Presidencies of the Early Republic

Presidencies of the Early Republic

Warm Up #7 11/28/16 When the new Congress met in 1789, it debated the issue of how to address the President. One side favored a simple President Washington. The other: His Highness or His Majesty. Why do you think Washington chose to be called President of the U.S. instead of a more dignified

title? 1 Sheet of Paper! Name and title: Is America the Greatest? Watch the following, and listen carefully: Newsroom You will write 2 paragraphs, min page, answering the following: Do you agree or disagree with what he said? Explain your stance. What does America need to keep doing to stay great? What do we need to do in order to become the greatest again?

Presidencies of the Early Republic Focus Questions Who were the leaders of the new republic?

What were the major domestic problems facing the leaders of the new republic? How successful was the new government in responding to early domestic challenges? No.1 George Washington No political party- unanimously elected Take oath in New York City April, 1789 Sets many precedents as first President:

Appoints first cabinet (advisors) Site of Washington, D.C. established Refused third term Oath of office Established federal law over state law Farewell Address Precedent: an action taken for the 1st time, which is followed by others

afterwards Creating a Stable Economy Most urgent domestic problem: paying off nearly 80 million in foreign and state debt! Hamiltons Financial Plan: 1. Establish a national bank -uses Necessary and Proper Clause in the Constitution to give the natl govt more power than the states

2. Protective Tariff: Charge foreign nations a tax on import goods (protects American manufacturing) 3. Domestic tax on Whiskey National Debt Debt was paid off within 10 years (first time US has ever been debt free!) The Outstanding Public Debt as of 28 Nov 2016 at 8:55:38 AM GMT is: Building a Military Commander and Chief of the Military No Navy (How might this be a problem for the US?) Standing Military funded through federal tax dollars.

(How did this fix two weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation?) Setting up the Court System Judiciary Act of 1789 Established the Supreme Court and lower federal courts Appointed Supreme Court justices (with Senate consent) 1st Chief Justice of the Supreme Court-John Jay Gave the Court the power to force govt. officials to do their jobs (Is this power given to the Court constitutional?)

Warm Up #8 11/29/16 What problem did Washington encounter when he became president? A. Southern states were threatening to secede from the Union. B. The United States had large debts from the American Revolution. C. Great Britain was refusing to trade with the United States. D. The Articles of Confederation needed to be replaced with a stronger constitution.

How did AGENDA Washington seek to fix this problem? HOMEWORK 1.Warm Up #8 2.George Washington 3.Farewell Address pre-AP: Ch 10.3 Subheading notes due Friday Regular: Ch 10/11 Vocab due Defining the Authority of the

Central Government Battle of Fallen Timbers- Shows authority of Federal government to protect citizens Whiskey Rebellion- Shows ability of Federal government to stop Domestic uprising Battle of Fallen Timbers

Whiskey Rebellion Foreign Policies French Revolution-Debate over which side to support. Determined to be too Bloody. Washington decides U.S. will stay neutral. Jays Treaty- Negotiates w/ British to remove British forts out

west. Pinckney's Treatycompromises to use the port of New Orleans with Spain French Revolution Jays Treaty Pinckneys Treaty

Between the US and Spain negotiated by diplomat Thomas Pinckney in 1795, was extremely popular.

Spain had called Pinckney to Madrid, expecting him to sign an alliance against Great Britain. Not only did he refuse, he managed to convince Spain to agree to a more southern border between Spanish West Florida and the United States, securing a disputed region for America. & USAGE OF NEW

ORLEANS!! Maintaining National Security Creates the first Cabinet: chosen by the President to direct departments & give advice. Secretary of War Henry Knox Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson Secretary of Treasury Alexander Hamilton Attorney General Edmund Randolph

Vice President of the United States Joseph R. Biden Department of State Secretary John Kerry Department of the Treasury Secretary Jack Lew Department of Defense Secretary Ashton Carter Department of Justice Attorney General Loretta E. Lynch

Department of the Interior Secretary Sally Jewell Department of Agriculture Secretary Thomas J. Vilsack Department of Commerce Secretary Penny Pritzker Department of Labor Secretary Thomas E. Perez Department of Health and Human Services Secretary Sylvia Mathews Burwell

Department of Housing & Urban Development Secretary Julin Castro Department of Transportation Secretary Anthony Foxx Department of Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz Department of Education Secretary John King Department of Veterans Affairs Secretary Robert McDonald

Maintaining National Security contd Farewell Address Warns country to: 1. stay neutral w/ foreign nations 2. Do not have political parties it will divide the nation 3. Stay out of Debt!

