Psychological Research Methods

Psychological Research Methods

Ethics in Psychological Research Lecture 2 Jo Mustone Stanley Milgram Milgram's Experiment Milgram

Milgrams Experiment British Psychological Society: on ethics ethics as the science of morals or rules of behaviour. psychology as the scientific study of behaviour

both internal (for example, cognition and feelings) and external (for example, language and actions). Before embarking on professional work the ethical implications should be considered as part of the work context together with legal, professional and other frameworks. BPS: Areas of concern Areas of concern include: Multiple relationships where the psychologist owes an

allegiance to several different stakeholders Personal relationships where the psychologist infringes or violates the trust of a client or clients Unclear or inadequate standards of practice where the psychologist is unaware of or disregards the current systems in use by peers or others in similar work Breaches of confidentiality where rules and constraints are broken or not clarified in advance with stakeholders Competence where excessive or misleading claims are made or where inadequate safeguards and monitoring exist

for new areas of work Research issues including falsifying data, failing to obtain consent, plagiarism or failing to acknowledge anothers work or contribution Health problems affecting performance or conduct Bringing the profession or the Society into disrepute Question Think about Milgrams research in light of the areas of concern.

Should we be concerned about his 1.methods? 2.Participants? Gaining approval university, hospital, prison ethics committees proposal: background rationale proposed methodology recruitment & data collection procedure

obtaining informed consent duration of session with each participant materials used stats analysis who will have access to the data qualifications and experience of investigator Four ethical principles Respect Competence

Responsibility Integrity Main concerns: Deception, potential harm, informed consent, confidentiality Research Ethics: informed consent What are they agreeing too? Do they have enough info. to decide? Plain language

Purpose, procedures and approximate duration Free to withdraw/refuse Consequences of (not) taking part Discomforts/risks (e.g. research on pornography) Benefits personal, academic, community Limits to confidentiality (e.g. prison research) Contact details. Questions. Research Ethics: deception Unacceptable where physical pain or

emotional distress are concerned (see Milgram) If no alternative, can be used (with consultation) Explain deception ASAP Opportunity to withdraw data Distinction deliberate lies & omission of details Research Ethics: debriefing

Carried out ASAP Correct misconceptions Not guaranteed to deal effectively with harm Procedures in place researchers are not usually qualified counsellors Question How would you score Milgram on

1.Respect, Competence, Responsibility & Integrity 2.Informed consent 3.Deception 4.Debriefing Research Ethics: animals Not usual for undergraduate students Laws and regulations: acquisition, care, use, disposal/ retirement

Supervision: comfort, health, humane treatment Minimise adverse aspects of animal research: e.g. pain, comfort, freedom from infection and illnesses Stress/pain etc. only if can be justified on the basis of scientific, educational, or applied value Anaesthesia before and after surgery If termination is necessary as painlessly and quickly as possible Ethics for students

You must talk through ethical considerations with your supervisor Include discussion of ethics in your research reports Ensure you use, consent forms etc. Discuss the forms you use in your methodology and link to appendices Include the forms as appendices How do I write it?

This research will follow the strict ethical guidelines laid out by the British Psychological Societys guide of ethics and conduct (see http://www.bps.org.uk/the-society/code-of-conduct), paying particular reference to section 3.3: Standard of protection of research participants. The BPS lists four key areas which psychological research must abide by: respect, competence, responsibility, and integrity. These will both complement and extend the research ethics guidelines laid out by

Birmingham City University. Ethics BPS Code of Ethics and Conduct Pay particular attention to: 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 3.3, 3.4,

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