Présentation PowerPoint pour l'uqam

Présentation PowerPoint pour l'uqam

Discussion of Unemployment, Sovereign Debt, and Fiscal Policy in a Currency Union Pacific Basin conference, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco Sylvain Leduc Banque du Canada bank-banque-canada.ca Ambitious paper tackling an important issue Tackles non-linearities and occasionally binding constraints Downward wage rigidity Financing constraint Solve optimal policy choice: spending, external borrowing, taxes, and whether to default! Shows that spending countercyclical when debt is low, less so when debt is high as the interest spread rises

2 Mechanism: absent financial frictions hh Given wage rigidity, with a sufficiently negative shock: CT falls and lowers pt=(PN/PT) Increase government spending can bring back full employment by boosting pt 1 1 ctT pt F (ht ) g tN N

Ct pt ht wt 1 1 The increase in government spending achieves this by crowding out NT

consumption Benefit of higher government spending offset by cost of higher taxes or increase risk of default and associated cost 3 Mechanism: with financial frictions Consider a financial shock making firms borrowing constraint bind CT and CN fall Given wage rigidity in NT sector, pt must fall too much to clear NT goods market Worsens effect on borrowing constraint By supporting pt , government spending mitigates negative impact on financial constraint, raising employment 4 1. Quantitative assessment

Difficult problem to solve, so need to make a few assumptions Cant self-insure by adjusting labor supply or sectoral employment Tax volatility subtracts from utility, in addition to cost of default Makes the overall quantitative assessment difficult to evaluate Whats the value added then? Interaction of government spending via the financial friction. But effect seems surprisingly small. Why? 5 2. Consumption response In the face of negative shocks, the optimal policy increases spending to lower NT consumption! In NK models: 1 ct Et rt s t 1 s

s 0 Consumption determined by entire path of ex-ante future real interest rates In a monetary union: transitory spending shock raise relative inflation, which must be undone in the future, pushing future real rates up Consumption falls on this anticipation and multiplier is less than 1 6 3. Infrastructure spending? Assume productive public capital: 1 ctT G

pt N ht K t g t 1 ytN AtN ht K tG K tG pt ht wt

1 1 Higher future income reduces size of necessary tax increase Leduc and Wilson (2012): infrastructure spending leads to a SR demand effect and a LR supply effect 7 bank-banque-canada.ca

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