United Nations Statistics Division Natural gas Leonardo Rocha Souza International Workshop on Energy Statistics 23-25 May 2016 Beijing, China http://unstats.un.org/unsd/energy Overview Introduction Energy statistics Scope of production (IRES) Definition (SIEC) Main flows Additional data items Common reporting problems Final remarks 2 Natural gas - Introduction First recorded use of natural gas for energy purposes: Circa 500 B.C. the Chinese discovered the potential to use
to seeping natural gas from rock fissures, using crude bamboo pipelines to transport the gas, where it was used to boil sea water, separating the salt and making it palatable. (source: http://naturalgas.org/overview/history/) Leap forward a couple of millennia, in the XIX Century, natural gas started being exploited commercially, starting in the US (although the UK had already an established industry of manufactured gas from coal) 3 Natural gas - Introduction Natural gas can be mainly found natural in underground reservoirs that can be distinguished as: associated gas (from fields producing both liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons), or non-associated gas (from fields producing only gaseous hydrocarbons) But includes also colliery gas, coal seam gas, dissolved gas, shale gas
It is the cleanest (or less polluting) fossil fuel Liquid hydrocarbons produced in association with natural gas are referred to as Natural Gas Liquids 4 Colliery gas as a source for generating electricity at the Appin and Tower coal mines in New South Wales, Australia. 5 160 140 Natural gas production - exajoules 120 100 80 60 40 Oceania Europe Asia
America, South America, North Africa 20 0 World production growth (1990-2013): 76% Asia production growth (1990-2013): 381% almost 5-fold! Other regions combined: 33% Asia responsible for 62% of world growth in the 6 IRES Scope of production Primary production is the capture or extraction of fuels or energy from natural energy flows, the biosphere and natural reserves of fossil fuels within the national territory in a form suitable for use. Inert matter removed from the extracted fuels and quantities reinjected, flared or vented are not included.
7 Extraction of associated gas Extraction of non-associated gas Energy industry own use Separation Inert gases, NGLs, Sulphur, Other impurities Imports Flaring Venting Re-injection Colliery gas, coal seam gas,
shale gas Production Production Exports Stock changes Total energy supply EnergyInt. industry own use bunkers liquefaction and regasification Transformation Energy industry own use Losses Non energy use Final consumption Final Energy Consumption:
Manufacturing, Transport, Other (Agric, Households, etc.) 8 JODI Example: where do data go? 200 TJ of wet associated gas produced onshore, including 50 TJ of Production propane Receiptsthats from Other Sources Imports separated at a LNG NGL plant Pipeline Exports LNG Pipeline Stock Change
Gross Inland Deliveries (Calculated) NGLs are Natural Gas excluded from the million m JODI gas (at 15 C, 760 mm hg) questionnaire! 3 o Natural Gas Terajoules Natural Gas 1000 tonnes B C A
150 TJ 50 TJ 1 TJ Does not enter the natural gas chain, so is excluded from JODI gas. Trade data should 1 TJ 0 exclude goods in 0 Grossof Inland Deliveries (Observed) 100 TJ biogas, transit whenever of which: Electricity and Heat Generation
produced at waste TJany of coke oven possible 50 (but Closing stocks plant and used for own use gas, hereblended in power generation would bethe grid for final at same plant delivery considered as an import and part of demand). Statistical Difference (Calculated) 15 TJ that are piped directly through the country (imported 0
0 then exported); 1TJ is used for the operation of the pipe (so only 14TJ is exported). 9 Natural gas - SIEC definition A mixture of gaseous hydrocarbons, primarily methane, but generally also including ethane, propane and higher hydrocarbons in much smaller amounts and some noncombustible gases such as nitrogen and carbon dioxide. Remarks (summarised): Majority is separated from both "non-associated" gas and "associated" gas. Separation removes or reduces others hydrocarbons to acceptable marketable levels. NGLs removed in the process are distributed separately. Also includes methane recovered from coal mines (colliery gas) or from coal seams (coal seam gas) and shale gas. Natural gas may be liquefied (LNG) to simplify storage and transportation
Measurement units Gaseous fuels are generally measured in Volume (e.g. m3) and energy units (e.g. Joules) Preferred reporting: energy units If volume units are used, calorific values should be provided Volume measures generally based on 2 reference conditions: Normal conditions: measured at 0 Celsius and at a pressure of 760 mm Hg Standard conditions: measured at 15 Celsius and at a pressure of 760 mm Hg Recommended standard conditions, particularly if NCVs not known or not provided 12 Conversion between Standard & Normal Conditions Table A2.5: Conversion equivalents between Standard cubic metres (m3)
