Pre-Socratics GREEK PHILOSOPHY They were interested in finding the unity in life-in both the material world and the spiritual world. WHO AM I WHAT IS THE WORLD COMPOSED OF WHERE DID I COME FROM WHAT IS RIGHT AND WRONG

WHAT IS THE MEANING OF LIFE Humanism in Philosophy The social, religious, and political atmosphere made Greek philosophy possible. The world is orderly (by observation) and Greeks search to figure out why Unity within diversity-what holds reality together The search for the unifying factor would lead the Greeks to search outside the divine realm and focus on what people can do. Hesiod (both divine will and human will)Heraclitus (divine logos/thought allows us to understand

reality)Plato (the forms are a perfect reflection of reality; humans know the imperfect world via the knowledge of these forms; therefore reality is a reflection of human thoughts/reason)Aristotle (Platos student; reject forms; only know reality by material world; like Heraclitus, the world is changing; human workmanship can mimic the changing world therefore human work is an extension of the divine) Causes of Philosophy Freedom of Thought promoted by: Religion: Not state-centric but dealt with in families Homer wasnt dogma (not quite like a Bible) Politics Written laws promoted rational debate

Written language not class specific Miletus: Ionian city-state Contact with Greece and the Near East Astronomy, Orientalizing pottery, alphabet, religion Continuous Greek culture passed down through the Mycenaean period Homeric social structure, language, epics, and culture Wealthy polis (shipping,

trade, industry) Aristocratic and secular Hesiod vs Thales the dark age and archaic connection Hesiod: Wrote Works and Days and Theogony these works give us the daily life and religion of the Dark Ages More concerned about divine causes rather than natural causes (very oriental-copied Enuma Elish) But order is seen as an outgrowth of human motivation rather than divine will Pre-Socratics

Pre-Socratics: Humanism Natural origins of life. The divine wasnt abandoned, however. The search for the unifying factor would ultimately come down to the Logos and the Forms. To be or not to be; whatever is, is the Beginnings of Greek thought Quest for order (Cosmos), unity within diversity, and monarchy Searched within the material world and

abandoned the divine Early beginnings of science What is the monarchy? Physical one or many Immaterial one or many Thales Founder of Greek philosophy and science Water was either the main material or the main source of all things Has no beginning and thus is divine Three states of being and all things

need it (therefore all share in the divine) A soul connects all things and is the cause of motion Heraclitus All things are in flux The only constant is change represented by fire He is still looking at the

material world for a unifying composition Logos: what connects all people Logos=Word/Reason/ Thought Thoughts were seen as part of the divine; perfect representations of reality given by god and therefore humans can understand reality Parmenides

What is not-is not. What is-is. What is not is not and can never be. Something cant come from nothing. Coming into existence and ceasing to exist are impossible. The appearance of the world is deceptive Reality is the one unchanging, ungenerated, and indestructible Movement and change is deceptive Only truth is reason (logos) not senses Pythagoras Soul is divine Math was perfection; Geometry was the beginning of all things

Music was mathematical Soul and world consisted of geometric shapes Soul was perfect but if body was out of alignment soul would be tainted Transmigration of souls (reincarnation until you recognize Truth) Soul was the perfect reflection of god; body imperfect Later Gnostics merged his philosophy: Spiritual and Physical

dualism (spiritual is perfect while physical imperfect) Augustine would use Pythagoras and Platos idea of the soul and body to understand Christianity

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