Properties of Atoms and the Periodic Table

Properties of Atoms and the Periodic Table

The Atom Properties of Atoms and the Periodic Table Elements Structure of the Atom Atomic Theory The Periodic Table Masses of Atoms

Ions Elements An element is a pure substance that cannot be broken down into simpler, stable substances and is made of one type of atom. An atom is the smallest unit of an element that maintains the chemical identity of

that element. Elements (2) Scientists have developed their own shorthand for dealing with the long, complicated names of the elements.. Chemical symbols consist of one capital letter or a capital

letter plus one or two smaller letters. For some elements, the symbol is the first letter of the element's name. For other elements, the symbol is the first letter of the name plus another letter from its name. Because scientists worldwide use this system, everyone Structure of the Atom

Recall that an atom is the smallest unit of an element that maintains the chemical identity of that element. Atoms are composed of particles called protons, neutrons, and electrons. These particles are called subatomic particles. electron neutron proton

Structure of the Atom (2) Structure of the Atom (3) Protons and neutrons are found in a small positively charged center of the atom called the nucleus that is surrounded by a cloud containing electrons. Protons are particles with an electrical charge of 1+. Structure of the Atom (4)

Electrons are particles with an electrical charge of 1. Neutrons are neutral particles that do not have an electrical charge. Protons and neutrons are made up of smaller particles called quarks. So far, scientists have confirmed the existence of six uniquely different quarks. Atomic Charge Atoms are not charged even though they are made of

charged protons and electrons. Neutral atoms have an equal number of protons and electrons whose charges cancel. Example: A lithium atom has 3 protons and 3 electrons. Charge of 3 protons: +3 Charge of 3 neutrons: 0 Charge of 3 electrons: -3 Total charge: 0 Atomic Theory

To study the atom, scientists have developed scaled-up models that they can use to visualize how the atom is constructed. For the model to be useful, it must support all of the information that is known about matter and the behavior of atoms. Atomic Theory (2) The ancient Greek philosopher Democritus proposed that

elements consisted of tiny solid particles that could not be subdivided. He called these particles atomos, meaning uncuttable. However, another famous Greek philosopher, Aristotle, disputed Democritus theory and proposed that matter was uniform throughout and was not composed of smaller particles. Aristotles incorrect theory was accepted for about 2000 years. Atomic Theory (3)

In the 1800s, John Dalton, an English scientist, was able to offer proof that atoms exist. Dalton's model of the atom, a solid sphere was an early model of the atom. The model has changed somewhat over time. Atomic Theory (4)

In 1904, English physicist Joseph John Thomson inferred from his experiments that atoms contained small, negatively charged particles. He thought these electrons were evenly embedded throughout a positively charged sphere, much like chocolate chips in a ball of cookie dough. His model is often called the plum pudding model.

Atomic Theory (5) In 1911, British physicist Ernest Rutherford, proposed that almost all of the mass of an atom and all its positive charges were concentrated in a central atomic nucleus surrounded by electrons. Atomic Theory (6)

In 1913, Danish physicist Niels Bohr hypothesized that electrons traveled in fixed orbits around the atoms nucleus. By 1925, Bohrs model no longer explained all observations. In 1932, James Chadwick, a student of Rutherford, concluded that the nucleus contained

positive protons and neutral neutrons. Atomic Theory (7) By 1926, scientists had developed the electron cloud model of the atom that is in use today. An electron cloud is the area around the nucleus of an atom where its electrons are most likely found.

The Electron Cloud Model The electron cloud is 100,000 times larger than the diameter of the nucleus. In contrast, each electron in the cloud is much smaller than a single proton. Because an electron's mass is small and the electron is moving so quickly around the nucleus, it is impossible to describe its exact location in an atom.

The Periodic Table The organization of elements by their properties is the periodic table. Each small square on the periodic table shows the name of one element and the letter symbol for that element. The elements are arranged based on the number of protons an atom of that element has in its nucleus. Periodic law states that when elements are arranged this way, similarities in

their properties will occur in a regular pattern. History of the Periodic Table Periodic means "repeated in a pattern." In the late 1800s, Dmitri Mendeleev, a Russian chemist, searched for a way to organize the elements. When he arranged all the elements known at that time in order of increasing atomic masses, he discovered a pattern.

