Tourism: tourists visit many places in Andes including Machu Picchu & for hiking, climbing and fishing holidays in Patagonia. Energy production: Energy is created through a few large scale hydro-electric dams located in Patagonia. This supplies electricity to many of the cities in the Andes. 66 Extreme Environments Mountain Environments Where are mountains found? Mountains are found on most continents those in red are mentioned in the specification: 1. Alps 2. Andes 3. Appalachians

4. Asir Mts 5. Atlas Mts 6. Balkan Mts 7. Caucasus 8. Drakensberg 9. Ethiopian Highlands 10. Great Dividing Range 11. Himalayas 12. Pyrenees 13. Rockies 14. Zagros Mts 67 Extreme Environments Mountain Environments Where are mountains found? The Andes mountain range is located to the west of South America. They are located between the Nazca and South American plates and run through countries such as Peru, Chile and Ecuador. The Alps mountain range is located in

central Europe. The mountains are in the middle of the Eurasian plate and run through countries such as France, Italy and Austria. The Himalayas are located in south Asia between the Indian and Eurasian plate. They are the highest mountain range in the world. The Atlas mountains are located in north west Africa between the African and Eurasian plates. They are located in Morocco and the Sahara desert. The Great Dividing Range is in east Australia on the Indian tectonic plate. The Pyrenees are located between Spain and France. The Rockies are in the west of North America they are found between the Pacific and North American plates. 68* Extreme Environments Mountain Environments Where are mountains found? There are different types of plate boundaries:

constructive (divergent) destructive (subduction) collision conservative Different plate boundaries have different physical processes associated with them: faulting folding volcanic activity earthquakes The strongest link is between the location of mountains and destructive plate boundaries pay particular attention to slide 70. 69 Extreme Environments Mountain Environments Where are mountain environments

found? A constructive (divergent) plate boundary e.g. Mid-Atlantic Ridge middle of the Atlantic Ocean. plates are moving apart new crust is constructed as magma (molten rock) from the mantle reaches the surface through the gap between the plates volcanoes erupt earthquakes are created by the friction between the mantle and the moving plates crust on either side of the boundary is often faulted there are big cracks in it caused by the massive pressures that the moving plates create 70* Extreme Environments Mountain Environments A destructive (subduction) plate boundary

Where are mountain environments found? e.g. The Andes are on the boundary between the Nazca and South American plates. Convection currents in the mantle make the 2 plates move together the heavier oceanic Nazca Plate pushes under the continental South American Plate = SUBDUCTION. In the subduction zone the Nazca plate melts in the mantle creating magma this rises to the surface where it erupts as lava volcanoes. The South American plate is also crumpled into fold mountains. Friction between the plates also causes earthquakes. 71 Extreme Environments Mountain Environments

Where are mountain environments found? A collision plate boundary - e.g. the Himalayas two continental plates push into each other they are the same density (unlike the continental and oceanic plates that meet at a destructive boundary) so neither of them sink into the mantle below they squeeze upwards forming fold mountains the massive pressures caused by two plates crashing into each other causes earthquakes no space for magma to rise from the mantle layer = no volcanoes 72 Extreme Environments Mountain Environments

Where are mountain environments found? A conservative plate boundary - e.g. San Andreas Fault on the west coast of North America. plates move past each other friction between the plates causes earthquakes no volcanoes because there is no space for magma to rise from the mantle layer 73 Extreme Environments Mountain Environments Where are mountain environments found? Key terms to understand what happens at plate boundaries you need to remember the following: crust the solid, outer layer of the Earth made up of continental and oceanic plates.

