No writing no science! Academic Writing [email protected] At the present understanding the process of the vection perception is an actual problem of theoretical and practical psychology. Discussion + conclusion Revising previous sections summarizing key results Describing relationship with exiting research
Achievement/contribution refining the implications Limitations+ future work Discussion 1. Do my data support what I set out to demonstrate at the beginning of the paper? ( -Introduction) 2. How do my findings compare with what others have found? How consistent are they? 3. What is my personal interpretation of my findings? 4. What other possible interpretations are there? 5. What are the limitations of my study? What other factors could have influenced my findings? Have I reported everything that could make my findings invalid? 6. Do any of the interpretations reveal a possible flaw (i.e. defect, error) in my experiment? 7. Do my interpretations contribute some new understanding of the problem that I have investigated? In which case do they suggest a shortcoming in, or an advance on, the work of others? 8. What external validity do my findings have? How could my findings be generalized to other areas? ( research map of this field) Novelty
9. What possible implications or applications do my findings have? What support can I give for such implications? 10. What further research would be needed to explain the issues raised by my findings? Will I do this research myself or do I want to throw it open to the community? ( Wallwork, p. 245) Strategies for the 1-st sentence 1 ) reporting main results ( ! Saying that your results are is the central function of the Results, talking about what they mean - is the central function of the Discussion) 2) revising original purpose ( aim) ( present a consistent theory)/ (check a hypothesis)
3) revisiting methodology Read and identify the strategies The understanding that symbionts are critical for animal development, health, and homeostasis brings with it new problems and opens up novel avenues of investigations. In regard to evolutionary biology, much needs to be investigated in terms of understanding the very diversity of microbes, trying to unravel their complex relations with each other and with their animal host. The evolution of bacterial symbionts and their animal hosts is still an untapped research domain of central importance for evolutionary biology, medicine, and agriculture. ( Gilbert) Speciation is one of the least understood major
features of evolution. The main obstacle to progress is the variety of mechanisms that might lead to the evolution of reproductive isolation (Box 1), any one of which can be difficult to rule out in a specific case. The upshot is that it is still difficult to point to even two species in nature and state with confidence the mechanism that produced them. ( compare introduction ECOLOGICAL SPECIATION (see Glossary) occurs when DIVERGENT SELECTION on traits between populations or subpopulations in contrasting environments leads directly or indirectly to the evolution of REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION. The concept of ecological speciation dates back to the 1940s, from the time the BIOLOGICAL SPECIES CONCEPT was developed.) Dolph Schluter We extracted DNA from cultures of the tardigrade H. dujardini that were founded by
a single parthenogenic animal, and sequenced the genome to high average coverage (126-fold) using a combination of Illumina Moleculo long reads and short insert mate pair libraries (Fig. S1A). A total of 26.8 Gb of raw reads resulted in an assembly 212.3Mb in length containing 38,145 predicted genes (Fig. S1 B and C). The draft genome is comparable to existing eukaryotic reference genomes in terms of the percentage of guanine-cytosine ( Boothby) In many ways, Wolbachia has come of age. It is now emerging as a potent evolutionary force. Its interactions with host sex-determination systems and the cell cycle place it at the heart of organismal biology, and its effect on host populations can frame sexual behaviors and species
diversity. Moreover, Wolbachia can become indispensable to its hosts, suggesting reproductive parasitism as a possible pathway for the emergence of evolutionarily stable and intimate associations. The complete genome will give new impetus to understanding the mechanistic basis of Wolbachia/host interactions, which will in turn provide a fuller understanding of the degree to which this bacterium has framed its hosts biology. Verbs to be used in discussion/conclusion
Give provide/ enable Facilitate Solve Remove the need for lead Useful phrases , ... ,
... in vitro , , ... ... , . , . , , mTOR ( ) (
Studying the genome will give new impetus to Our results provide compelling evidence Our results provide ( support) a clear distinction between The results also (lend ) support to the view that... However, the methods we have developed provide a basis for... These findings give credibility to the in vitro data and supports the idea that This conclusion is based on the same ideas that lead to... These seemingly trivial results lead to... Our study provides the framework for future studies The methodology and combination of
procedures have shown this to be a promising direction for comparing cancer types This finding ( These findings) is ( are) promising and should be explored on other models Collectively, these findings suggest that mTOR inhibition holds promise for improved treatment 1. A greater understanding of our findings could lead to a theoretical improvement in ... 2. This analysis has concentrated on . . . 3. The findings of this study are restricted to . . . 4. The lack of . . . means that we cannot be certain . . . 5. The limitations of this study are clear: . . . 6. We would like to point out that we have not . . . 7. This study has addressed only the question of... 8. Although this is a small study, the results can be generalized to ...