Because the pattern repeated, it was considered to be periodic. Today, this arrangement is called a periodic table of elements. History of the Periodic Table (2) Mendeleev had to leave blank spaces in his periodic table to keep the elements properly lined up according to their chemical properties.

He looked at the properties and atomic masses of the elements surrounding these blank spaces. From this information, he was able to predict the properties and the mass numbers of new elements that had not yet been discovered. This table shows Mendeleev's predicted properties for germanium, which he called ekasilicon. His predictions proved to be accurate. History of the Periodic Table (3)

In 1913, the work of Henry G.J. Moseley, a young English scientist, led to the arrangement of elements based on their increasing atomic numbers instead of an arrangement based on atomic masses. The current periodic table uses Moseley's arrangement of the elements. The Periodic Table The vertical columns in the periodic table are called groups, or families, and are numbered 1 through 18. Elements in each group have similar properties. The horizontal rows of elements on the periodic table are called periods.

The elements increase by one proton and one electron as you go from left to right in a period. Regions of the Periodic Table The periodic table is divided into three regions: metals, metalloids, and nonmetals. Atomic Mass The nucleus contains

most of the mass of the atom because protons and neutrons are far more massive than electrons. The mass of a proton is about the same as that of a neutron. The mass of each is approximately 1,836 times greater than the mass of the electron. Atomic Mass (2)

The unit of measurement used for atomic particles is the atomic mass unit (amu). The mass of a proton or a neutron is almost equal to 1 amu. The atomic mass unit is defined as one-twelfth the mass of a carbon atom containing six protons and six neutrons. Atomic Number

The number of protons tells you what type of atom you have and vice versa. For example, every carbon atom has six protons. Also, all atoms with six protons are carbon atoms. The number of protons in an atom is equal to a number called the atomic number (Z). In the periodic table, an elements atomic number is indicated above its symbol. Remember the elements are placed in order on the periodic table by increasing atomic number. Mass Number

The mass number (A) of an atom is the sum of the number of protons and the number of neutrons in the nucleus of an atom. If you know the mass number and the atomic number of an atom, you can calculate the number of neutrons. number of neutrons = mass number atomic number

Isotopes Not all the atoms of an element have the same number of neutrons. Atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons are called isotopes. Isotopes (2) Models of two isotopes

of boron are shown. Because the numbers of neutrons in the isotopes are different, the mass numbers are also different. You use the name of the element followed by the mass number of the isotope to identify each isotope: boron-10 and boron11. This is called hyphen notation. Isotopes (3)

Nuclear symbols are also used to represent isotopes. The nuclear symbol includes the element symbol, the mass number, and the atomic number. At the right are two isotopes of chlorine. The top number is the mass number and the bottom number is the atomic number.

35 17 Cl 37 17 Cl Average Atomic Mass The average atomic mass of an element is the weighted-average mass of the mixture of its isotopes.

The average atomic mass of an element is located below the element symbol in the periodic table. For example, four out of five atoms of boron are boron-11, and one out of five is boron-10. To find the weighted-average or the average atomic mass of boron, you would solve the following equation: Ions Ionization is the process of adding electrons to or removing electrons

from an atom or group of atoms. An ion is a atom or group of atoms that has lost or gained one or more electrons and therefore has a net electric charge. If an atom gains or loses electrons, it no longer has the same number of electrons as it does protons. Cations A cation is an ion with a positive charge. When an atom loses an electron it forms a cation.

Example: Sodium (Na) is highly reactive and easily loses an electron. A sodium ion (Na+) has a 1+ charge. The positive charge on the ion is based on the number of electrons it has lost. For example, if two electrons are lost the ion has a 2+ charge. Anions An anion is an ion with a negative charge. When an atom gains an electron it forms an anion. Example: Chlorine (Cl) is very reactive and easily gains an electron. A Chloride ion (Cl-) has a 1- charge. The negative charge on an ion is based on the number of electrons it has gained. For example, if an

atom gains 2 electrons, the ion has a 2- charge.

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