mantle the area of molten (melted), hot rock under the crust it is made up of a thick liquid called magma (known as lava if it reaches the surface) hot rock in the mantle rises, and sinks again as it cools these convection currents cause the plates of the crust to move. folding and faulting along with volcanic activity (magma rising to the surface, erupting as lava and solidifying), these lead to the formation of mountains folding is when the rocks of the Earths crust bend; faulting is when they break or crack. 74* Extreme Environments Mountain Environments Where are mountain environments found? Mountains are found in ranges along plate boundaries. Movement of the plates leads to mountain building: Fold mountains under extreme pressure and heat rock becomes pliable when two plates meet the layers of rock are slowly crumpled. As a result sedimentary rock formed under the sea can be found above sea

level millions of years later in the form of mountains the rocks fold upwards forming mountains. 75 Extreme Environments Mountain Environments Where are mountain environments found? A fault occurs when pressure at plate boundaries is so great that blocks of rock break apart. This process can occur very rapidly creating earthquakes. The damage caused by this can be very destructive and cause severe changes to the Earths surface. Faults rarely occur on their own they often occur together and are parallel to each other this can lead to the formation of mountains. 76* Extreme Environments

Mountain Environments Where are mountain environments found? Mountains created by faulting - Rift Valley A rift valley is created when two faults occur parallel to each other and the land sinks between them. The mountains on either side of a rift valley are called block mountains. Examples include the Great Rift Valley in North Africa and the Black Forest Mountains in Germany. 77* Extreme Environments Mountain Environments What are mountain

climates like? 1 The higher the altitude (height above sea level) the colder it gets about a 0.6c fall in temperature for every 100m you go up. 2 The higher the altitude the thinner the atmosphere is (less oxygen in the air) due to less pressure. 3 Mountains act as a barrier to the wind weather on the windward side can be quite different from the weather on the leeward side the west-facing slopes of the Andes are drier and more sheltered than the east-facing slopes. 4 The aspect (direction in which you face) is important e.g. east facing slopes get sun in the morning but not the afternoon. 78* Extreme Environments Mountain Environments What are mountain climates like? 5 Mountains force air to rise and cool condensation occurs forming clouds storms with rain or snow (precipitation) are likely the higher up you are this is

called relief rainfall: The air gets forced up and over the (windward) side of the mountain. As the air rises, it cools, condensation occurs, clouds form and it rains. The air sinks down the other (leeward) side of the mountain there is little moisture left in the air. The air also warms, evaporation of remaining moisture occurs so no clouds form = no rain. rainfall = 400800mm a year drier west side in the rain shadow Atacama Desert Andes moist,

easterly wind 79 Extreme Environments Mountain Environments What are mountain landscapes like? Glaciers a glacier is a mass of ice that moves slowly downhill under gravity. 80* Extreme Environments Glaciers erode the landscape using 2 processes: Abrasion the moving ice uses bits of rock that it carries to wear away at the surface of the rock below.

Plucking as water freezes it attaches to pieces of rock to the ice. When the glacier moves the pieces of rock are pulled with it. Mountain Environments What are mountain landscapes like? The landscape is also affected by freeze-thaw weathering (frostshattering): During the warm day, melt water sinks into cracks in the rock. At night the water freezes, expands (by 10%) the process is repeated and eventually breaks off pieces of rock. This rock can be used by the glacier for abrasion. 81 Extreme Environments

Mountain Environments What are mountain landscapes like? Freeze-thaw weathering on the mountain side can lead to the formation of scree a collection of broken rock fragments at the base of the slope. This rock can be used by a glacier for abrasion. 82* Extreme Environments Mountain Environments What are mountain landscapes like? This is a CORRIE (sometimes called a cirque or tarn) a bowl-shaped hollow with a steep back wall and a shallow lip at the front a small lake often forms in the corrie bowl. Corries are usually found in the mountains and are formed by ice erosion when the ice has gone you are left with the landform below: Corrie lip Steep,

frostshattered back wall Corrie lake or tarn 83* Extreme Environments Mountain Environments A corrie forms in stages A, B, C & D below: Base of hollow deepened by abrasion and plucking Less erosion leaves lip material deposited on lip Steep, frostshattered back wall Corrie lake Corrie lip

What are mountain landscapes like? Back wall made steeper by erosion/weathering 84* Extreme Environments If 2 corries form side by side a knife-edged ridge is formed between the two steepsided back walls this is called an arte Arte Mountain Environments What are mountain landscapes like? 85*