Farewell Address

Tis our true policy to steer clear of permanent Alliances, with any portion of the foreign World POLICY OF NEUTRALITY However [political parties] may answer popular ends, they are likely to become potent [powerful] engines, by which cunning, ambitious, and unprincipled men will be enabled to subvert [weaken] the power of the people and to usurp [seize] for

themselves the reins of government, Destroyingthe very engines which have lifted them to unjust dominion [authority]. WARNING AGAINST POLITICAL PARTIES Acronym for the first 7 Presidents We Washington All

Adams Jog Jefferson Many Madison Mornings Monroe After John Quincy Adams Juice Jackson

All pictures courtesy of Google images Warm Up #9 11/30/16 Tis our true policy to steer clear of ___?___ with any portion of the foreign World in my opinion, it is unnecessary and would be unwise to extend them. Which phrase completes the excerpt?

A. protective tariffs B. territorial disputes C. permanent alliances What other warnings did Washington give the young nation? AGENDA 1.Warm Up #9 2.Finish Farewell Address 3.Hamilton vs. Jefferson

HOMEWORK pre-AP: Ch 10.3 Subheading notes due Friday Regular: Ch 10/11 Vocab due Warm up #10 There is a new campus rule: any student who 12/1/16 says anything negative about the Principal, Administrators, or the school will be given 30 days of after-school detention.

Do you agree with this rule? Why/why not? AGENDA 1.Warm Up #10 2.John Adams Notes 3.Naturalization Test HOMEWORK pre-AP: Ch 10.3 Subheading notes due

Tomorrow Regular: Ch 10/11 Vocab due Tomorrow No. 2 John Adams Adams was an experienced diplomat and veteran of the Continental Congress Election of 1796 *President Adams led the Federalist Party with 71 votes *Jefferson led the Democratic

Republican Party with 68 votes and became the V.P. Foreign Policies XYZ affair: France insults America

France was upset because the U.S. gave too many concessions to Britain in Jays Treaty President Adams sent a commission to France to try diplomacy. The Americans were ignored for weeks before France agreed to see the Americans if: 1. They loan $10 million to France 2. Pay a bribe of $250,000 to the minister Adams would rather go to war than pay A bribe (Tribute: $ paid to be an ally or be protected)

Foreign Policies contd Undeclared War Washington warned America to stay neutral, but France seized US ships, forcing Congress to cancel its treaties with France and allowed U.S. ships to seize French vessels Adams avoided war with a treaty with Napoleon in 1799 which was very unpopular in the U.S. Adams felt it was his greatest achievement Building a Military In

response to the XYZ Affair, Congress expanded the navy and army Millions for defense, not one cent for tribute! --Charles Pinckney Maintaining National Security Naturalization Act: (Alien Act)

1. waiting period for immigrants to become citizens is extended to 14 years 2. President could deport aliens he deemed dangerous Dem-Reps opposed law: argued that the Federalists were trying to decrease the voting power of the Dem-Rep Party, which was supported mainly by immigrants Defining the Authority of the Central Government Sedition Act: made it a crime to criticize the President or

Congress. Federalists were reacting to outspoken immigrants and argued that Freedom of Speech only extended to US citizens. A dozen newspaper publishers were jailed. Democratic-Republicans disagreed and said that the Bill of Rights extended to all people in our nation, not just US citizens. Defining the Authority of the Central Govt. (contd) Madison and Jefferson said the Alien and Sedition Acts hurt States Rights Declared that to protect their citizens, States could refuse to

enforce bad federal laws (nullification) Virginia/Kentucky ResolutionsNullified the Alien and Sedition Acts (States Rights issue) Naturalization Test: Must make an 80% to become a citizen Exit Slip sheet of paper Answer the following in paragraph form: What were the Alien and Sedition Acts and were they fair?

