Revolution and Reaction 1815-1848 Latin American People win Independence Colonial Society Divided Class dictated a persons role in society and your job At the top of Spanish American society were the Peninsulares These are people who were born in Spain They made up only a small
percentage of the population They were the only people who could hold high office in Spanish colonial government. Creoles were below the Peninsulares in rank These are Spaniards born in Latin America They could not hold high political office They could rise as officers in Spanish colonial armies Below the Peninsulares and the Creoles
in rank were the Mestizos Next were the Mulattos People of Spanish and Native American Descent People of mixed Spanish and African Descent And the Native Indians Then were the enslaved Africans
Revolutions in the Americas The success of the American Revolution, as well as ideas from the enlightenment encouraged the Latin American colonies to try to gain their independence. Revolution in Haiti The French colony called Saint Domingue was the first Latin American Colony to free itself from European rule
Haiti occupied the Western 1/3 of Hispaniola in the Caribbean sea There were 500,000 enslaved Africans working on French plantations there When the French Revolution was happening the Haitians rebelled against their French masters In August of 1791 100,000 slaves revolted They were led by Toussaint LOuverture, a former slave By 1801 he had taken control of the entire island and freed all the slaves In January 1802, 30,000 French troops landed in Saint Domingue to remove LOuverture from
power He agreed to end the revolution if the French would stop slavery They agreed but then accused him of planning another rebellion LOuverture was arrested and sent to the French Alps where he died in 1803 Haitis Independence LOuvertures lieutenant was a man named Jean-Jacques Dessalines
On January 1, 1804 General Dessalines declared the colony an independent country It was the first black colony to free itself from European control Dessalines renamed the country Haiti, which means Mountainous Land Creoles lead independence Though they were denied the ability to hold public office, Creoles were the least oppressed people born in Latin America They were also well educated Many travelled to Europe for their education
They brought ideas of the enlightenment home with them when they returned When Napoleon removed King Ferdinand VII and replace him with his brother Joseph the colonies rebelled Simn Bolvar Simn Bolvar was a Creole from Venezuela
Venezuela declared its independence from Spain in 1811 but the war didnt go well at first The turning point came in August of 1819 Bolvar led 2,000 soldiers on a march through the Andes into what is now Colombia From this direction he took the Spanish Army in Bogot by surprise By 1821 Bolvar had won Venezuelas independence He then marched south into Ecuador where he met Jos de San Martn Jos de San Martn San Martn was a Creole from Argentina
Argentina had declared its independence from Spain in 1816 But there were still Spanish forces in Peru and Chile who posed a threat In 1817 he marched his troops across the Andes into Peru where he met up with Bernardo OHiggins forces The Two men freed Chile In 1821 San Martn planned to drive the remaining Spanish forces out of Lima but he didnt have
enough troops San Martn and Bolvar met in Guayaquil, Ecuador in 1822 where San Martn left his army for Bolvar to command The combined forces defeated the Spanish at the Battle of Ayacucho (Peru) on December 9, 1824 The Spanish colonies now had their freedom and were united into a country called Gran Colombia Made up of the modern countries of Venezuela, Colombia, Panama, and Ecuador
MEXICO ENDS SPANISH RULE A Cry for Freedom Padre Miguel Hidalgo In1810 Hidalgo, a priest in the small village of Dolores, rang the bells of his church When the people showed up he issued a call for rebellion against the Spanish Today this is known as the Grito de Delores The next day, September 17, 1810, Hidalgos Indian and Mestizo followers began a march towards Mexico City
The army soon numbered 80,000 men. The Spanish Army and the Creoles were alarmed because they thought they would lose their land and privilege They defeated Hidalgo in 1811. The rebels then rallied around Padre Jos Mara Morelos. Morelos led the rebellion for 4 years until he was defeated by Agustn de Iturbide in 1815