Extreme Environments Mountain Environments What are mountain landscapes like? Third corrie on other side of the mountain If three corries are found together a horn-shaped mountain is formed from the glacial erosion on all sides this is called a pyramidal peak. Pyramidal peak 86 Extreme Environments Mountain Environments

What are mountain landscapes like? Glaciers come in different shapes and sizes as well as corrie glaciers there are longer valley glaciers which leave glacial troughs when the ice has gone (receded): The valley glacier erodes by abrasion and plucking. Moraine material transported and deposited by the glacier can be lateral, medial and terminal. 87 Extreme Environments Mountain Environments What are mountain landscapes like? Glaciers come in different shapes and sizes after the ice melts we see the effect of the glaciers on the landscape here erosion by valley glaciers has left behind U-shaped valleys:

Ribbon lake a long, narrow body of water in a deeply eroded glacial valley. Some are trapped behind glacial deposits (terminal moraine). Terminal moraine where the glacier ended it left behind this pile of stones, boulders and soil, which made a ridge across the valley. 88 Extreme Environments Mountain Environments What are mountain landscapes like? Glaciers come in different shapes and sizes after the ice melts we see the effect of the glaciers on the landscape here erosion by valley glaciers has left behind U-shaped valleys: Glacial trough/U-shaped valley a deep, steep-sided, flatbottomed valley usually very straight.

Truncated spur before glaciation this was a ridge round which a river valley curved. Glaciation eroded away the end of the ridge leaving an area of high ground protruding into the valley.. Hanging valley was a small tributary valley to the main river valley before glaciation the main river valley eroded deeper during glaciation , leaving this smaller valley above the level of the main valley can be a waterfall between the hanging valley and the main valley. 89 Extreme Environments Mountain Environments What are mountain landscapes like? Rivers also erode the landscape in mountain environments these are known as fluvial processes they create certain landforms:

V-shaped valleys A V-shaped valley the process begins with the river eroding downwards (vertically) due to: abrasion sand and stones wear away the bed and banks of the river channel hydraulic action - the fastflowing water is forced into cracks in the banks breaking them up solution water dissolves soluble minerals from the bed and banks 90 Extreme Environments Mountain Environments What are mountain landscapes like? Rivers also erode the landscape in mountain environments these are known as fluvial processes they create certain landforms: V-shaped valleys 1) The river erodes

downwards as boulders, stones and rock particles are bounced and scraped along the channel bed. 2) As the river cuts down, the steep sides are attached by weathering. This breaks up and loosens the soil and rock. 3) The loosened material slowly creeps down the slope because of gravity or is washed into the river by rainwater. 4) The river carries material away and the end result is a V-shaped valley. 91

Extreme Environments Mountain Environments What are mountain landscapes like? Rivers also erode the landscape in mountain environments these are known as fluvial processes they create certain landforms: Interlocking spurs The photograph shows how hills stick out like the teeth of a zip in the rivers path these are called spurs. The river doesnt have the energy to erode the spurs, so it winds its way around them this creates the landform of interlocking spurs. IF THE V-SHAPED VALLEY IS FILLED WITH ICE (A VALLEY GLACIER), IT WILL ERODE THE LANDSCAPE CREATING A U-SHAPED VALLEY. THE INTERLOCKING SPURS WILL BE WORN AWAY BY THE ICE LEAVING TRUNCATED SPURS. 92 Extreme Environments Mountain

Environments What are mountain landscapes like? Rivers also transport and deposit material these are also fluvial processes they create certain landforms: Flood plains If a river flows on the floor of a Ushaped valley it can flood the land on either side of the river channel this is the flood plain. When the river floods the material it has carried (transported) is deposited in the form of fine silt called alluvium this builds up the flood plain and makes the land very fertile for crops. flood plain alluvium 93 Extreme Environments Mountain Environments