9. Our results may hold true for other countries in Asia. 10. Our research only focuses on x, whereas it might be important to include y as well. 11. We did not pay much attention to ... The reason for this was ... 12.The questions of gender diversity were beyond the scope We have not been able to explain whether x = y. A larger sample would be able to make more accurate predictions. 1. However, the findings do not imply . . . 2. The results of this study cannot be taken as evidence for . . . 3. Unfortunately, we are unable to determine from this data . . . 4. We studied only a limited number of samples. A greater number of samples could lead to a higher generalization of our results 5. 6. It should be noted that this study has examined only . . . Limitations A. Limitations of Research Scope ( beyond the) 1. It should be noted that this study has examined only . . .
2. This analysis has concentrated on . . . 3. The findings of this study are restricted to . . . 4. This study has addressed only the question of... 5. The limitations of this study are clear: . . . 6. We would like to point out that we have not . . . 7. We studied only a limited number of samples. A greater number of samples could lead to a higher generalization of our results 8. Although this is a small study, the results can be generalized to ... 9. Our results may hold true for other countries in Asia. 10. Our research only focuses on x, whereas it might be important to include y as well. 11. We did not pay much attention to ... The reason for this was ... B. Limitations in Conclusions. 1. However, the findings do not imply . . . 2. The results of this study cannot be taken as evidence for . . . 3. Unfortunately, we are unable to determine from this data . . . 4. The lack of . . . means that we cannot be certain . . . 5. We have not been able to explain whether x = y. A larger sample would be able to make more accurate predictions.
6. A greater understanding of our findings could lead to a theoretical improvement in ... Can Can not Could not Must might may could should Be upfront about your findings and
achievements. In my work as a referee I often have difficulty in understanding how significant the authors feel their work is, and why their findings add value. This is because authors are not explicit enough they dont signal to me (and the reader) that they are about to say, or are now saying, something important. The result is that their achievement may be hidden in the middle of a nondescript sentence in a nondescript paragraph and no one will notice it. Hedging/ boosting -The result is somewhat surprising. The result is very surprising.
