Rational use of antibiotics in cholangitis Towards efficient and safe management AZZA BARAKA PROFESSOR OF CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY FACULTY OF MEDICINE-ALEXANDRIA UNIVERSITY OBJECTIVES What is meant by rational use of antibiotics? Antibiotics belonging to the same class are not meant to be equal. How to be vigilant towards antibiotics ADRs? Rationalize Antibiotic Use
Choice Duration Indicati on Timing Decreas e ADRs Cholangitis Coretip The main importance of this condition is that
it is a very treatable condition if treated appropriately, But the mortality can be high if there is delay in correct treatment Factors affecting antibiotic choice in cholangitis Severity CA or HA MDR risk factors Renal & hepatic Comorbidities Know your enemy
What are most common bacteria incriminated in cholangitis ? This depends on type & severity of cholangitis: PEEKS ( CA grades 1-2) Anaerobes (suspected in stents, biliary-enteric anastomosis). Pseudomonas, MRD, Enterococci ( especially in HA and grade III CA).
XDR suspected in presence of risk factors Thus empiric antibiotics should cover both Gram-negative and anaerobic organisms, together with enterococcus if hospital acquired) Antibiotic factors SPECTRUM Antibiotic Spectrum Vancomycin, teicoplanine, Linezolide, tigecycline, tedizolid, (HA MRSA> MSSA).
SUPER GRAM POSITIVE Cover MRSA NB: CA-MRSA is covered by : clindamycin, tetracyclines, Trimethoprim/ sulfamethoxazol SUPER GRAM NEGATIVE Cover
Fluoroquinolone(2nd generation) Cefepime * main weakness is weak anaerobe coverage. Zosyn (Piperacillin/Tazobactam) ** broader due to excellent anaerobe coverage. Carbapenems *** (except Ertapenem) broadest due to strong anaerobes, plus ESBL coverage. (VERY) BROAD SPECTRUM Cover both Gram(+) and Gram(-) including Pseudomonas,
Do NOT cover: MRSA, Atypicals, XDR, PDR - Carbapenems developed Selective pressure for CR Stop choosing meropenem by default to treat G-ve Adopt strategies to reduce COU Carbapenem Sparing Therapy CRE
PDR Colistin (EXCEPT Pr, S) Tigecycline (EXCEPT Ps, Pr) Modified dosing regimes for carbapenems AB Combinations ANTIBIOTICS WITH ANAEROBE COVERAGE 1) Metronidazole (FLAGYL) better for GIT anaerobes including clostridium difficile. 2) Clindamycin better for oral anaerobes + some GIT anaerobes but not
clostridium difficille 3)Combined penicillin/Beta-Lactamase inhibitors: Augmentin, Unasyn, Zosyn 4) Carbapenems 5) 2nd Generation Cephalosporins :Cefoxitin, Cefotetan 6)4th generation fluoroquinlones(Moxifloxacin) Know your antibiotic For CA cholangitis; Amoxicillin/ Clavulanate , Ampicillin/sulbactam are NOT any more recommended and have been removed from the North American guidelines. In grade II: The choice can be among the following antibiotics: 1- Piperacillin/tazobactam ( Zosyn) 2- Cefoperazone metronidazole 3- Ceftazidime metronidazole 4- Cefepime metronidazole
5- Aztreonam metronidazole 6-Carbapenem 7-Ciprofloxacin metronidazole Vancomycin is to be added to any of the above in: grade III cholangitis; in patients who have previously taken cephalosporins or other antimicrobial agents selecting for Enterococcus species; in immunocompromised patients; and in those with valvular heart disease or prosthetic intravascular materials. For HA- cholangitis; As there is an increasing number of ESBL producing E. coli and Klebsiella that are not reliably susceptible to
cephalosporins, penicillin derivatives, or fluoroquinolones , thus empiric coverage with one of the following is essential: 1- Meropenem ( Meronem) 2- Amikacin + metronidazole 3- Piperacillin/tazobactam ( Zosyn) PLUS Vancomycin ( it is to be added to any of the above) Optimal duration of antibiotic therapy for acute cholangitis 1-Once the source of infection is controlled, antimicrobial therapy for patients with acute cholangitis is recommended for the duration of 7 days. 2- If Residual stones or obstruction of the bile tract are present, treatment should
be continued until these anatomic problems are resolved. 3- If liver abscess is present, treatment should be continued until clinical, biochemical and radiological followup demonstrates complete resolution of the abscess. 4- In patients with pericholecystic abscesses or perforation of the gallbladder, treatment should be continued until the patient is afebrile, with a normalized white count, and without abdominal findings. For grade III or HA cholangitis, multiple comorbidities : antipseudomonal, anti-enterococcal For all patients with a biliary-enteric anastomosis, coverage of anaerobic pathogens is recommended irrespective of the severity of illness 3rd & 4th GCSs have good gram-negative coverage but have no anti-anaerobic activity so Metronidazole will need to be added.