Tourism Machu Picchu an example of a cultural/sight-seeing holiday The mysterious lost city of the Incas, high in the Andes 70 km from the nearest city Cuzco. Half a million people visit every year putting pressure on the site and the surrounding environment 2000 a day (grows by 6% a year). Tourists get there by train (from Aguas Calientes) or by hiking along the Inca Trail (6000 in 1984; 82000 in 2004). Aguas Calientes can only be reached by train there are plans to build a road (the towns population has already grown from 500 to 4000 in 10 years). Plans to build a cable car to the site from Aguas Calientes. IMPROVEMENTS TO ACCESSIBILITY WOULD INCREASE THE VISITOR NUMBERS EVEN MORE. How do people use mountain environments? 94* Extreme Environments Mountain

Environments How do people use mountain environments? Tourism in an LEDC Machu Picchu an example of a cultural/sight-seeing holiday There are social/economic (s) and environmental (e) costs and benefits to tourism: Tourism costs negative impacts site is being eroded by tourists feet (e) Inca trail vegetation worn away by walking and timber cut for fuel (e) tourism is an unreliable employer unemployment in the low season & poorly paid jobs (s) more sewage in Aguas Calientes pumped into river & increased litter (e) money from tourism goes to other countries where the travel companies are based (s) loss of traditional culture - people forced off their land to make way for construction to aid tourism (s) poor working conditions (e.g. for porters) (s) 95* Extreme Environments Mountain

Environments How do people use mountain environments? Tourism Machu Picchu an example of a cultural/sight-seeing holiday benefits/positive impacts creates jobs formal (e.g. in a hotel/travel guides) & informal (not employed by anyone street vendors selling postcards) (s) entrance fees and taxes on tourism = extra money for the Government of Peru (s) new facilities for tourists benefit local people (e.g. new infrastructure roads/bridges new bridge across the Vilcanota river to Machu Picchu will bring more tourists and can also be used by farmers to get goods to market quicker than before improving the quality of their life) (s) THERE ISNT A SINGLE ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFIT 96 Extreme Environments Mountain Environments What are the alternative futures for the Andes? There are positive impacts of tourism at Machu Picchu, but tourism at the site is currently

unsustainable: Economically sustainable? (generates money for people and future developments) Socially sustainable? (meets peoples needs so they can live contented lives now and in the future) Environmentally sustainable? (protects the environment from harm and conserves resources) NO NO NO e.g. Price of goods and services /property in local towns have increased too expensive for locals. e.g. Some tourists behave badly and upset local people culture conflict tourists dominate local facilities/services;

trekking harms indigenous farming environments local people often end up working in informal jobs in the tourist industry where they are not respected (e.g. porters treated poorly). e.g. The natural environment is overused and changed by tourism- Machu Picchu and Inca Trail being eroded by tourists feet vegetation cut down or worn away. 97 Extreme Environments Mountain Environments What are the alternative futures for the Andes? Tourism Machu Picchu an example of a cultural/sight-seeing holiday solutions: Sustainable, eco-tourism responsible travel to natural areas which conserves the environment and sustains the well-being of the people:

offer fair wages buying fresh local produce minimising waste, leaving no litter ensuring good working conditions (e.g. for porters) trekking groups limited to 12 98* Extreme Environments Mountain Environments What are the alternative futures for the Andes? Tourism Machu Picchu an example of a sustainably managed holiday - eco-tourism : HIGH INCA TRAIL TREK TO MACHU PICCHU Economically sustainable? (generates money for people and future developments) Socially sustainable? (meets peoples needs so they can live

contented lives now and in the future) Environmentally sustainable? (protects the environment from harm and conserves resources) YES YES YES Porters, cooks and mule wranglers are formally employed local people are used and are paid a fair wage. Travel company are committed to staff welfare - camp staff receive all accommodation, transport and food whilst on the trek. Travel company funded a centre to provide advice and support to the local community on a range of social issues All waste is removed from campsites and recycled/composted. Walkers encouraged to stick to footpaths to cut down on erosion 99*

