Chapter 14: Gender and Development Module 14.1 Gender
Chapter 14: Gender and Development Module 14.1 Gender Stereotypes Module 14.2 Differences Related to Gender Module 14.3 Gender Identity Module 14.4 Gender Roles in Transition Children and Their Development, 3/e by Robert Kail
14.1 Gender Stereotypes How Do We View Men and Women? Learning Gender Stereotypes 14.1 How Do We View Men and Women? Social Role: cultural guidelines for how a
person should behave Gender Roles: behaviors considered appropriate for males and females Gender Identity: perception of oneself as male or female In the US, males are seen as instrumental, women as expressive Not shared worldwide: US views on gender are extreme
Cultural Differences in Gender Stereotypes 14.1: How Do We View Men and Women? 14.1 Learning Gender Stereotypes By age 5, US children judge 1/3 of traits as stereotypically as adults do
During elementary-school years, children learn that traits and occupations associated with males have higher status Older children see stereotypes as general guidelines that are not necessarily binding Girls tend to be more flexible about stereotypes African American children have more flexible ideas about gender
14.2 Differences Related to Gender Differences in Physical Development and Behavior Differences in Intellectual Abilities and Achievement Differences in Personality and Social Behavior Frank Talk about Gender Differences
14.2 Differences in Physical Development and Behavior Obvious differences in primary & secondary sexual characteristics Boys are bigger, stronger, faster, and more active Girls are healthier and better on tasks requiring fine-motor coordination
Gender Differences in Physical Ability 14.2: Differences in Physical Development and Behavior 14.2 Differences in Intellectual Abilities and Achievement Verbal ability--girls excel at reading, spelling, & writing and are less likely to have languagerelated difficulties
Spatial ability--boys surpass girls at mental rotation and determining relations between objects in space Math--girls often get better grades and are better at computational skills, but boys excel in math problem solving Test of Mental Rotation
14.2: Differences in Intellectual Abilities and Achievement Test of Spatial Relations 14.2: Differences in Intellectual Abilities and Achievement 14.2 Differences in Personality and Social Behavior Aggression: boys are more likely to be physically
aggressive and girls more likely to be relationally aggressive Emotional sensitivity: girls are better able to express emotions and interpret others emotions Social influence: girls are more compliant and girls and women are more likely to be influenced by persuasive messages and group pressure, may come from females valuing group harmony Depression: adolescent girls more likely to be
depressed Gender Differences in Aggression 14.2: Differences in Personality and Social Behavior 14.2 Frank Talk About Gender Differences
Gender differences represent differences in average scores for groups of males and females Distributions of scores have considerable overlap Many abilities and behaviors dont show any gender differences Hypothetical Gender Difference
14.2: Frank Talk About Gender Differences 14.3 Gender Identity The Socializing Influences of People and the Media Cognitive Theories of Gender Identity Biological Influences
14.3 The Socializing Influences of People and the Media Parents treat sons and daughters alike except for gender-related behavior Fathers more likely to treat sons and daughters differently Teachers make gender salient and spend more time interacting with boys Peers critical of cross-gender play
Same-sex play is universal TV depicts stereotyped views of gender 14.3 Cognitive Theories of Gender Identity Gender identity develops gradually: gender labeling, stability, consistency, and constancy By 4 years, children understand gender constancy and knew gender-typical and genderatypical activities
According to gender-schema theory, once children learn their gender, they pay more attention to objects and activities that are gender appropriate 14.3 Biological Influences Evolutionary adaptation to male and female roles may influence gender differences Girls who are affected by congenital adrenal
hyperplasia (CAH) are exposed to large amounts of androgen during prenatal development During childhood and adolescence, girls with CAH prefer masculine activities and male play mates 14.4 Gender Roles in Transition
Emerging Gender Roles Beyond Traditional Gender Roles 14.4 Emerging Gender Roles Androgynous people are high in both expressive and instrumental traits Being androgynous benefits girls selfesteem more than boys A balance of instrumentality and expressiveness may be especially
adaptive 14.4 Beyond Traditional Gender Roles Children can be taught to have fewer stereotyped views of occupations and household activities in the short-term Family Lifestyles Project shows that some aspects of gender learning are more easily
influenced than others. Treat children as individuals, not based on gender when buying toys, choosing activities, and assigning chores
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