Why or why not? Do you agree with Jefferson that States have the right to nullify (reject/ignore) bad federal laws? How united would we be if this were the case? 12/2/16 Warm up #11 The first political parties emerged partly as a result of disagreements over

a) How the nation should develop economically. b) Whether to enforce the Monroe Doctrine. c) How the nation should admit new states. What other key differences did the first parties have? AGENDA 1.Warm Up #11 2.John Adams Notes

3.Marbury v. Madison HOMEWORK pre-AP: Regular: Creating a Stable Economy Followed Hamiltons Financial Plan Election of 1800

Republicans: Jefferson and Burr Federalists: Adams and Pinckney Jefferson and Burr tied

(Federalist) Alexander Hamilton despised Burr and threw his support to Jefferson The House of Representatives decided-7days, and 36 ballots later-Jefferson wins Significance of the Election

Aaron Burrs anger toward Hamilton grew and resulted in a duel between the two. Election of 1800 resulted in a change to the electoral college - 12th Amendment separate ballots for VP & Prez

Amendment 12 the Electors shall meet in their respective states, and vote by ballot for President and VicePresident they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as President, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as VicePresident Setting Up the Court System Before Jefferson takes office, Adams appoints John Marshall, a Federalist, to be Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. Rushed the Judiciary Act of 1801 through Congress (created new court positions) Midnight appointments - before the end of his Presidency, Adams appointed Federalists to new court positions to ensure

Federalists still had a powerful voice in the Government, Warm up #12 12/9/16 What are two things the Federalist party believes/supports? What are two things the DemocraticRepublican party believes/supports? First Political Parties No. 3 Thomas Jefferson

1801-1809 Lawyer, architect, inventor, Violinist, horseman, scientist Setting up the Court System Adams failed to deliver all his midnight appointments.

Jefferson tells Secretary of State Madison to refuse to deliver the commission to one to-be Federalist judge, William Marbury, who sues. These midnight judges were among my most ardent [enthusiastic] political enemies, from whom no faithful cooperation could ever be expected. Marbury vs. Madison: John Marshall uses case to create the power of Judicial Review: Supreme Court will have the power to declare laws unconstitutional

r o f r e w o p ! e t r

v o Mo G l a r e d Fe (left) Secretary of

State, James Madison (right) Chief Justice, John Marshall Maintaining National Security 1803 Louisiana Purchase

largest land purchase in US history US pays $15 million or 3 per acre to Napoleon Bonaparte of France DOUBLES THE SIZE OF THE UNITED STATES!!

France needed money b/c of war debt with the Brits! YouTube clip Maintaining National Security Expedition of Lewis & Clark 1.

1804 mission to find a N.W. passage to Pacific Ocean 2. Scientific Expedition (new plants & wildlife) 3. attempt at peace with Natives for trade A-D659-4233-877A-0C4234B865E3&blnFromSearch=1&productcode= US Warm up #13 12/12/16 Even though it went against his beliefs, what are two reasons President Thomas Jefferson bought the Louisiana Territory?

Mi ss ou ri R ive r . R io h

O ) in pa (S i co ex M .

St. Louis . New Orleans Building a Military Refuses to pay tribute to Barbary Coast pirates Tripoli declares war on the U.S. Strengthens Navy to protect US

trading ships from raids. From the Halls of Montezuma to the shores of Tripoli. Creating a Stable Economy Reduced Kept

Cut half Taxes national bank the federal budget in Defining the Authority of the Central Government

Goal: keep the federal govt.s power limited. We are all Republicans, we are all Federalists Jefferson wanted to unite Americans by: promoting a common way of life Wanted to keep the US a nation of small, independent farmers *DC remained a village Defining the Authority of the Central

Govt. (contd.) Added a Cabinet position (Sec. of the Navy) But urged Congress to decrease the size of the Judiciary. Many lost their jobs. Replaced the Federalist positions with Dem-Reps: only 6 out of 600 were DemReps