Extreme Environments Mountain Environments How do people use mountain environments? Indigenous people The Aymara Indians live on the Altiplano a sparsely populated plateau formed from deposits brought down from the mountains by wind and water they make poor soils & most Aymara Indians are subsistence farmers (growing enough food to survive) struggling to make a living in a harsh environment. The terrain makes it difficult to take food to markets to sell. The Indians depend on two crops potatoes and quinoa. Quinoa is a grain crop with all the nutritional benefits needed for a healthy diet (seeds are cooked like rice & leaves are boiled like spinach) the stalks can also be burnt for fuel. Quinoa grows well at high altitudes in poor soil with little rainfall, in both hot and cold weather. The Aymara also keep llamas and alpacas for meat and wool. 100* Extreme Environments Mountain Environments

What are the alternative futures for the Andes? The future of farming in the Andes sustainable or not? Alpaca farming large-scale ranching: Countries such as China and Australia now have their own alpaca herds to protect the future of the industry in Peru large-scale ranching is being developed with wealthier farmers taking over smaller farms many see this as more sustainable: farmers invest large amounts in pure alpacas with finer fibres that make more money farmers have buildings insulated against the cold by mud alpacas can be moved indoors when it snows alpacas survive the winter months fibres go to a processing factory in Arequipa textiles are manufactured for export using machinery to produce clothing for China, USA, Australia and New Zealand large profits can be made. 101 Extreme Environments Mountain Environments How do people use mountain

environments? Indigenous people rural to urban migration For years people from the Altiplano have been migrating from the countryside to the city rural to urban migration: Push factors cold, dry climate; poor soils; few jobs other than farming; poor educational opportunities; lack of healthcare; poor diet and malnutrition (the renewed popularity of quinoa is helping with this), lack of clean water and electricity Pull factors more work; higher income (30 times higher than farming); educational opportunities; housing; healthcare and a higher life expectancy. 102* Extreme Environments Mountain Environments What are the alternative futures for the Andes? The future of farming in the Andes sustainable or not?

Quinoa farming: quinoa is one of the planets most nutritious foods a health food for people in Europe, USA, China and Japan farmers can now sell their quinoa crop prices have tripled since 2006 the crop has improved quality of life of people in some of the poorest regions of the Andes However, quinoa is worth more to the indigenous people as something to sell as a result they eat less of it themselves and their diets have become much poorer as a result. People are returning home from towns and cities to grow quinoa, but bitter disputes are breaking out about who owns the land on which quinoa is grown. Ethical consumers in MEDCs are not always aware that quinoa is now no longer affordable to indigenous people in the Andes it is better for indigenous people to sell the crop and their traditional diet is suffering as a result. 103 Extreme Environments Mountain Environments How do people use mountain environments? Other uses of the Andes by people: Scientists use the Andes: to develop commercial farming methods e.g.

world renowned animal experts are researching alpacas to make sure that the purest animals with the finest wool can reproduce and maintain the quality of the fibres in future generations to understand volcanic activity and develop the potential of geothermal power to understand the impacts of climate change through studying glacial retreat understanding the impacts on water supply in the Andes 104 Extreme Environments Mountain Environments condensation precipitation evaporation rivers carry water back to the ocean How do people use mountain

environments? Mountains have a key role in the hydrological cycle precipitation (rain, hail, sleet or snow) levels are high in mountain areas due to relief rainfall a mixture of surface runoff (rainwater running along the ground), throughflow (rainwater flowing downhill through soil) and groundwater flow (slow movement of water downhill through rock beneath the ground) supplies water to major rivers. 105* Extreme Environments Mountain Environments How do people use mountain environments?

Mountains can provide valuable natural resources that can be exploited the Andes are a source of hydro-electric and geothermal power: Hydro-electric power (HEP): Running water is used to drive turbines. Certain physical conditions are needed these conditions are very common in the Andes with its deep valleys and rivers: fast flowing water the Andes have very steep gradients increasing water speed excellent for HEP high rainfall all year & snow melt either a lake as a natural water store, or a narrow and deep valley with rocky sides to build a dam and create a reservoir Once the HEP is operating, there are many advantages making HEP a sustainable form of energy: continuous production - renewable energy no water or air pollution no CO2 created low cost water can be used for other purposes when it reaches further downstream Unfortunately, sites with good physical conditions are not found anywhere. If a dam needs to be built to store enough water, this increases costs. Flooding the land behind the dam, drowns forests, destroys wildlife habitats and forces people off their land. 106 Extreme Environments Mountain Environments How do people use mountain environments?