and Normal cubic metres (m3) To Standard m 3 Normal m 3 From: Standard m Normal m 3 3 1 0.948 1.055 1
3 Note: Standard cubic metre (m ) refers to standard measurement conditions at 15C and 760 mm Hg. 3 Normal cubic metre (m ) refers to normal measurement conditions at 0C and 760 mm Hg. 13 Conversion between LNG and Natural Gas Units Table A2.6: Conversion equivalents between LNG and Natural Gas units To: 3 3 Metric Tons of LNG m of LNG Standard m (a) 1
2.2 1360 0.45 1 615 From Metric Tons of LNG 3 m of LNG Standard m 3 7.35*10 -4 1.626*10 -3
1 3 (a) 1 Standard m = 40 MJ. These conversion tables are default conversion tables. Actual conversion factors may vary according to the composition of the natural gas in question 14 Supply - Main flows Production (+ receipts/production from other sources) Imports Exports Pipelines and LNG Stock changes (closing minus opening stocks) Supply (Production + imports exports stock changes) 15
Energy industries - Main flows Transfers Transformation Electricity plants Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plants Heat plants Gas-to-liquids (GTL) plants Other transformation Own use by energy industries Oil and gas extraction Gasworks Blast furnaces Oil refineries Liquefaction/regasification plants (LNG) Electricity, heat and CHP plants Other own use Losses 16 Final consumption - Main flows Manufacturing, construction and non-fuel mining industries Iron and steel
Chemical and petrochemical Break down as appropriate (as shown in the session on classifications for international purposes, but national needs may require a different break down) Transport Road Pipeline transport Other Residential Commerce and public services Non-energy use 17 Additional data items Item number Data item 3.1 3.1.1
3.1.2 3.1.3 3.2 3.3 3.3.1 3.3.2 3.3.3 3.4 3.5 Production Of which: Associated gas Of which: Non-associated gas Of which: Colliery and Coal Seam Gas Production from other sources Extraction losses Of which: gas flared Of which: gas vented Of which: gas re-injected Gas flared (except during extraction) Gas vented (except during extraction) 18 Additional data items Data items on production, storage and transmission capacity
Item numbe Data item r 6.1 Peak output 6.2 Gas storage facility Name 6.3 Gas storage facility Type of storage 6.4 Gas storage facility Working capacity 19 Additional data items Data items on mineral and energy resources Class A: Commercially recoverable resources
Class B: Potentially commercially recoverable resources Class C: Non-commercial and other known deposits Item Data item number 8.1 Opening stocks of mineral and energy resources (by type of resources and by type of characteristics) 8.2 Closing stocks of mineral and energy resources (by type of resources and by type of characteristics) 20 Common reporting problems Sometimes data are reported in tons (of LNG). Hard to make the conversion into Terajoules Calorific values are missing when data are reported in volume (cubic metres, cubic feet) Conversion using default NCVs adds inaccuracy to
figures Flaring and venting often not reported Production reported includes quantities that should be excluded: Such as re-injection, flaring, venting, shrinkage, inert matter Imports and exports (border crossing, not change in ownership) 21 Common reporting problems Input into electricity and heat plants reported as final consumption Particularly for autoproducers Transformation vs final consumption Energy use vs non-energy use Purpose of use (energy or feedstock)has to be inquired
Special attention to industries that can produce non-energy products from natural gas: fertilizers, plastics, etc Feedstock for methanol can be a problem, depending on whether the methanol is used for energy or non-energy purposes Consumption in transport by pipelines is not reported Instead this is reported as oil and gas industry 22 Final remarks Natural gas production = marketable production Reinjection, flaring, venting excluded but important for emission estimates (to be provided separately) After removal of NGLs, impurities, etc. Includes own use in gas fields natural gas used for energy purpose to extract natural gas or aid operations Includes own use in liquefaction (LNG) and regasification plants
Even if the former are located at the wellhead Or the latter located at import sites 23 Final remarks Non-energy purposes to be properly recorded use as feedstocks to produce non-energy products such as plastics and fertilizers Data to be provided preferably in TJ (energy content) Otherwise GCVs and NCVs to be provided 24 United Nations Statistics Division Thank http://unstats.un.org/unsd/energy/ you. 25
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