A number of physical housing features lead to unintentional injuries. A number of physical housing features may lead to unintentional injuries A number of physical housing features may certainly lead to unintentional injuries Such improvements would allow scientists to examine organisms in nature in detail. Such improvements will allow scientists to examine organisms in nature in detail. Adverbs Frequently, often, largely, typically, almost never, rarely, seldom, hardly ever, possibly, perhaps, probably, likely,
general in general, favourably, usually invariably We are not nouns, we are verbs. I am not a thing - an actor, a writer I am a person who does things - I write, I act - and I never know what I'm going to do next. I think you can be imprisoned if you think of yourself as a noun. Steven Fry The thought, departs, through the verb, from its abode and steps into reality Humboldt Verbs Reveal show point Prove demonstrate
out explain realize confirm establish notice find conclude Admit recognize determine acknowledge Claim argue contend Discover propose hypothesize insist assume estimate Assert maintain suspect suggest speculate stress recommend Read the following list of verbs and decide which ones are STRONG/ NEUTRAL/ WEAK
Advance- imply-establish Add- assert- claim Analyze-show-think State- remark-suggest Seem to- predict- propose Declare- mention- observe Imply- dispute- indicate Depict- declare- infer Write- stress- assume Read the ways to present the same information in active and passive. Then try to make up the sentences of you own and decide what would be better in each case. 1a The ends of a spindle are suspended by rigid side-arms from a bracket protruding to one side of the sledge frame. 1b We suspended the ends of a spindle by rigid side-arms from a bracket protruding to one side of the sledge frame. 1c It is the ends of a spindle that are suspended by rigid side-arms from a bracket
protruding to one side of the sledge frame. 1d It is by rigid side arms that the ends of a spindle are suspended from a bracket protruding to one side of the sledge frame. 1e It is from a bracket protruding to one side of the sledge frame that the ends of a spindle are suspended by rigid side-arms. 1f What is suspended by rigid side-arms from a bracket protruding to one side of the sledge frame is the ends of a spindle. 1g What the ends of a spindle are suspended from by rigid side-arms is a bracket protruding to one side of the sledge frame. The ends of a spindle rigid side-arms a bracket protruding one side of the sledge frame
Further research Further X Research investigations studies Would be fruitful, required will continue to elucidate X would probe The the X fundamental aspects of
memory processing Much research Remains to be done Is a major task A demanding task the central concern an acute need In the future study of X
We need to acquire/ gain competence/ realize /solve Inversion In regards to medicine, first and foremost stands the challenge of elucidating the complex relationship between health, disease, and changes in the human microbiome. The interactions of host genome, symbionts, and diet become critical. What to cut? Wordiness When your story is ready for rewrite, cut it to the bone. Get rid of every ounce of excess fat. This is going to hurt; revising a story down to the bare essentials is
always a little like murdering children, but it must be done. S. King It is a well-known commonality that written communications of all sorts have a propensity to descend quite deeply into a kind of approach imposed very often unwittingly by the author that absolutely ensures the fact that the desired message is not, for the most part, uncomplicated, a stylistic habit that, unless regarded with utmost concern and consideration an attentiveness boasted by merely a few writers can turn into an abstraction to fulsome understanding. (Koerber, 2015) In the case of Mais (TC, 1968), the taxpayer was able to exclude from
gross income embezzled funds that were repaid during the year the funds were embezzled but the taxpayer was not allowed to exclude embezzled funds to be repaid in a subsequent year. Mais (TC, 1968) allowed the taxpayer to exclude embezzled funds repaid during the same year but not those repaid in a
later year. Redundancy. The boat was long in size He dashed quickly across the busy road My invention is a great new innovation The enemy forces have retreated back to the previous positions Poly s a personal friend of mine If recognition sensitivity were directly proportional to the amount of information in a stimulus this would give the obtained results, risky exemplars being associated with good recognition at high risk junctions but with bad recognition at
low risk junctions. Notice that, as the electronegativity of the halogens decreases down the group (see section 2.2), so does the lattice enthalpy. Neither ruling lists Cuba as a country that the United States recognizes for purposes of the foreign tax credit. coupled together coupled coupled the obtained results coupled results determine the point of onset of coupled determine the onset of decreases down coupled decreases such as e.g. coupled such as such as, etc. coupled such as (or for example) effect due to coupled effect of on the order of a few coupled a few due to / in order to infinitives A good example here is "rather small". In this case, compare it with something larger.