Mountains can provide valuable natural resources that can be exploited the Andes are a source of hydro-electric and geothermal power: Hydro-electric power (HEP): Case study in the Andes Peru gets 80% of its electricity from HEP. The Yuncan Dam Project is located on the Puacartambo and Huachon rivers in north east Peru. It cost $262m to build. It produces 901GWh of electrical power per year with most of this electricity going to the national grid in Peru. However, because hydro-electric power varies with rainfall amounts and snow melt, in the last few years Peru has been reducing its dependence on HEP but using more and more natural gas. As glaciers in the Andes melt due to climate change, Peru has lost water equivalent to 10 years supply to the capital city Lima. 107 Extreme Environments Mountain Environments What are the alternative futures for the Andes? Mountains can provide valuable natural resources that can be exploited the Andes are a source of hydro-electric and geothermal power: Hydro-electric power (HEP): There are many remote villages in the Andes with no electricity supply.

People are leaving such villages to find work in nearby towns and cities rural to urban migration. HEP has been used on a small scale to provide electricity to isolated communities with pipelines and small turbines generating electricity 24 hours a day, villages have been regenerated with new businesses growing less people are now migrating away. small-scale, sustainable use of HEP 108* Extreme Environments Mountain Environments What are the alternative futures for the Andes? Mountains can provide valuable natural resources that can be exploited the Andes are a source of hydro-electric and geothermal power: Geothermal Power another renewable form of energy that generates electricity without burning fossil fuels and creating CO2:

The Andes also contain many volcanic areas - the volcanic rocks may heat water so that it rises to the surface naturally as hot water and steam. Here the steam can be used to drive turbines and generate electricity. Unlike HEP, geothermal is not dependant on the weather but installation and start up costs can be expensive and drilling down can sometime release harmful gases. Currently the Andes has few geothermal power stations but plans are underway for this type of energy to become more and more exploited. 109* Extreme Environments Mountain environments What challenges do mountain environments pose and how can they be overcome? Mountaineers use the Andes because they offer the opportunity for great achievements, climbing spectacular and challenging mountains (e.g. Siula Grande at 6,344m). Mountaineers face frostbite, injury and even death less oxygen at high altitudes muscles become less efficient must gain height slowly 600m a day. Whilst there is plenty of snow and ice, water is in short supply as is food. Other challenges for people include: Transport and accessibility very difficult due to steep slopes roads and railways have to be constructed around these costly and difficult to build often walking is the only option. Snow line in Peru is at 4500m snow and ice make travelling even harder. Storms can last days during which travel is impossible. Remoteness because transport is so difficult people living in remote areas have little or no contact with

the world outside their village. Many places are a long way from specialist help Aconcagua is 113km from the nearest city if an emergency happens often the only way out is by foot. Shelter in a storm shelter is needed quickly local residents can use their houses, but mountaineers will have to put up tent, dig a snow hole or find a place in the rocks. Indigenous people develop larger lungs and produce more blood cells to deal with lower air pressure and lack of oxygen. They have adapted to survive e.g. growing crops on steep sided valleys can only produce small amounts. It is however difficult to access education to get the skills needed for better jobs and many live without a clean water supply and sewage disposal because the cost of providing this for remote areas is too high and natural water is in short supply dehydration is a problem at high altitudes. 110 Extreme Environments Mountain Environments What challenges do mountain environments pose and how can they be overcome? Mountaineers manage the challenges in different ways: Reflective glasses protects eyes from the glare Multi-layered clothing trap

air insulation from the cold Insulated gloves protection from frost bite Equipment lightweight oxygen cylinder, ice axe to climb steep ice & altitude stoves to melt ice for water supply Windproof jacket duvet jackets filled with feathers warm and light keep bodys core temperature stable by avoiding cold Spiked boots avoid slipping and falling in difficult terrain snow and ice. 111* Extreme