CSs have no enterococcal coverage and this needs to be kept in mind especially in the presence of biliary stents. Once results of susceptibility testing become m available, treatment should be narrowed. e R m e r e
b Liver transplant patients who develop cholangitis have high probability of Candida and/or Enterococcus Guide management Improving vital signs, including fever, are an indication that the chosen antibiotic regimen is right. Abdominal pain and tenderness on RUQ palpation should also improve with response. Liver enzymes and CBC are usually monitored every day to monitor response to treatment. PT/INR is also followed-up every day or every other day until correction or stability.
Indication for early biliary acid drainage Failure to respond in about 12-24 hours with Features of sepsis If after decompression still no response (within one week to given antibiotics), then RESISTANCE is highly suspected. Last resort antibiotics : colistin, Tigecycline (+ linezolid) NO RESPONSE !!????? Can we win our battle against MDR, XDR & even
PDR?? Yes, but by no longer relying on discovery of new antibiotics Slowing the evolution of antibiotic resistance can be MORE EFFECTIVE than developing new drugs 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Rationalize use of antibiotics Look into the past and revive old antibiotics Appreciate individual differences between members of same AB group
Optimize Antibiotic Dosing Strategies by proper utilization of PK/PDs Optimize use of drug combinations Antibiotic factors Tissue Penetration Be sure that the antibiotic reaches the site of infection If cholangitis with bacteremia Choose Antibiotics that achieve good concentration in blood Antibiotic factors
Activity at the target site II-Revival of old antibiotics -Carbapenems sparing ABs: cephalosporins, PTZ, AGs III-Appreciate individual differences between members of the same group!!! Differenc es Pharmacokinetic
Microbiological Target tissue Safety & DI Resistance selection pressure (mutagenic potential) Even BLIs differ!! If a L-LI is L-L-LI is LI is administered, does the type of L-LI is -LI matter (eg, tazobactam, sulbactam, clavulanic acid?
Azithromycin Clarithromycin Cefotaxime Ceftriaxone Ampicillin Amoxicillin Ceftazidime Cefoperazone Sulbactam Clavulinic acid (Levofloxacin ciprofloxacin ) Moxifloxacin Amikacin (R) Tobramycin(P) Gentamycin So please be cautious when choosing an individual antibiotic!!! The three carbapenems are not meant to be equal Imipinem Meropenem
1st Gen 2nd Gen +++ +++(strept) 3rd Gen 4th Gen ++ (Except +++ ceftazidime +++ +++ + ++ +++
+++ PEKS PEKS All All +enterobacter, enterobacteriacae,H enterobac H influenzae influenzae teriacae,H influenza e +++(ceftazidime, +++ cefoperazone)
+ +++ + + (Cefoxitin & cefotetan 1st Gen Urinary FQ 2nd Gen Antipsudom onal FQ
3rd Gen Respiratory FQ 4th Gen Intraabdominal FQ GPC except enteroco cci
- + ++ +++ GPB - -
- - GNC - ++ + +
GNB Urinary PPEEKSSS +++ PPEEKSSS H influenza +++ PPEEKSSS H influenza ++
PPEEKSSS H influenza ++ Pseudom onas Urinary +++ +++ ++
++ Anaerobe s - - - +++ Atypical
- + +++ ++ Ciprofloxacin vs Levofloxacin C L
Antipseudomonal +++ ++ Anti atypicals + +++ Anti gram positives
++ + Tendionopathy +++ + Dysglycemia +
+++ DIs +++ + What is the FQ to be administered to a patient receiving warfarin? IV- Optimize dosing regimens Optimal antibiotic therapy should be used and is meant to indicate that not
only is the correct antibiotic selected, but also that the dosage is sufficient to obtain the maximal exposure threshold determined from pharmacodynamic studies. An interesting observation relevant to optimal antibiotic therapy is that the pathogen need not be Susceptible to the drug in question, as long as the exposure of the agent is sufficient to kill that organism (Aggressive dosing regimen).. Avoid failure to meet necessary pharmacodynamic targets due to inadequate dosing and/or interval schedule
ANTIBIOTIC PHARMACODYNAMICS 1.Concentration dependent killing and prolonged persistent effects (aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, colistin) 2.Time dependent killing and minimal persistent effects (beta lactams, linezolid, tigecycline) 3.Time dependent killing and moderate to prolonged persistent effects (vancomycin, tetracycline, azithromycin)
Dosing Regimens According To PK/PD The ideal dosing regimen for category 1 would maximize concentration, because the higher the concentration, the more extensive and faster the degree of killing. ( eg ODD aminoglycoside) The ideal dosing regimen for category 2, would maximize time of exposure because t >MIC is the parameter that best correlates with efficacy. (eg extend infusion time for meropenem) The ideal dosing regimen for category 3 is to maximize the amount received. DOSING OPTIMIZATION One of the inviting factors to AMR is under-dosing
It is time to move away from the one dose fits all strategy that has been traditionally applied in clinical medicine towards a "more personalized antibiotic dosing" Linezolid should be prescribed by continuous infusion in: Difficult-to-treat infection plus at least one of these conditions Septic shock Large volume resuscitation High cardiac output Measured creatinine clearance >160 ml/min Immunosuppressed patients Body mass index >25 kg/m2
Staphylococcus aureus with MIC to linezolid >2 g/ml Reasons to use linezolid by continuous infusion Even timing of antibiotic administration has an impact Chronotherapy Administer SDD of AG according to circadian variation in GFR. !! Be cautious from Under dosing 1- Obesity Obesity causes a number of changes in PKs, including increase in Vd
In general, lipophilic antibiotics usually require TBW dosing . In contrast, hydrophilic antibiotics usually require IBW or ABW dosing. BUT NEVER give a child a dose exceeding recommended adult dose Colisti n Be Cautious from underdosing 2- Hypoalbuminemia This leads to decrease in the degree of PPB of many highly protein-bound antibiotics, resulting in an increase in fraction available for distribution and clearance from the plasma .
