TODAYS PL AN! AGENDA: Talk briefly about the test Go over the timeline Were moving on to bigger and better civilizations starting today! Were officially in the Classical Period from 600 BCE 600 CE HOMEWORK: Reading GO CHEER ON YOUR TROJAN FOOTBALL TEAM ON FRIDAY
THE RISE OF PERSIA PERSIAN EMPIRE (AKA ACHAEMENID EMPIRE) PERSIAN EMPIRE (BASIC TIMELINE) Beginnings Cyrus the Great conquers Mesopotamia (under Assyrian control) and eventually Egypt
Golden Age Darius I expands the empire Decline Corruption among later leaders (Xerxes) Loss to Greece in the Greco-Persian Wars PAUSE: ASSYRIA Yall. This empire. PAUSE: ASSYRIA
Yall. This empire. In strife and conflict I besieged [and] conquered the city. I felled 3000 of their fighting men with the sword . . . . I captured many troops alive: I cut off some of their arms [and] hands; I cut off others their noses, ears [and] extremities. I gouged out the eyes of many troops. I made
one pile of the living [and] one of heads. I hung their heads on trees around the city. BEGINNINGS: CYRUS THE GREAT Reign: 558-530 BCE The George Washington of Persia uniter of tribes and general good guy Everyone modeled what it meant to be attractive based on this guy
Established vast empire stretching from India to Mediterranean (conquered Mesopotamia, Egypt, and India) Looting and burning not allowed! Honored local traditions and customs When you think of Cyrus and Persia, think
TOLERANCE. THE DOWNSIDE OF MONARCHY Sometimes you have an intolerable son Cambyses II (530-522 BCE) Conquered Egypt in 525 BCE Looted, burned, pillages, destroyed temples, ridiculed Egyptian polytheism, ordered images of their gods to be
burned But is this true??? GOLDEN AGE: DARIUS I Reign: 521-486 BCE A young kinsman of Cyrus or was he?? Built the largest empire in world history up until that point 2500 miles Turkey to the Indus Valley
10,000 Immortals true? Ruled more than 70 ethnic groups Built new capital at Persepolis (in modern-day Iran), 520 B.C.E. THE PERSIAN EMPIRE UNDER DARIUS I DISCUSS WITH A PARTNER You have just conquered the largest empire the world has ever seen.
What steps would you take to control and maintain such an empire? Be specific! Formulate at least 5 means of controlling a large, diverse area. Think of the US how do we do it here? How might they have done it more than 2000 years ago? HOW DID THE PERSIANS CONTROL THEIR EMPIRE? Politics
Satraps: governors to rule provinces for the central government Ruled over satrapies Represented emperor, maintained defense, collected taxes Checked on by Kings Eyes and Ears Local people still made up local governance
HOW DID THE PERSIANS CONTROL THEIR EMPIRE? Politics Standardized laws Communication systems! Royal Road // pony express
Created largest military in history (until the Romans came along) And they were AWESOME HOW DID THE PERSIANS CONTROL THEIR EMPIRE? Economics
Formalized taxes instead of a tribute system Standardized coins and laws Whats the benefit? Political stability encouraged the growth of trade
HOW DID THE PERSIANS CONTROL THEIR EMPIRE? Social Persian religion: Zoroastrianism Monotheistic-ish A good god: Ahuramazda A lesser, evil god:
Ahriman If youre good, you go to heaven; if youre bad, you go to hell Could be practiced alongside other religions HOW DID THE PERSIANS CONTROL THEIR EMPIRE? Social
Tolerance, tolerance, tolerance Conquered peoples allowed to practice their local customs and traditions HUGE melting pot Spread and mix of art, religion, architecture, food, races, and ethnic groups AWESOME WOMAN ALERT
ATOSSA Daughter of Cyrus Wife of Cambyses Yes, her brother Wife of Darius He married into the royal family to legitimize his rule Mother of Xerxes "Atossa was of great authority, and during the
Greek war initially recommended by her, Darius made use of her advice. She was even interested in accompanying her husband in the process of war." - Herodotus THE PERSIAN WARS vs GRECO -PERSIAN WARS:
WHY DID THEY START? - Ethnic Greeks living in Ionia (coast of Turkey) rebelled against the Persians, with the help of some city-states (especially Athens) - Persian rulers put down the rebellion and invaded Greece as punishment - Two major invasions 490BCE (Darius) and
480BCE (Xerxes) GRECO -PERSIAN WARS: MAJOR EVENTS Battle of Marathon 490 BCE Athenians defeat Dariuss troops 162 vs 6000 Huge win for the Greeks!
Democracy vs. despotism (autocracy/ monarchy) GRECO -PERSIAN WARS: MAJOR EVENTS Crossing the Hellespont 480BCE Darius is gone. Xerxes is in. Hes ready to finish what his dad started.
HE BUILDS A BRIDGE OF BOATS to cross the Hellespont GRECO -PERSIAN WARS: MAJOR EVENTS Battle of Thermopylae 480BCE (aka, the Hot Gates) Xerxes invades and defeats Spartans (think: the movie 300)
Offered peace a ton of times; Leonidas says no Come and take them Ephialtes ruins everything; betrays homeland for money and power Herodotus lies a lot about this battle in his Histories GRECO -PERSIAN WARS: MAJOR EVENTS
Phalanx GRECO -PERSIAN WARS: MAJOR EVENTS Battle of Salamis 480BCE Athenian naval victory over Xerxess forces (decisive battle of the war) Arguably the most important battle in all of world history
GRECO -PERSIAN WARS: WHAT WAS THE RESULT OF THE WARS? Greeks win and remain independent Persia does not collapse it just doesnt conquer Greece Leads to the Golden Age of Greece and the height of Athenian power (and then Alexander the Great conquers everyone, but well get there next time)
ACTIVITY In groups, you will receive a one-page narrative of one part of the Persian Wars and practice highlighting and reading for the main idea(s). First, all of these excerpts are from The Histories, a book written by Herodotus. He was a Greek who lived during the Persian Wars and he is considered the first Western historian and the Father of History. Why is this information important?
STEP ONE: INDIVIDUAL PRACTICE Read the first paragraph silently and highlight the one sentence or phrase that you think is the main idea of that paragraph. Circle or underline any details that you think are necessary to understand the main idea. STEP TWO: COMPARE
In your group, have everyone share the sentence they highlighted and why they thought that was the main idea. If there are differences, discuss and try to come up with a single answer as a group. STEP THREE: READ AS A GROUP
Read the second paragraph as a group (one person reads aloud or you popcorn read). Afterwards, decide as a group which sentence or phrase should be highlighted as the main idea. Also as a group, decide which details should be circled/underlined as necessary to understanding the main idea.
STEP FOUR: INDIVIDUAL PRACTICE Read the last paragraph on your own again and highlight the main idea and circle/underline the important details. After youre done, GIST your threeparagraph reading and compare your GIST with the rest of your group. HERODOTUS ALSO SAID HE SAW GIANT
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