Intro to Research and Ethics: Scientific Ethics Ethics: General rules for guiding human conduct Purpose of science: The pursuit of truth and to extend human knowledge Variables:
Independent Variable: What the researcher manipulates during the experiment Dependent Variable: What the researcher measures Standardized Variable: the things that are kept the same during an experiment Control Group: Group not exposed to the independent variable for comparison purposes Quantitative vs. Qualitative
Experimental Laboratory-like control Creates Statistics Football Game Field research Uses long
descriptive observation Figure Skating Role of the Researcher Quantitative: Researcher should be absent during experiment Qualitative Researcher
becomes the instrument Tries to suspend any predispostions Science vs. Art Quantitative Approach Qualitative
Approach Once you understand the basic rules, anyone can do it. Takes a lot of practice to do it well.
Deductive vs. Inductive Determine variables before research Research question/Hypothe sis comes first
No preconceived assumptions/ suspend your beliefs Patterns emerged from the collected data after the fact Interventions vs. Naturalistic
seen as a way of discovery Manipulate the environment and measure changes Sensitive to the effects of the research on the population studied
Try to develop trust in the population being studied Reduction vs. Holist Truth is to be found incrementally, one small tweak after another
Humanistic perspective Do not reduce people to variables Therory, Law, Fact Scientific Fact- Rules that can be tested and have repeatable results
Examples? Scientific theory - Explanation of events based on knowledge gained from observations can be changed or wrong. Examples? Therory, Law, Fact
Scientific Law- What happens in nature and seems to be true all the time. Difficult to explain why it happens. Examples? What does the word Theory mean to you? A conjecture; guess (Websters Dictionary)
Does it mean the same to a scientist? A model which has been born out by repeated tests and observation. Is a Theory less than a Law? Evolution is just a theory, it is not a fact. Do Theories grow up to be Laws? Einsteins Theory of Relativity Theories
So: a theory is a highly successful hypothesis. All hypotheses make predictions. All theories make predictions. All theories can be tested. Result: Any scientific theory is subject to change as our ability to make tests, or make observations of a tests results, improves with time. Non-scientific theories
Make no predictions Un-testable Cant be falsified Non-scientific Theories Car wont work? Aliens drained the battery.
Spaghetti is bland? You were meant to eat bland food. Car wont work? Gods must be angry. Spaghetti is bland? At the instant of tasting, tongue is transported to alternate dimension where all flavors are rendered nullified. Happens instantaneously. Viking Orbiter (1976) Mars Global Surveyor (1998)
Japan & "Flying Geese" First theory to attempt to explain Japanese development was the "flying geese" theory. Akamatsu's (1962): economic development took place on a global scale, with Western Europe as a lead goose, Japan as a lead goose on...
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Greek and Latin Roots 2. 64-75. Porto, Portatum Latinto carry. Porter - someone who carries your luggage for you. Portable - capable of being carried by hand or in person. Portage(n) the act of carrying anything; (v) to carry a...
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