This would translate to lower target exposure to antibiotics especially for time-dependent antibiotics Dose adjustments of these antibiotics in hypoalbuminaemia should be regarded as an important step for antibiotic dosing optimization. Be Cautious from under-dosing 3- Critical illness As a general rule, it is the PK of hydrophilic rather than lipophilic
antibiotics which may be affected by the presence of sepsis. V- Antibiotic combinations Our new coming players that can play a role against MDR BUT Antibiotic combinations are not always the magic stick
Antibiotic combination efficacy networks Synergistic effects Collateral sensitivity Choose combinations based on Collateral sensitivity Synergistic Antibiotic Combinations against MDR positives
1. Anti staphylococcal Beta lactams plus Vancomycin against VISA 2. Penicillin plus Aminoglycosides or cephalosporin against Enterococci 3. Meropenem plus piperacillin plus tazobactam : against MRSA via reciprocal collateral sensitivity of its constituents. 1.
Synergistic Antibiotic Combinations against MDR negatives Carbapenem based Combinations: Double carbapenems ( imipinem or meropenem/ ertapenem), Colistin/ meropenem against CPE Triple combinations (double carbapenems /tigecycline (colistin) ) , (carbapenem / rifampin / colistin) against CPE
2. Colisitin/Vancomycin (linezolid) or Colistin /tigecyclin (rifampicin) in MDR Acinetobacter ii-Antagonistic antibiotic combinations 1. Some combinations Bacteriostatic/
bactericidal The stasis produced by bacteriostatic, likely inhibits the activity of bactericidal, which works best on actively-dividing bacteria. Examples: linezolid/vancomycin against MRSA Antagonistic Antibiotic Combinations (Cont..) 2. Double -lactam Antagonism in SPACE/SPICE:
Induction of B-lactamase by one agent, renders the second agent ineffective. ( especially combining 3rd GCs). 3- DO NOT Combine Clavulanic acid and cephalosporins Clavulanic acid is a Potent inducer of the AmpC
betalactamase ( cephalosporinase) that confers resistance against cephalosporins. For this reason , sulbactam ( which is not reported to induce such AmpC beta lactamases, is the preferred beta lactamases inhibitor to be combined with cephalosporins ( eg combination between cefoperazone and sulbactam) TAKE HOME MESSAGE THE REAL WORRY IS NOT FROM AMR BUT FROM BRAIN RESISTANCE TO CHANGE when fighting an evolving enemy, it is NOT right to rely on prior victories to continue. There is a glimmer of hope for
Concluded no debilitating effect (sorry I couldn't find original paper) Wade, Schraw, Buxton & Hayes 1993: measured the time students spent High/Low Import/Interest items. ... Develop over time… tend towards typicality/neutrality w/ age.
There is not only one template for developing a lesson plan. You will find that every district and/or campus has its own guidelines, requirements and/or template for lesson planning. Make sure to ask your mentor teacher or administrator if you...
Mr. Birling Exemplar Paragraph. The first act introduces Arthur Birling as a character who is ignorant about many topical issues. He memorably states that 'the Titanic' is 'unsinkable, absolutely unsinkable'.
Marcus sometimes struggles to know what to say in conversations. He might say things that others view as strange or different. Marcus works near a guy named Ben. Almost every day, Ben asks Marcus lots of questions about his special...
Tras una primera etapa divisionista, inauguró el fauvismo. En su obra se advierte la influencia de Van Gogh, Gauguin, las estampas japonesas y el exotismo oriental. André Derain André Derain (1880-1954) pintó emotivos paisajes de colores puros, aplicados a veces...
* Joan Miro, 1968 First Discourse: Economic Rationality Less ethical More Ethical Better Worse Ethical Values Self-Interest Rational Some insist that self-interest should be the sole and unique criterion of rational choice Irrational Second Discourse: Idealism Less ethical More Ethical...
DISPOSITIO. TEXTUS. Dispositio. textus. Problemas de grafías, división de palabras, acentuación, puntuación (Textos medievales, Textos del Siglo de Oro y Textos de los ss. XVIII, XIX y XX) División del texto y signos críticos especiales
Ready to download the document? Go ahead and hit continue!