Foreign Policies Disputes w/ Spain over boundary of LA Territory Did not include Texas! Did not go to the Rocky Mts Attempted to buy Florida, but failed

Foreign Policies France and England blockade US ships and begin a policy of Impressments, the forced enslavement of sailors Embargo Act of 1807 To stop impressments, Congress stops all exports to Europe w new laws & uses Navy to prevent English ships from coming into US ports

Embargo Act damages Economy but avoids war! (well, for now) Key Issues in Jeffersons Presidency Added a cabinet position Cut Government spending D.C. remained a village Decreased the Judiciary Embargo Act (ban trade w/ other nations) Increased size of military

Kept the National Bank Louisiana Purchase Reduced taxes Warm-up #14 12/13/16 Complete the sentence! 1. The acquisition of the Louisiana territory resulted in A securing Americas economic access to the Pacific Ocean.

B allowing the U.S. to have complete control of the Mississippi River. C making the Spanish government angry that France sold the land. D causing the British to impress sailors in the Atlantic Ocean. 2. What geographical region does the Louisiana Territory consist of? No. 4 James Madison 1809 - 1817 As a Framer and Defender of the

Constitution, [Madison] had no peer. -Gary Wills, historian Defining the Authority of the Central Government British aggression towards American sailors continued into Madisons presidency Many members of Congress, known as War Hawks, voted to declare war on Britain for 3 reasons: Impressment of U.S. sailors Interference w/ U.S. shipping

British support of Native American uprisings in the Northwest territories Henry Clay Whose point of view is shown? Building a Military At

the onset of the War of 1812, the Army had only 7,000 men and the Navy had only 16 ships!!! Experience in Barbary Wars was key to success Great victories by heroes such as Commodore Oliver Perry and General Andrew Jackson Built American confidence and nationalism Nationalism intense pride in ones country; patriotism Setting up the Court System

As the British approached Washington D.C., Dolly Madison stayed behind. Dolly and her slaves saved priceless founding documents including original drafts of the Declaration of Independence and Constitution, and a famous portrait of George Washington. Dolly escaped with her life before the British burned the capital.

The Burning of Washington D.C. War of 1812 Whose point of view is illustrated ? Whose point of view is shown? Francis Scott Key

Lawyer who was detained on a British ship Watched the all-night bombardment of Ft. McHenry at the Battle of Baltimore At dawn, he saw the American flag still flying! He expressed his pride in his countrymen for withstanding heavy fire with a poem later known as the Star-Spangled Banner, our National Anthem Warm up #15

12/14/16 What were the 3 main causes of the War of 1812? Who were we at war with? Maintaining National Security Native Americans resistance failed after the British no longer gave them weapons

Gov./Gen. William Henry Harrison defeated the Shawnee at the Battle of Tippecanoe Major setback for the Native American resistance Foreign Policies

U.S. continued to have difficulties w/ foreign trade. Before the War of 1812, Madison enacted laws that discouraged trade with France and England. Proved to be as ineffective as the Embargo Act Final Battle: The Battle of New Orleans Treaty of Ghent officially ends the War of 1812 No clear winner No land changed hands Trade disputes left unresolved What is the

purpose of this piece of propaganda ? Creating a stable Economic System Interrupted trade with Europe during the war forced Americans to manufacture goods they previously imported This resulted in the birth of the US Industrial Revolution and use of Free Enterprise: economy based on supply and

demand with minimal government interference mercantilism vs. free enterprise How did John Lockes idea of natural rights result in the Free Enterprise System? Quick Review Released

STAAR Questions Released STAAR Questions Released STAAR Questions Released STAAR Questions Exit Slip 12/6

Imagine you are each of the following characters. Write 2-3 sentences for each, describing how you feel about going to war with Britain during the War of 1812.

Merchant Sailor in Boston Plantation owner in Georgia Member of the Shawnee tribe American Sailor Warm-up 12/2/14 For all your hard work, you have been

awarded a scholarship to the college of your choice! However, the person who recruited you (coach, band/choir director, etc.) leaves the college before the new school year begins. Their replacement refuses to honor your scholarship. Is this fair? Why or why not?

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