Mexicos Independence In 1820, a liberal group took power in Spain Mexicos Creoles feared a loss of their traditional power so they united for Mexican Independence Agustn de Iturbide proclaimed it in 1821 Before the Mexican Revolution, all of Central America had been part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain In 1821, several C. American states declared their independence from Spain and from Mexico
Iturbide, who had declared himself emperor, refused to recognize these claims He was overthrown in 1823 Central America claimed absolute independence from Mexico in 1823 Called itself the United Provinces of Central America Included Nicaragua, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, and Costa Rica Brazils Royal Liberator
Led by a member of the Portuguese Royal Family In 1807 Napoleon invaded both Spain and Portugal His goal was to close their ports to British Shipping Prince John (Joao) and his family fled to Brazil Rio de Janeiro became the capitol of the Portuguese empire Lasted 14 years After Napoleons defeat in 1815 King John returned to Portugal
His son Dom Pedro stayed behind King John intended to make Brazil a colony again 8,000 Brazilians signed a petition asking Dom Pedro to rule them as an independent nation He declared Brazilian independence on September 7, 1822 Europe Faces Revolutions Clash of Philosophies
There are three schools of thought that were around in Europe right now Liberal: Mostly middle-class business leaders and merchants Wanted to give more power to elected parliaments, but only the educated and the landowners could vote Conservative: Usually wealthy property owners and nobility Wanted to protect the traditional monarchies of Europe Radical: Came from all classes Favored drastic change to extend democracy to all people They believed that governments should practice the ideals of the French Revolution Liberty, equality, fraternity
Nationalism Develops Nationalism is the belief that peoples greatest loyalty should not be to a king or an empire but to a nation of people who share a common culture and history When a nation had its own independent government it became a nation-state A nation-state defends the nations territory and way of life and it represents the nation to the rest of the world In Europe in 1815 France, England, and Spain could be called Nation States Most people who believed in Nationalism were either liberals or radicals Usually the liberal middle class led the way Nationalists challenge conservative power
Greeks Gain Independence Unlike most if not all independence movements, the Greek movement had popular support all over the world Russians felt a connection to the Greek Orthodox Church Educated Americans and Europeans loved and respected Ancient Greek Culture Eventually as support spread, the major powers of Europe took the side of the Greeks In 1827 a combined British, French and Russian fleet destroyed the Ottoman fleet at the Battle of Navarino. 1830 Britain France and Russia signed a treaty
guaranteeing an independent kingdom of Greece 1830s Uprisings Crushed By the 1830s the Congress of Vienna was breaking down Nationalist riots broke out against Dutch rule in the Belgian city of Brussels In October of 1830 the
Belgians declared their independence from Dutch control In Italy, nationalists worked to unite the many separate states on the Italian peninsula Some of these areas were controlled by Austria, some were independent, and others were controlled by the pope Eventually, Metternich sent in Austrian troops to restore order to Italy
The Polish people living under Russian rule also revolted Took place in Warsaw Took Russia an entire year to put down the uprising 1848 Revolutions Fail to Unite Ethnic uprisings erupted throughout Europe and the Austrian Empire Got worse after Metternichs resignation. In Budapest the nationalist leader
Louis Kossuth called for Parliament and selfgovernment for Hungary. In Prague, Czechs demanded Bohemian independence. However, these revolutions never gained the strength they needed to make any real difference and by 1849, Europe was in the hands of conservatives again Radicals Change France France was the only country in Europe where the goal of the revolutionaries was democratic reform. In 1830 Charles X tried to go back to absolutism
This led to revolts that made Charles flee to Great Britain He was replaced by Louis-Philippe Louis-Philippe had long been a supporter of liberal reform He falls from favor in 1848 He was overthrown by a Paris mob and they created another republic The Third Republic This republic began to fall apart almost immediately One group of radicals wanted only political reform The other group wanted political, social, and economic reform as well