Phoney intensifiers I am absolutely confident in my abilities We are basically good students David certainly needs to write a paper The results are very good and very interesting Im totally sure I passed the test She is quite beautiful Of course the solution is rather simple: lowering taxes would essentially increase the
well-being of ordinary people. Lipoproteins come in various shapes and sizes but most of the cholesterol is carried in rather small particles called low density lipoproteins or LDL socalled because of the preponderance of lipid to protein, giving the particles a low density. Although these encroachments may appear to be rather small, they could give your neighbour valid grounds for complaint, which could result in costly legal proceedings. Quite possibly some of our breeding birds use one or two alternative sites, perhaps particularly where they are breeding on rather small stretches of water. Stretchers
In order to get to the store we have to cross the railroad tracks At this point in time lets read this book Hemingways use of economy is his hall mark William persuades by means of logic Sandy started to stop crying The fact that music is a big business I well-known Of particular importance to the subject of this paper, they emphasize in their summary that the client in the studies reviewed is engaged as a voluntary collaborator, and his motivations were directed toward what the social workers were attempting to provide. One case of particular importance in this field was brought by the Equal Opportunities Commission which, in addition to its formal
powers of investigation has legal authority to pursue cases in the courts. Assessing bimodality to detect the presence of a dual cognitive process. Using the dwell time, number of sensor firings, and number of transitions between major living spaces (living room, dining room, kitchen and bathroom) as features in the model, and self report from two subjects as ground truth, we were able to accurately detect the presence of visitors in the home with a sensitivity and specificity of 0.90 and 0.89 for subject 1, and of 0.67 and 0.78 for subject 2, respectively. This report gives guidelines on how to perform hazard identification brainstorms. When candidates have been fully prepared for the specification but the wrong texts have been chosen, special consideration may be given at the discretion of the awarding body. I must give consideration to every person in the company The chemical substances were mixed in order to create the reaction The fact that media history is a burgeoning scholarly field is undeniable Mc Luhans use of probes confused many people. In the study of communication,
the effects of media are a prime concern There is a potentially serious concern with the validity of the results due to the fact that the experimental design may result in overfitting.
X is of particular importance coupled X is particularly important X is only of an approximate nature coupled X is only approximate To detect the presence of an atmosphere coupled to detect an atmosphere To perform an identification coupled to identify Analyses were made coupled We analyzed To make adjustments to coupled to adjust To give consideration to coupled to consider It is shown in Fig. 2 that coupled Figure 2 shows that Concerning the explosion, its effect is coupled The effect of the explosion is The intersection of x and y occurs coupled x intersects y We aim at estimating (If not in the abstract) coupled We estimate Make a comparison with coupled to compare (Likewise other noun versions of active verbs, when not needed for meaning) Due to the fact that coupled because
Show strong indications of something coupled to indicate something strongly Is in contradiction with coupled contradicts Is found to be in agreement with coupled agrees with Thickners Therefore, it is clear that we must not study after the party. It has been therefore mentioned that Shakespeares work is significant Herein lies the key point. Sarah found the means whereby she could cheat on tomorrows test. John likes ice cream and Joe likes popsicles. The former also eats deli sandwiches while the latter eats subs. I am speaking to you of language practices about which much has been said. The road to the store, which wound around the forest, was closed. _ aforementioned ( formal but possible) a consideration which we should do well to bear in mind or a conclusion to which all of us would readily assent will save many a sentence from coming
down with a bump Redundant negatives In my opinion it is not an unjustifiable assumption that The conclusion is not unlikely It is unlikely there will be objections to the fact that in any science it is necessary to seek to improve the accuracy and adequacy of measurement and analytical tools. In the given paper are not going to discuss the specifics of the taphonomic pathways of Lagersttten, which are extremely variable (Butterfield, 1994, 1995, 2003, Cai et al., 2012), but instead we will discuss one important question, namely why does decay of dead carcasses stop or delay allowing the fossilization to start before the complete degradation of a body.
