REVIEW V MING DYNASTY Emperor Hongwu established the Ming (brilliant) dynasty, following the Yuan dynasty, in 1368; his immediate goal was to remove all signs of Mongol rule Hongwu centralized power and established direct rule by the emperor reestablished a civil service system based on Confucian values to ensure promotion of scholar bureaucrats on the basis of ability, not favors Power of the central government was increased through the use of eunuchs (sterile men who could not produce a family to challenge the dynasty) and mandarins (emissaries sent out to enforce government
ZHENG HE A eunuch admiral who led seven exploratory voyages for Ming China from 1405 to 1433 Traveled to Southeast Asia, Ceylon, India, the Persian Gulf, Arabia, and the East African coast, where he established tributary relationships Technologically advanced fleets and armies received from the countries he visited included animals from Africa, which went to Ming zoo Ming emperors abruptly pulled funds from Zheng Hes expeditions because they thought the funds would be better spent on agriculture and protection from northern
RENAISSANCE Rebirth of Greco-Roman culture that lasted from 1300s to 1500s Humanism: focus on things of this world, a departure from medieval thought Reflected the spirit of individualism and encouraged a focus on things of this world (secularism) Artists: Donatello and Michelangelo studied muscle structure, and their work accurately reflected the natural form Architecture mimicked the simple and elegant structures designed by Greco-Roman builders with the addition of the dome
CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS An explorer from Genoa proposed heading west to reach Asia through an all-water trade route Sponsored by Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain, Columbus was given three ships to traverse the Atlantic Landed in the Bahamas in 1492 Columbus returned without gold, silk, and spices from Asia, but he insisted that he had reached islands off the Asian mainland In three subsequent voyages, Columbus never admitted he had not reached Asia; his discoveries led to other expeditions in the
Caribbean and the Americas, and lands were TRANS-SAHARAN TRADE Introduction of the camel sped up communication and transportation across the Sahara Caravans of camels crossed the Sahara in 70 to 90 days Kingdoms such as Ghana, Mali, and Songhai in western Africa were important in connecting the Mediterranean basin to subSaharan Africa Arab conquerors established Islam in North Africa during the seventh and eighth centuries, conquered Ghana in West Africa, and converted leaders of Mali and Songhai Islamic merchants were an important part of the Trans-Saharan trade and later introduced
OCEAN Larger ships and improved commercial organization led to an increase in trade in Indian Ocean basin Advances in planning: rhythms of monsoons; larger ships; warehouses built to store goods Trade conducted in stages because monsoons forced mariners to stay in ports for months waiting for favorable winds Important Indian ports: Cambay, Calicut, Quilon way stations for traders from China
and Africa East African city-states traded gold, iron, and ivory From China, silk and porcelain LONG-DISTANCE TRADE IN EASTERN HEMISPHERE Southeast Asia, Africa, and India were all connected by trade Goods traveled through two primary routes: silk roads, established in Han dynasty, were best for transporting light luxury items (silk and precious stones); the sea was used for bulkier items (coral, stone, and building materials) Major trading cities included Hangzhou,
Alexandria, Khanbaliq, Kilwa, Constantinople, Quanzhou, Cairo, Melaka, Venice, Cambay, Timbuktu, and Caffa Trading cities enjoyed tremendous wealth as MOTIVES FOR EUROPEAN EXPLORATION To find new, more efficient water trade routes to Asian markets, avoiding the established land routes through Muslim-controlled areas (and thus the taxes imposed by Muslim middlemen) To find new lands to extend the cultivation of cash crops To spread the Christian religion To gain political status
TECHNOLOGY OF EUROPEAN EXPLORATION Lanteen sails, which allowed ships to sail in any direction The astrolabe, used by sailors to determine latitude Inventions borrowed from the Chinese included the sternpost rudder, which improved navigation, and the magnetic compass As more voyages were made, mariners learned more about ocean winds new, more accurate maps Caravels faster than older ships EUROPEAN EXPLORERS
Bartholomeu Dias, a Portuguese explorer, rounded the Cape of Good Hope on the southern tip of Africa in 1488, stopping at Indian Ocean Vasco da Gama, from Portugal, rounded the Cape of Good Hope in 1497 and continued his voyage up the eastern coast of Africa, eventually making his way to India; this sea route gave Europeans access to the Asian spice market without having to cross traditional land routes controlled by Muslims Christopher Columbus searching for a western water route to Asian markets landed in Caribbean EUROPEAN EXPLORATION OF PACIFIC
