PSYCHOLOGY (8th Edition) David Myers

PSYCHOLOGY (8th Edition) David Myers

History of Consciousness 1. Psychology began as a science 2. Behaviorists argued about alienating consciousness from psychology. 3. However, after 1960, 1 Forms of Consciousness

Consciousness, modern psychologists believe, is. 2 Neuroscience & Consciousness Neuroscientists believe that consciousness emerges from the

3 Selective Attention At any moment awareness focuses on only a limited aspect off all that we are capable of focusing on. Whatever has your attention, has your attention 4

Information Processing Conscious Information Processing Sub-Conscious Info Processing

5 Inattentional Blindness Inattentional blindness refers Simons & Chabris (1999) showed that half of the observers failed to see the gorilla-suited assistant in a ball passing game. 6

Change Blindness Change blindness is a form of inattentional blindness in which 1998 Psychonomic Society Inc. Image provided courtesy of Daniel J. Simmons. 7 Biological Rhythms

Biological rhythms are controlled by internal biological clocks. 1. Annual cycles: On an annual cycle, geese migrate, grizzly bears hibernate, and humans experience seasonal variations in appetite, sleep, and mood. Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) 8

Biological Rhythms 2. 28-day cycles: 9 Biological Rhythms 3. 24-hour cycles: 4. 90-minute cycles:

10 Biological Rhythms and Sleep Illustration Cynthia Turner 2003 Circadian Rhythms e brain structures are involved in Circadian Rhythm: Suprachiasmic Nucleus (S

pineal gland and Reticular Formation or Reticular Activating System (RAS) 11 Brain Structures and Circadian Rhythm Suprachiasmic Nucleus (SCN) -- small cluster of neurons in the hypothalamus

Pineal Gland endocrine gland near the hypothalamus Reticular Formation or Reticular Activating System (RAS) in Brainstem 12 Sleep

Periodic, natural, reversible loss of consciousness Has a biological rhythm A state we do not know we are in until we leave it. Use a polysomnograph to study sleep = 13 Sleep Stages

Measuring sleep: About every 90 minutes, we pass through a cycle of five distinct sleep stages. Hank Morgan/ Rainbow 14 Awake & Alert During strong mental engagement, the brain exhibits low amplitude and fast,

irregular beta waves (15-30 cps). An awake person involved in a conversation shows beta activity. Beta Waves 15 Awake but Relaxed When an individual closes his eyes but remains awake, his brain activity slows

down to a large amplitude and slow, regular alpha waves (9-14 cps). A meditating person exhibits an alpha brain activity. 16 Sleep Stages 1-2 During early, light sleep (stages 1-2) the brain enters a high-amplitude, slow,

regular wave form called theta waves (5-8 cps). A person who is daydreaming shows theta activity. Theta Waves 17 Stages 1 and 2 Stage 1

Stage 2 18 Sleep Stages 3-4 During deepest sleep (stages 3-4), brain activity slows down. There are largeamplitude, slow delta waves (1.5-4 cps). (known as deep sleep or slow wave sleep)

19 Sleep Stages 3 and 4 Stage 3 Stage 4 20 Stage 5: REM Sleep

(10 minutes 1 hours after falling asleep) After reaching the deepest sleep stage (4), the sleep cycle starts moving backward towards stage 1. Although still asleep, the brain engages in low- amplitude, fast and regular beta waves (15-40 cps) much like awake-aroused state. A person during this sleep exhibits

pid Eye Movements (which announce the beginning of dream 21 and reports vivid dreams. REM Sleep Paradoxical Sleep = body is internally aroused and externally calm 22

90-Minute Cycles During Sleep With each 90-minute cycle, stage 4 sleep decreases and the duration of REM sleep increases. 23 Why do we sleep? We spend one-third of

our lives sleeping. If an individual remains awake for several days, immune function and concentration deteriorates and the risk of accidents increases. 24

Sleep Deprivation 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

25 Sleep Theories 1. Sleep Protects: 2. Sleep Recuperates: 3. Sleep Helps Remembering: 4. Sleep and Growth: 26

Sleep Across the Lifespan Sleep Disorders 1. Insomnia: 2.

Narcolepsy 28 Sleep Disorders 3. Sleep apnea 29 Sleep Disorders

4. Sleep paralysis 5. Periodic Limb Movement Disorder and Restless Leg Syndrome 30 Sleep Disorders 6. REM Sleep Behavior Disorder 31

Sleep Disorders Children are most prone to the following Parasomnias: Night terrors: Sleepwalking:

Sleeptalking: Bruxism: 32

Dreams sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping persons mind hallucinatory imagery What We Dream Manifest Content:

1. Negative Emotional Content: 2. Failure Dreams: 3. Sexual Dreams: 4. Gender Content 34 Why We Dream 1. Wish Fulfillment:

2. Information Processing: 35 Why We Dream 3. Physiological Function: 36

Why We Dream 4. Activation-Synthesis Theory: 5. Cognitive Development: 6.

7. 8. Neuro-cognitive theory: Dreams are a kind of helpful thought Dreams are completely without significance. All dream researchers believe we need REM sleep. When deprived of REM sleep and then allowed to sleep, 37

we show increased REM sleep called REM Rebound. Dream Theories Summary 38

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