Abstrac ts 1) 2) 3) For a conference Descriptive Result-driven 4) Two main functions selecting and indexing An abstract is a succinct summary
of a longer piece of work, It should report the most essential facts, and should not exaggerate or contain material that is not there. An abstract is, in some ways, different from other forms of academic writing; you have to make a rhetorical adjustment. For example, while in the full paper it is essential to provide a context for the work you have done, in the abstract you assert a reason why the work needed to be done, perhaps in no more than one sentence Structure topic, background:
Motivation: Problem statement: Approach: Results: Conclusions: 1) With its focus on the research cycle, scientific methodology has devoted a great deal of attention to the phase of problem solving. However, the issue of problem choice has been relatively neglected, notwithstanding its relevant epistemological implications. What are the criteria used by PhD students to set their research agenda? To what extent is the research agenda driven by pure curiosity about social phenomena? How much is it a matter of bargaining with various resource limitations? A survey was carried out among PhD students of European universities to
examine the criteria used in the choice of their dissertation topics. The analysis sheds light on the way scientific knowledge is crafted, and about the challenges and limitations researchers face during this process. A revised version We are currently carrying out a survey of 500 PhD students of European universities to examine the criteria employed in the choice of their dissertation topics. Analysis of the data will explore the relationship between factors such as the duration of the PhD programme, the availability of a scholarship or background experience in the field and PhD students criteria for choosing the specific issue that they wish to study. Initial results from the first 20 surveys seem to indicate the importance of the availability of funding and the potential job prospects rather than preferences driven by pure interest for its own sake. We hope to shed light on
the way scientific knowledge is crafted and about challenges and limitations young researchers face during this process. How to start an abstract? We reviewed the published data on study of_________________ This paper gives an overview of________ This paper gives a review of____ This paper rigorously establishes______ This paper attempts to explain why____ This paper considers ____ This paper examines how______ This paper presents ___________ This paper identifies _________
This paper summarizes__________ The paper reviews the problem of ___ This paper develops, measures, and tests___ This paper explores___ Useful phrases Background + problem appear as an inherently multidimensional problem This raises several basic questions: yet the mechanisms conferring robustness are only beginning to be understood. An expanding number of studies investigate the biophysical mechanisms generating intra- and inter-specific complexity and diversity of morphological traits. However, classification of morphologic characters is often limited to qualitative descriptions or simple quantitative analysis. To address this issue, we have combined Tumor relapse is a major complication after treatment of cancerpatients, The intracellular pH (pHi) has been shown to have a pivotal role in
cell division since small variations can lead to major changes, including cell cycle arrest. Aims and targets + results Here, we show theoretically and experimentally that We present a structure-based analysis of the only available highresolution map describing the tolerance to all substitutions in all positions of a functional enzyme, namely a TEM lactamase previously studied through deep sequencing of mutants growing in competition experiments. These findings provide fundamental insights into the chemistry underlying protein evolution and design Our preliminary results suggest that the ensemble-offorests model could be used to generate new hypotheses on the interplay of regulatory pathways in a variety of biological processes To this end, we present the full time-dependent analytical solution for a class of MEs relevant to gene expression, where the transcription and degradation rates are arbitrary functions of time. We show how this time course single-cell solution encompasses and differs from existent
solutions based on a population snapshot viewpoint we show how the model can be compared with data from laboratory evolution experiments, We present results for synthetic single-cell data of differently sized cellsignaling test systems and illustrate the effect of single-cell datas statistics on parameter inference. Our approach / the aim of the study / to+ infinitive / with the aim of What we shall talk about We will discuss these questions in the context of molecular information processing systems. Our prime example will be the ribosome, Our theoretical model of Pom1 dynamics predicts both properties with a high degree of precision. Such a model is key to fully understanding certain pathologies for which the pHi is significantly modified,