Between the 1500s and 1700s, Europeans explored the Pacific motivated by trade In 1521, Ferdinand Magellan became the first European to cross the Pacific Ocean Trade in the Eastern Hemisphere was conducted mainly through the Spanishcontrolled city of Manila, established in 1571, which connected Spanish colonies with Asian markets Contact with Europe brought some change to the Pacific: new diseases and missionaries, who followed explorers in the hopes of converting natives to Christianity COMMERCIAL REVOLUTION
The changing nature of trade and business in this period was known as the Commercial Revolution Beginning in Europe in the early 1500s, nations competed to expand their empires overseas The establishment of large colonial empires generated great wealth for many European nations and led to the establishment of new business practices, including joint-stock companies MERCANTILISM
A new economic theory adopted by many European nations with the goal of maintaining a favorable trade balance whereby a county exports more than it imports European countries depended on raw materials and natural resources from their colonies; colonies were also viewed as markets for finished goods This policy encouraged competition among Europeans to establish more colonies Theory rejected in Adam Smiths Wealth of Nations (1776) TRADING POST EMPIRES
Trading posts, built to establish commercial relations, resulted from the control of trade routes The Portuguese built the first trading posts; Vasco da Gama built one in Calicut With increased exploration, more trading posts were established The Portuguese had trading posts along both coasts of Africa and throughout Asia The English and the Dutch, following the lead of the Portuguese, also built trading posts The English established posts throughout India; the Dutch from South Africa to JOINT-STOCK COMPANY
A commercial venture that brought together many investors in order to minimize the risks and costs of the investment and thus spurred exploration Privately held, with government support Shares/stocks were bought by individuals, and the shared investment was used to buy ships and finance trade Two of the most profitable companies were the Dutch East India Company, which established a monopoly over the spice trade (by securing trade routes to Indonesia), and the British East India Company SPANISH CONQUEST OF THE AMERICAS
Spanish conquistadores in search of gold and other riches others interested in converting indigenous population to Christianity Hernan Cortes arrived in Mexico in 1519 and within two years conquered Aztec Empire In 1522, Francisco Pizarro conquered the Incan Empire along the west coast of South America Technological advantages steel armor, guns, horses also alliances with hostile tribes Diseases to which native peoples had no immunities, such as smallpox decreased SPANISH CONQUEST OF MANILA
The Spanish faced little resistance from the unorganized government of the Philippines Spain saw both commercial and religious opportunities Control of the port of Manila, established in 1571, ensured direct access to Chinese products, especially silk, and a link to Spanish America Spanish control of silver mines in the New World and the increasing demand for silver by the Chinese the founding of city of Manila in 1571 marked birth of world trade Manila galleons (Spanish ships) crossed the Pacific, picked up silver in Mexico, and brought back to Manila COLUMBIAN EXCHANGE
Global exchange between the New and Old Worlds Plants, food, animals, people, resources, and diseases were exchanged New disease from Europe (smallpox, influenza, and measles) caused far-reaching epidemics Over 90 percent of the peoples of Mexico (Aztecs) died within a century of Spanish arrival Exchange of new food products led to population increase across globe maize and potatoes arrived in Europe, Africa, and Asia The movement of people Atlantic Slave Trade also many Europeans seeking new
SPANISH COLONIAL EMPIRE IN AMERICAS The Spanish crown established centralized control over much of the Americas through the use of many bureaucratic offices Two large areas, one in Mexico and one in Peru, were each overseen by a viceroy, who reported directly to the Spanish king; viceroys were responsible for enforcing colonial policy A new colonial social hierarchy emerged based on birth peninuslares, those born in Spain at top; next creoles, those born in colonies to Spanish parents, followed by mestizos, people with both European and native ancestors, and at bottom natives and people of African descent CHRISTIANITY IN
AMERICAS Missionaries quickly followed European explorers to New World Missionary activities, supported by crown, carried out by Franciscans, Dominicans, and Jesuits Natives, who already had well-established religious traditions, were often resistant to conversion; missionaries sought to learn the language of the indigenous peoples It was not uncommon for natives to blend elements of their traditional beliefs with the new ideas introduced by the missionaries (syncretic beliefs emerged)