Because of all this fighting, people turned away from the radicals and a moderate constitution was written in 1848 It called for a strong president and an elected parliament France Accepts a Strong Ruler In December of 1848 Louis Napoleon won the presidential election He was the nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte Four years later, Louis Napoleon Bonaparte took the title: Emperor Napoleon III This was approved by a majority of French voters
The French wanted a strong leader who would bring stability and peace to France As emperor, Napoleon III built railroads, encouraged industrialization, and promoted an ambitious program of public works Because of his policies, unemployment decreased and the country prospered Reform in Russia Russia hadnt begun to industrialize like the rest of Europe in the 1800s
Under Russias feudal system, serfs were bound to the nobles whose land they worked Nobles had almost unlimited power over them This feudal system meant that Russia couldnt modernize the way the rest of Europe was But Czars were not willing to free the serfs because it would make the nobles angry and they needed the landowners
to stay in power Defeat Brings Change Eventually the lack of development in Russia became obvious to everyone In 1853 Czar Nicholas I threatened to take over part of the Ottoman Empire in the Crimean War However Russias industries and transportation system failed to provide adequate supplies for the countrys troops As a result Russia lost the war in 1856 against the combined forces of France, GB, Sardinia, and the Ottoman Empire
After the war, Alexander II decided to move Russia toward modernization and social change He felt that these changes would allow Russia to compete with western Europe for world power The first of Alexanders reforms was a decree freeing the serfs in 1861 with the Emancipation Edict The abolition of serfdom didnt work however The peasant communities received about of all the farmland in the country Individual peasants got nothing The government paid the nobles for their lost land
Peasants had 49 years to pay back the government for the land they got Even though they were technically free, now they were tied to the land by debt All reform ground to a halt when Alexander II was assassinated in 1881 His son Alexander III tightened czarist control over the country He and his ministers encouraged industrial development to expand Russian Power Nationalism was a main driving force behind
this industrial expansion Nationalism I.Nationalism: A Force for Unity or Disunity A.There were three types of nationalist movements 1.Unification Mergers of politically divided but culturally similar lands 19th century Germany and Italy 2.Separation Culturally distinct groups resist being added to states or try to break away Greeks in the Ottoman Empire
French speaking Canadians 3.State-Building Culturally distinct groups form into a new state by accepting a single culture The United States Nationalism Shakes Aging Empires The breakup of the Austrian Empire Many different ethnic groups lived in the Austrian Empire Slovenes
Hungarians Germans Czechs Slovaks Croats Poles Serbs, Magyars Italians In 1866 Prussia defeated Austria in the Austro-Prussian War Prussia gained control of the newly organized North German Confederation
This was a union of Prussia and 21 smaller states. Pressure by the Hungarian Magyars led Austrian Emperor Franz Joseph to split his empire in half Austria and Hungary were made individual independent states Franz Joseph was the leader of both Now called Austria-Hungary or the Austro-Hungarian Empire There were nationalist revolts in Austria for the next 40 years It eventually breaks up into several separate nations after WWI The Russian Empire Crumbles Many different ethnic groups also lived in Russia
100,000,000 Russians 22,000,000 Ukrainians 8,000,000 Poles And smaller numbers of Lithuanians, Latvians, Estonians, Finns, Jews, Romanians, Georgians, Armenians, Turks, and others. Each of these groups had their own culture, and in some cases, their own language. The Romanov dynasty of Russia was determined to maintain iron control over this diversity They instituted a policy of Russification This was forcing Russian culture on all the ethnic groups in the empire
Instead of weakening nationalism, it strengthened ethnic nationalist feelings and helped to tear Russia apart The Czars couldnt survive the combination of WWI and the Communist Revolution The last Russian Czar, Nicholas II, was murdered in 1917, ending the Romanov dynasty in Russia. The Ottoman Empire Weakens. The Ottoman Empire a vast empire of many different ethnic groups a.Greeks