Environments Mountain Environments What challenges do mountain environments pose? Natural hazards the 10 highest volcanoes in the world are found in the Andes earthquakes are also frequent: Earthquakes 16th August 2007 earthquake measuring 7.9 on the Richter scale hit Peru - 337 confirmed deaths. Volcano Ubinas Peru spewed acid-laden ash over surrounding area 640 families in 6 villages affected eye and breathing problems. Animals died from drinking contaminated water & eating contaminated grass these animals had been a source of food and money poverty made worse. 112* Extreme Environments Mountain Environments What challenges do mountain

environments pose? Natural hazards Landslides/landslips 1998 city of Santa Teresa destroyed 15 people died 2000 residents lost homes and livelihoods. Bridge over the Vilcanota river connecting the city to Machu Picchu was destroyed now a 15 hour journey to Cuzco in order to transport goods Avalanches large amount of snow falling suddenly down a mountainside caused by: snowfall usually within 24 hours of heavy snow (over 30cm) temperature increases weaken upper layers of snow wind uneven snow on leeward side dropped by wind ground cover most avalanches caused by smooth ground slope most on convex slopes between 30 and 45 degrees (where most ski slopes are found) 113* Extreme Environments Mountain Environments How can challenges be overcome? Managing natural hazards Volcanic eruptions scientists monitor volcanoes and set up warning systems via radio, loudhailer

and sirens. People are then able to evacuate areas that are threatened by the eruption. Earthquakes monitoring and warning systems giving people time to take action (e.g. allowing people to drop (often under a table), cover and hold on). buildings can be designed to withstand the shaking of the earth although this is difficult for LEDCs such as Peru where many of the buildings are poorly constructed. education on emergency procedures (e.g. earthquake drills at schools). 114* Extreme Environments Mountain Environments How can challenges be overcome? Managing natural hazards Landslides/landslips landslide hazard analysis helps predict where landslides are likely to take place allowing land use planning deciding where it is safe to build. early predictions and warnings are essential for the reduction of property damage and loss of life data from different sources is mapped using GIS to allow accurate analysis and make effective predictions. Avalanches explosives are used to prevent avalanches, by triggering smaller avalanches that break

down instabilities in snow. snow fences and light walls can be used to direct the placement of snow. trees can either be planted or they can be conserved, such as in the building of a ski resort, to help prevent and reduce the strength of avalanches. 115* Extreme Environments Mountain Environments What are the alternative futures for the Andes? Climate change (increased CO2 and other greenhouse gases trapping heat) Melting the ice and snow and causing glaciers to retreat (ice melts at the end of the glacier faster than it accumulates in the mountain). In Peru (Cordillera Blanca range) glaciers terminate 800 metres higher up the mountain than they did 60 years ago. Studies show that the top 20 metres of ice has melted and new layers are not forming. Most of the lower altitude glaciers in Peru will disappear within 20 years. 116* Extreme Environments

Mountain Environments What are the alternative futures for the Andes? Climate change Possible impacts in Peru (h human; e environmental): Glaciers supply water to Perus dry coastal region. No glaciers = no water for rivers = no water supply for coastal cities which are growing rapidly. (h) Farmers depend on water less snow as the snow line gets higher means less water animals have less food and their wool is no longer growing as well as it did. Farmers cant plant potatoes in lower fields due to lack of water have to plant higher where there is thinner soil. (h) Chunks of melting ice falling from glaciers could trigger devastating floods (e.g. city of Huarez is threatened). (h/e) Peru gets 80% of its electricity from hydro-electric power (HEP) is this runs out power stations may need to use fossil fuels like coal. (h/e) Ecosystems affected as the snow line gets higher mosquitoes, normally found in low-lying areas have been found near glaciers can spread the disease malaria many deaths as most cant afford medicines. Wildlife/vegetation is threatened habitats destroyed as the snow line gets higher. (h/e) 117* Extreme Environments Extreme