such as cancer. . Horizontal gene transfer (HGT), or the transfer of genes between species, has been recognized recently as more pervasive than previously suspected. Here, we report evidence for an unprecedented degree of HGT into an animal genome, based on a draft genome of a tardigrade, Hypsibius dujardini. Tardigrades are microscopic eightlegged animals that are famous for their ability to survive extreme conditions. Genome sequencing, direct confirmation of physical linkage, and phylogenetic analysis revealed that a large fraction of the H. dujardini genome is derived from diverse bacteria as well as plants, fungi, and Archaea. We estimate that approximately one-sixth of tardigrade genes entered by HGT, nearly double the fraction found in the most extreme cases of HGT into animals known to date. Foreign genes have supplemented, expanded, and even replaced some metazoan gene families within the
tardigrade genome. Our results demonstrate that an unexpectedly large fraction of an animal genome can be derived from foreign sources. We speculate that animals that can survive extremes may be particularly prone to acquiring foreign genes. 1. 2. 3. 4. The superphylum Panarthropoda (Arthropoda, Onychophora, and Tardigrada) exhibits a remarkable diversity of segment morphologies, enabling these animals to occupy diverse ecological niches. The molecular identities of these segments are specified by Hox genes and other axis patterning genes during development [1 and 2]. Comparisons
of molecular segment identities between arthropod and onychophoran species have yielded important insights into the origins and diversification of their body plans [3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9]. However, the relationship of the segments of tardigrades to those of arthropods and onychophorans has remained enigmatic [10 and 11], limiting our understanding of early panarthropod body plan diversification. Here, we reveal molecular identities for all of the segments of a tardigrade. Based on our analysis, we conclude that tardigrades have lost a large intermediate region of the body axisa region corresponding to the entire thorax and most of the abdomen of insectsand that they have lost the Hox genes that originally specified this region. Our data suggest that nearly the entire tardigrade body axis is homologous to just the head region of arthropods. Based on our results, we reconstruct a last common ancestor of Panarthropoda that had a relatively elongate body plan like most arthropods and onychophorans, rather than a compact, tardigrade-like body plan. These results demonstrate that the body plan of an animal phylum can originate by the loss of a large part of the body.
Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems by Galileo Galilei (1632) Packing for Mars: The Curious Science of Life in the Void byMary Roach "Common beverages effecting the brain activity" by Trink Spirit Breaking the Logjam , environmental protection that will work by Roichard B Steward Black ranching Frontiers by Andrew Sluyster Vacuum power: origins and prospects by Nill Cleaner Stepping stones, A journey through the ice age, by Christine Desdemainess-Hugon Gene Cloning and DNA Analysis by Terry Brown The Disappearing Spoon: And Other True Tales of Madness, Love, and the History of the World from the Periodic Table of the Elements by Sam Kean
Memory retrieval by activating engram cells in mouse models of early Alzheimers disease The Making of the Atomic Bomb by Richard Rhodes Battling it out in the Bronze Age letting go of orcas, and evolving silicon-based life Taking race out of human genetics Decorating the mouse hole: ideas for life by Dr. Cattis Digital Information Contexts: Theoretical Approaches to Understanding Digital Information by Luke Tredinnick Potentiating the antitumour response of CD8+ T cells by modulating cholesterol metabolism Exploring the repeat protein universe through computational protein design Neuroscience: Making risk-takers settle Hollon, 2015 Final Theory: Rethinking our Scientific Legacy By Mark McCutcheon. Dancing Atoms in the rain by Laurie G. Markes The ABCs of Gene Cloning by Wong, Dominic 2006 Animal behavior: some begging is actually bragging D. Mock 2015 Nominalised title
Quantum hydrogen-bond symmetrization in the superconducting hydrogen sulfide system Boreal and temperate trees show strong acclimation of respiration to warming Declarative title Replication stress activates DNA repair synthesis in mitosis Force generation by skeletal muscle is controlled by mechanosensing in myosin filaments Barcoding reveals complex clonal dynamics of de novo transformed human mammary cells Boreal and temperate trees show strong
acclimation of respiration to warming Similar words Animal behavior: some begging is actually bragging D. Mock 2015 Consensus and controversy A case for the case study From general: to more specific Planetary science: Plutos polygons explained Evidence for something is evidence that tends to support or confirm that it is present or that it exists. Evidence of something is an actual observable sign if its presence or existence
Sensory components controlling bacterial nitrogen assimilation. Sensory components in bacterial nitrogen assimilation. No need to start titles with A study of An investigation into The title should be modest that is why modal verbs are not common as well as the adjectives such as reliable, groundbreaking.