b.Slavs c.Arabs d.Bulgarians e.Armenians In 1856 the British and French pressured the Ottomans into granting equal citizenship to all people under their rule Angered conservative Turks who wanted no change in the situation As a result of this the Ottomans killed or deported many of their newly equal people
From 1894-1896 and again in 1915 the Ottomans massacred the Armenians. The Ottoman Empire, like the Austro-Hungarian empire broke up shortly after WWI Camillo di Cavour Cavour Unites Italy Cavour leads Italian Unification Piedmont-Sardinia was the most powerful of the Italian Nation States
They had adopted a liberal constitution in 1848 In 1852, King Victor Emmanuel II named Camillo di Cavour as his prime minister Victor Emmanuel II He realized that the biggest roadblock to unifying Italy was Austrias presence in the North In 1858 Napoleon III agreed to help drive Austria out of the northern Italian provinces
Cavour then provoked a war with the Austrians The combined forces of France and Sardinia won two quick victories Italy got Lombardy but France was afraid of annoying Austria too much and signed a separate peace allowing Austria to keep Venetia Giuseppe Garibaldi Garibaldi Brings Unity As Cavour was uniting northern Italy, he was helping nationalist rebels in southern Italy In May of 1860 the Red Shirts, a group of nationalists led by Giuseppe Garibaldi captured Sicily
From there he crossed to the Italian mainland and marched north Eventually Garibaldi agreed to unite the southern areas he had conquered with Piedmont-Sardinia Cavour arranged for King Victor Emmanuel to meet Garibaldi in Naples He agreed to step aside and let the Sardinian king rule In 1866 the Austrian province of Venetia became part of Italy In 1870 Italian forces took over the last part of the Papal States Rome now came under Italian control and the pope would keep a self-governing section called Vatican City Bismarck Unites Germany
Prussia leads German Unification Advantages Prussia was mainly German and therefore nationalism united them instead of dividing Prussias dedication to militarism made their army the strongest in Central Europe In 1848 Prussia had a liberal constitution that paved the way for unification Bismarck takes Control
In 1861 Wilhelm I took the throne The liberal parliament refused him the money for reforms that would strengthen the army He saw the parliaments refusal as a challenge to his authority He was supported by the Junkers These are conservative members of Prussias wealthy landowning class In 1862 Wilhelm I chose a Junker named Otto Von Bismarck as his prime minister
Bismarck practiced realpolitik Means the politics of reality With the kings approval, Bismarck declared that he would rule without the consent of parliament and without a budget This was in violation of the constitution. He told the people in parliament that it wasnt speeches that would get them anywhere, but blood and iron Earned him the nickname Iron Chancellor Prussia expands In 1864 Bismarck took the first step towards empire
Prussia and Austria formed an alliance and went to war against Denmark Wanted to win Schleswig and Holstein Defeated Denmark quickly and gained support for a unified Germany Austria got Holstein Prussia got Schleswig The Seven Weeks War Bismarck intentionally stirred up conflict with Austria in the Schleswig-Holstein area. Austria then declared war on Prussia in 1866
Prussia defeated Austria in 7 weeks with superior training and technology Austria lost Venetia which was then given to Italy Prussia annexed northern Germany This united the eastern and western parts of the Prussian kingdom for the first time In 1867 the remaining states of the north joined the North German Confederation, which was dominated by Prussia The Franco-Prussian War In 1867 there were a few German states that remained independent
They were mostly catholic and were afraid that theyd lose their culture in a protestant Prussian dominated Germany. Bismarck felt that he could gain the support of the south if they had a common enemy from the outside He provoked a war with France through the Ems Telegram This telegram made it look like the French Ambassador had insulted the Prussian King In response, France declared war on Prussia on July 19, 1870 The Prussian Army surrounded the main French force at Sedan and Napoleon III was taken prisoner.
This victory united the south as well and on January 18, 1871 they captured the French palace of Versailles King Wilhelm I of Prussia was crowned Kaiser Called their Empire The Second Reich
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