Psychodynamic Theories

Psychodynamic Theories Journal #4 What is your overall impression of Sigmund Freud? Why do you think he is so famous? Does he deserve it?

Should psychology courses focus on Freuds work? Psychodynamic Vocabulary 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

13. 14. 15. Psychoanalysis Psychodynamic Jung, Carl Adler, Alfred Erikson, Erik Horney, Karen Freud, Ana Unconscious Preconscious Conscious Id Ego Superego

Oedipus complex Stages of psychosexual development 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28.

29. 30. Insight therapy Defense mechanisms Repression Regression Free-association Dream Analysis Latent content Fixation Reality Principle Pleasure Principle Manifest content Collective unconscious Archetypes Inferiority complex

Stages of psychosocial development Psychodynamic Theory There are several Psychodynamic Theories, all which share the same basic principles: I. The mind is mostly unconscious II. There are inner conflicts that are in control of a persons thoughts, feelings, and behavior

III. Personality is largely determined by early childhood experiences Psychodynamic Theory Psychodynamic Theories are derived from the work of Sigmund Freud Sigmund Freud was by far the most influential psychodynamic theorist,

however many of his followers and contemporaries disagreed with his version of psychodynamic theory Freuds theory is referred to as Psychoanalysis Psychodynamic Theory Other Psychodynamic theorists include: Anna Freud

Carl Jung Alfred Adler Karen Horney Erik Erikson Psychodynamic Theory Freudian Psychoanalysis According to Freud, the minds operations are largely unconscious people are mostly

unaware of why the think, act, or feel a certain way Psychodynamic Theory According to Freud, there were levels of consciousness: Conscious: contains all of the thoughts, memories, feelings, and wishes of which we are aware at any given moment Preconscious: consists of anything that could potentially be brought into the conscious mind Unconscious: a reservoir of feelings, thoughts, urges, and

memories that outside of our conscious awareness. Most of the contents of the unconscious are unacceptable or unpleasant, such as feelings of pain, anxiety, or conflict. Psychodynamic Theory Freudian Psychoanalytic Theory hypothesized that there were three structures of the psyche that were in constant opposition Id (it) Ego (I) Superego (Above I) Psychodynamic Theory

Id Innate, primitive Unconscious Motivates survival and reproductive behavior Operates under the Pleasure Principle: Whatever is pleasurable must be pursued, whatever is painful must be avoided Psychodynamic Theory

Ego Develops in infancy Strives to balance internal desires with the external world Allows for planning, thinking, and problem solving Think before you speak Constantly conflicted Operates under the Reality Principle: Restrains instinctual energy to maintain safety and to help the person integrate in society Psychodynamic Theory Superego A persons conscience Last part of the mind to

fully develop Represents the rights and wrongs of society Dependent on the behavior of the parents Responsible for impulse control and feelings of guilt Psychodynamic Theory The Freudian Trio (Id, Ego, Superego) is a common theme found in books, movies, and TV. Can you think of 3 characters from the same series that represent these

constructs? Psychodynamic Theory According to Freud, we are motivated by two instinctual forces: Eros: the life-drive Strives for survival and reproduction Thanatos: the death drive Strives for aggression, risk, and death Psychodynamic Theory Stages of Psychosexual Development

Freud created the stages of psychosexual development to help explain the origin of personality characteristics Everyone goes through the same stages in the same order during childhood (universal principles) Each stage represents a conflict between an instinctual drive (Id) and the demands of society (parents, Superego) How the child navigates the stage determines future personality characteristics, as well as mental health issues Psychodynamic Theory Stage Age

Erogenous Zone Dev. Task Adult Fixation Oral 0-1 Mouth Weaning Smoking,

overeating Anal 2-3 Anus Toilet Training Orderliness vs. Messiness Phallic 4-5

Genitals Oedipus/Electra Complex Vanity, recklessness, promiscuity vs. chastity Latent 6-12 None Development of

Defense Mechanisms Genital 13-18 Genitals Mature Sexual intimacy Adults that have successfully gone through the previous stages should

be OK Psychodynamic Theory Oral Stage (Birth to 1 year) The infant must be weaned off bottle/breast milk and adapt to solid foods They must also learn to stop sucking their thumbs, pacifier, etc. An Oral Fixation occur when the child is weaned too early or too late Older children and adults may still

crave pleasure though nail-biting, overeating, smoking, etc Psychodynamic Theory Anal Stage (2-3 years) The developmental task during the anal stage is potty-training Children must learn to control their sphincter muscles and the socially-approved bathroom procedures Children who are forced to toilet-train too early or are punished too harshly for accidents might become anal retentive (overly strict,

controlling, neat) Children who are toilet trained later may become anal expressive (messy, careless, prone to emotional outbursts, cruel, narcissistic) Psychodynamic Theory Phallic Stage (3-5) During the phallic stage the developing child begins to notice the difference between boys and girls Girls may develop penis envy during this stage

Boys and girls typically lean towards gender stereotyped behaviors, clothes, play, etc as they model the behavior of their same-sex parental unit The Oedipus/Electra complexes are common during this stage A child might develop romantic feelings towards their opposite-sex parent, and feel angry or jealous of their same-sex parent, these feelings typically correct themselves and the child looks up to their same-sex parents as a role model Phallic Stage Psychodynamic Theory