Distorted idioms + cultural metaphors Liquor and DrugsAs a Matter of Fat A vaccine to prevent transmission of human malaria: a long way to travel on a dusty and often
bumpy road The emperor of all maladies: a biography of cancer HMGB1: the jackofalltrades protein is a master DNA repair mechanic.ofofalltrades protein is a master DNA repair mechanic.allofalltrades protein is a master DNA repair mechanic.trades protein is a master DNA repair mechanic. The Foxp3+ regulatory T cell: a jack of all trades, master of regulation Immunology: In the right place at the right time A ceRNA hypothesis: the Rosetta Stone of a hidden RNA language? Evaluation of diastolic filling of left ventricle in health and disease: Doppler echocardiography is the clinician's Rosetta Stone Indirect citations Enzyme architecture: on the importance of being in a protein cage Apoptosis: the importance of being eaten. Apoptosis and necrosis in the liver: a tale of two deaths? TGFofalltrades protein is a master DNA repair mechanic. signaling: A tale of two responses To parcel or not to parcel: Exploring the question, weighing the merits Milestones in cell division: to cycle or not to cycle: a critical decision in cancer To die or not to die: an overview of apoptosis and its role in disease To be, or not to be: NF-B is the answerrole of Rel/NF-B in the regulation of apoptosis Virology: The X-Files of hepatitis B
Enhanced external counterpulsation for ischemic heart disease: what's behind the curtain? 2) You are the man behind the curtain ( ) 3) The journalist behind the curtain: Participatory functions on the Internet and their impact on perceptions of the work of journalism 4) The man behind the curtain: X-rays drive the UV through NIR variability in the 2013 active galactic nucleus outburst in NGC 2617 Fig.2 For identification ( comparison ) of X (see Fig. ..)
according to Fig. as can be seen from /in as detailed in fig 1 as evident from as displayed in Fig In Fig we compare/ present In all observed cells (n=6), the ER marked by 101 GFP-RHD3 exhibited a subapex-focused gradient but was absent from the apical dome (Fig. 1A). (supplemental Fig. 2) Article Paper Essay Book Study Is about
Is concerned with Is devoted to deals with aims ( N) ( to V) represents will be( is) centred on raises will examine introduces provides ( N) ( the reader with N) considers ( N) emphasizes (N) The analysis ( comparative analysis) Issues ( following issues)
A wide range of problems Anything you are going to talk about ;-) Questions( a number of questions) Relations between The discussion Analyze Collect Provide Interpret Include Obtain Record Get Derive Deduce
Data Body of data/evidence Abundant data Basic data Available data Empirical data Reliable data Comparative data Experimental data Synonyms Information Facts Statistics Findings Results
Evidence Case ( a strong case can be made for the hypothesis that) The present experimental data may shed new light on the formation of planets Views on depression have changed in the light of recent studies on the brain Historians use personal diaries to illuminate their historical facts. Animal models could be used to elucidate basic principles of the developmental origins of adult diseases.
Prof. Barber highlighted the need for a new approach. Prof. Rogers brought the issue of photosynthesis to the limelight of contemporary science. ,
More pervasive than previously expected a remarkable diversity offer an unrivalled perspective on considerable uncertainty appears remarkably different from This newfound awareness some rather surprising results over time report an unexpected function for melatonin signaling Whereas large-scale efforts have rapidly advanced the understanding and practical impact of human genomic variation, the practical impact of variation is largely unexplored in the human
microbiome. might have a unique metagenomic genotype A triumph of modern genetics has been the identification Reactions involving H2, N2, CO, CO2 and CH4 are likely to have been central to the origin of life provides the foundation for future studies of this organism The duplication of entire genomes has long been recognized as having great potential for evolutionary novelties, but the mechanisms underlying their resolution through gene loss are poorly understood. Ciliates are unique among unicellular organisms ? Use each and every opportunity to learn the English language Emulate good writing Build a personal dictionary of good phrases from the literature you read Follow the rule of the three C-s: clear, concise and correct
Check your writing many times before you give it to the reviewers