In modern times, majority of South Americans Roman Catholic AMERICA French, Dutch, and English explored and claimed land in North America Colonies were founded by the French in Canada, by the English in Jamestown and Massachusetts Bay, and by the Dutch in modern-day New York City Unlike Spanish colonies, North American colonies were founded by private investors Conflict often resulted as natives and Europeans fought for land control, but just as
often there were conflicts among settlers Socially, Europeans and natives tended not to mix with one another, in contrast to Latin America, where classes reflected the mixed SEVEN YEARS WAR A series of conflicts fought on a global stage from 1756 to 1763 Significant because the war reflects the intense commercial rivalries that developed from European exploration and Europeans resulting desire to establish trading posts in the Americas and Asia Conflicts in India, the Caribbean, and North
America ultimately established British hegemony In North America, the French and Indian War was the stage for direct fighting between the French and the British By the end of this time period, Britain ENCOMIENDA SYSTEM A feudal-like system established by the Spanish in the New World to ensure a cheap labor supply An encomienda was the grant of Indians to an encomendero, a Spanish landowner In return for this labor supply, the encomendero was responsible for safeguarding the natives health and safety,
as well as encouraging the conversion to Catholicism The natives were treated harshly; the natives were so overworked that the Spanish eventually had to import slaves from Africa to replace the diminishing native labor supply HACIENDAS Large agricultural estates in colonial Latin America Both commercial crops and livestock (pigs) were produced; the majority of crops were European in origin, such as wheat They tended to be self-sufficient, not focused on making profits Peasants working on haciendas were known
as peons REPARTIMIENTO SYSTEM (MITA SYSTEM IN PERU) Originating in colonial Latin America, the system forced native Indians to work several months a year, generally on Spanish-owned plantations, mines, or public works projects Natives worked only a limited amount of time and were compensated for their work The system was harsh, particularly in the mines, and over time it was replaced with more profitable labor systems in which workers were given an incentive to work (a fair wage and improved working conditions) SUGAR IN COLONIAL LATIN AMERICA
Sugar, a labor-intensive crop, was the most important crop in the Portuguese colony of Brazil and the sugar mill (engenho) became the center of Brazilian colonial life Field workers cultivated the sugarcane and mill workers oversaw the processing of molasses and refined sugar Although the Spanish had had success in drafting the native population to meet their labor needs, the Portuguese were less successful in Brazil The majority of workers in the sugar mills were slaves imported from Africa Demand for the commodity increased with Columbian Exchange
SILVER IN COLONIAL LATIN AMERICA Silver mining in Mexico and in Peru required a tremendous labor supply The Spanish coerced natives to work in mines Profits from silver made Spain wealthy and powerful and played a significant role in global trade: silver crossed the Atlantic into Europe; European merchants traded silver for silk and porcelain in Asian markets The founding of Manila by the Spanish in 1571 facilitated the global exchange of silver
Some historians argue that silver was the worlds first commodity The Ming Dynasty relied on silver taxation INDENTURED LABOR A system in which people from Europe promised to work for a certain amount of time in exchange for their paid passage to the New World The system developed as the result of the demand for cheap labor for the large colonial plantations in North America, which by the 1600s were focused on the production of cash crops such as tobacco and cotton Unlike the Spanish, who had success in drafting the native population for labor needs, colonists in North America were unsuccessful in forcing natives to work on their plantations
and thus needed an alternative labor supply SONGHAY EMPIRE An Islamic empire established in the 1400s (following decline of Mali) and lasting until the 1600s The capital city, Gao, was commercially successful and, following a campaign of expansion led by Sunni Ali, the empire reached its height and included the city of Timbuktu Controlled trans-Saharan trade routes, which allowed for exchange of salt for gold Timbuktu trading city and leading cultural
center The emperors were all Muslims In the late 1500s, Moroccan army with guns attacked and seized Songhay
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