Environments How have extreme environments been represented in cultural resources? Mountains have been represented in paintings in the past and present this allows the artist to show how dramatic the landscape is and the impact it has on people the artist can use their own imagination and skill to make sure the painting shows how extreme the mountain environment is: These paintings show the steep slopes and jagged rocks found in mountain areas as well as the storms and snow that are also common in these environments in each case people are shown responding with fear to the environment. 118* Extreme Environments

Extreme Environments How have extreme environments been represented in cultural resources? The Sahara is so vast at 9 million sq km, it takes a range of photographs to identify the key features: physical geography the natural landscape human geography features relating to people and places environmental geography the positive/negative impacts people have on the natural environment. 119* Extreme Environments Extreme Environments How have extreme

environments been represented in cultural resources? Extreme environments have also attracted film makers not only do they provide dramatic landscapes, because they are places on the very edge of where humans can survive, they provide the opportunity to make exciting films by showing people trying to live through the most challenging of life-threatening circumstances. Touching the Void is based on a book written by Joe Simpson it is an example of expedition literature it tells the story of two mountaineers who set off to climb Siula Grande in the Andes, encountering extreme and life-threatening situations. Not only is it a gripping story of survival, it is also an excellent example of how expedition literature can give us a real insight into what it is like to spend time in environments on the very edge of where humans can survive. 120* Extreme Environments Extreme Environments

How have extreme environments been represented in cultural resources? Having done its basic job of taking us through the pass and onto the escarpment, the tarmac ends abruptly. The road reverts to dirt track but soon the rubble gives way to softer, sandier terrain, and by the time we reach the outskirts of Chinguetti we are on the edge of a sand sea, classic date-box desert, for which the Arab word erg sounds awfully inadequate. This is an extract from Michael Palins Sahara it is an example of travel writing. We can learn a lot about deserts from books like this not only are they written in a creative way that make them more interesting to read than textbooks, they bring extreme environments to life with a focus on the lives of people living and working in the desert they also contain factual, place-specific facts and figures. The book was based on the BBC documentary Sahara extreme environments also attract programme makers because of the dramatic landscapes and the interesting lives that people live there trying to survive in challenging circumstances. Watching 15 minutes of Kate Humbles documentary on the Andes is a great way of becoming familiar with the location in preparation http://www.youtube.com/ for the exam!! watch?v=-iY9BXcAKRg 121* Extreme

Environments Extreme Environments Spell of the Andes This is a song of the Andes, That reaches unto the sky on the slow warm days, When the Cholos play, And the river runs low and high. The towering Andes look down In the passing sun: Im one with the Andes Brotherhood, Im a dreamer, with a song I came from afar to see her And how beautiful she really is, with her strong hardness, fresh freedom O God! How I want to breath her in the autumn of my life! How have extreme environments been represented in cultural resources? Poems are often used to bring extreme environments to life: This poem is by Dennis L. Siluk. Notice all the words that are used

to describe the Andes mountains and how they bring the environment to life in your imagination e.g. towering Andes; that reaches unto the sky. 122* Extreme Environments Extreme Environments For your sake, I hurry over land and water, For your sake, I cross the desert and split the mountain in two, And turn my face from all things Until I reach the place Where I am alone with You Poem by Al Hallaj People often represent deserts as spiritual places in poems many people have gone into extreme environments to feel closer

to God. How have extreme environments been represented in cultural resources? The artist has also shown the Andes as a spiritual place in this painting an environment that can only have been created by God: 123* Extreme Environments Extreme Environments How have extreme environments been represented in cultural resources? Specimen exam question: Identify one source of information that you have found useful when studying your extreme environment. Explain how it helped your understanding of the extreme environment. Things to consider in an answer:

DVD/documentary had a lot of background information about how people used the environment. Textbook gave me lots of facts and figures it was up to date & gave me the current picture of the environment. DVD/film had images that showed key features of the climate/landscape & showed the challenges faced by people in the environment.

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