Latent/Latency Stage (6-Puberty) Nothing weird happens! Children are developing socially, academically Sexual urges are repressed other kids have cooties Psychodynamic Theory Genital Stage (Puberty+) This is the last stage of development Personality development is relatively stable If there were any issues prior, youre stuck with

them! Sexual interests re-emerge, establishment of mature sexual relationships Psychodynamic Theory Psychoanalytic Therapy Relies on unlocking unconscious motivations, repressed memories, and providing insight into the connection between issues as an adult with something that happened in childhood Psychoanalysis is a form of insight therapy it works by making the patient aware of the connections between how

they feel and their experiences Psychoanalysis relies on several tools, including Free Association Dream Analysis Freudian Slips Psychodynamic Theory The primary tool of psychoanalysis is Free Association The patient relaxes and talks freely about whatever comes to mind Therapy sessions would typically last an hour or more and would be conducted several times a

week Due to the unstructured nature of psychoanalysis, people can be in therapy indefinitely Psychodynamic Theory Psychoanalysis also uses Dream Analysis to uncover unconscious desires, repressed memories, etc. According to Freud, dreams were a way for the unconscious to communicate with the conscious but did so metaphorically

The actual imagery of the dream is called the manifest content The hidden, symbolic meaning of the imagery is called the latent content Sexual energy plays a big role in Freudian theory, likewise most dream interpretations are overly sexual Psychodynamic Theory Psychodynamic Theory

Freudian Slip: an accidental use of an inappropriate word in conversation that relates to an unconscious desire or emotion Psychodynamic Theory Freud named a variety of Defense Mechanisms humans use in order to reduce negative thoughts or emotions by distorting their perception of

reality: Repression Regression Displacement Rationalization Denial Projection Reaction Formation Psychodynamic Theory Repression Unacceptable or unpleasant impulses or memories are pushed back into the unconscious

Example: a person is unable to recall that they were raped Psychodynamic Theory Regression People behave as if there were at an earlier stage of development A person plays with Legos after a hard day of work Psychodynamic Theory

Displacement The expression of an unwanted feeling or thought is redirected to a less threatening target A man yells at his wife because he is mad at his boss Psychodynamic Theory Rationalization People provide self-justifying explanations in place of the actual, but threatening, reason

for their behavior A person says its not their fault get getting a DUI when driving drunk, it was the police officers fault Psychodynamic Theory Denial People refuse to accept or acknowledge an anxiety-producing piece of information Example: a hoarder not realizing their house is cluttered an unlivable

Psychodynamic Theory Projection People attribute their own unwanted characteristics to someone else Example: A man who is cheating on his wife suspects that his wife is being unfaithful Psychodynamic Theory Reaction Formation Unconscious impulses are expressed as

their opposite in the conscious Example: A mother who unconsciously hates and resents her child is overly loving toward the child Psychodynamic Theory Psychoanalytic Therapy The least effective form of therapy (compared to modern approaches) Better than nothing, but generally ineffective, expensive, and time-consuming Is not scientific

Freud based all his claims off a handful of case studies Not practiced Insurance wont pay for it Psychology has moved on Psychodynamic Theory The Neo-Freudians These are psychoanalysts who were training in traditional Freudian theory but who later rejected some of its major points Carl Jung Alfred Adler Karen Horney

Psychodynamic Theory Carl Jung More positive view on human motivation and creativity Focused on the connection of psychology to art, archeology, anthropology, literature, and philosophy Was Freuds BFF for a time, but then had a falling out due to differences in perspective

Psychodynamic Theory Carl Jung Collective Unconscious: part of an individuals unconscious that is inherited and common to all members of that species a hive mind Psychodynamic Theory Jung explained that the collective unconscious was responsible for similarities across cultures in art, religion, etc.

Psychodynamic Theory Jung also proposed that certain archetypes were contained inside the collective unconscious An archetype is a universal, symbolic representation of a particular person, object, or experience Examples of archetypes include: The great mother

The persona The shadow Psychodynamic Theory Alfred Adler was a NeoFreudian that focused on how people are constantly motivated by a need to feel superior. Adler's book, ber den nervsen Charakter, outlines how a person may develop an inferiority

complex during childhood Psychodynamic Theory Adler deemed that the greatest motivation in life was to attain a sense of wholeness, completeness, and self-worth. If a person failed to accomplish this, they may overcompensate for their lack of internal fulfillment by acting aggressively, surrounding themselves with measures of worldly success, and becoming egocentric.

Psychodynamic Theory Karen Horney is credited with founding feminist psychology in response to Freud's theory of penis envy She disagreed with Freud about inherent differences in the psychology of men and women, and she traced such differences to society and culture rather

than biology Psychodynamic Theory Erik Erikson bridges the gap between Psychodynamic and modern developmental theories He created the Stages of Psychosocial Development in reaction to Freuds Psychosexual stages

The stages of psychosocial development are still used by some research and counseling psychologists today He is most famous for his work on the identify crisis Psychodynamic Theory Eriksons stages of development focus on social interactions and how they contribute to personality

characteristics The stages span the entire life-time According to Erikson, the main goal is to develop a positive identity through interactions with other people Psychodynamic Theory Psychodynamic Theory A Review of Psychodynamic Theory I.

Historically relevant II. Some good/weird ideas, but not grounded in scientific research III. Still practiced in some parts of the world, although it is minimally effective

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