INTRODUCTION Chapter A.2 NORMAL DEVELOPMENT: INFANCY, CHILDHOOD AND
INTRODUCTION Chapter A.2 NORMAL DEVELOPMENT: INFANCY, CHILDHOOD AND ADOLESCENCE Nancy G Guerra, Ariel A Williamson & Beatriz Lucas-Molina DEPRESSION IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS Companion PowerPoint Presentation Adapted by Uttara Chari & Julie Chilton The IACAPAP Textbook of Child and Adolescent Mental Health is available at
the IACAPAP website http://iacapap.org/iacapap-textbook-of-child-andadolescent-mental-health Please note that this book and its companion power point are: - Free and no registration is required to read or download it - This is an open-access publication under the Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial License. According to this, use, distribution and reproduction in any medium are allowed without prior permission provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. Normal Development: Infancy, Childhood and Adolescence Outline Understanding normal development Milestones Cognitive Linguistic Social-emotional Behavioral Ages & Stages Domains
Temperament Attachment Conclusions Normal Development: Infancy, childhood and adolescence Defining Normal Development Average or on-time growth based on the attainment of specific physical, cognitive, linguistic, social-emotional, and behavioral milestones across specific stages What is likely Based on population averages Historical, cultural, international variations Normal Development: Infancy, childhood and adolescence Knowledge of Normal Development
Experience Friends Cultural traditions Magazines and books Support networks Internet Guidance counselors Social workers Therapists Physicians
Normal Development: Infancy, childhood and adolescence Understanding Normal Development Key Developmental Principles: Nature versus nurture Developmental timing and plasticity Sequencing and variation in development Critical and sensitive periods Culture and context Normal Development: Infancy, childhood and adolescence Nature vs Nurture Genes and biology Life experiences: family, school, peer group, community, culture Recent evidence: interplay of both over time Family, twin and adoption studies DNA analyses: Trisomy 21, alcoholism Environmental factors: parenting styles, socioeconomic
status, neighborhood characteristics Temperament and intelligence Non-shared environment Normal Development: Infancy, childhood and adolescence Developmental Timing and Plasticity Sequencing and variation Dynamic process Continuous and discontinuous Continuum as normal timeframe Heterogeneous rates within normal
Deviation may not be meaningful Malleable traits and skills early on Normal Development: Infancy, childhood and adolescence Critical and Sensitive Periods Developmental studies Genie, age 13 Feral children Optimal windows of opportunity Critical periods for specific functions Vision Language Sensitive periods when skills easiest to acquire Second language Normal Development: Infancy, childhood and adolescence
Culture and Context Average population rates vary: Race Ethnicity Culture Historical era Community Socioeconomic status Less Variable: Physical and cognitive domains Skills and behaviors: cooing, babbling, speech initiation, abstract reasoning Normal Development: Infancy, childhood and adolescence Understanding Normal Development Age Specific Milestones: Physical
Cognitive Linguistic Social-emotional Behavioral Imitation: a quick way of acquiring skills Normal Development: Infancy, childhood and adolescence
Stages of Development Infancy: 0 to 2 years Toddler/Preschool: 2 to 5 years Childhood: 6 to 11 years Adolescence: 11 to 18 years Emerging adulthood: 19 to 29 years Normal Development: Infancy, childhood and adolescence Domains of Development Cognitive Internal mental processes Thinking and understanding Larger schemas Linguistic Communication Speech patterns Sentence structure Socio-Emotional and Behavioral Milestones Relationships
Social norms and customs Feelings Following rules and regulating deviance Normal Development: Infancy, Childhood and Adolescence Infancy and Early Toddlerhood: 0-2 years Attachment between child and primary caregiver Rapid changes across ages: Birth to six months Seven months to one year 13 months to 18 months 19 months to two years Inuit Mother and Baby Normal Development: Infancy, Childhood and Adolescence Birth to Six Months Cognitive/Linguistic
Milestones: Social Stimulation & Interaction Differentiation of external stimuli Recognition of facial expression Preference for -familiar people -familiar stimuli -face-to-face interactions Improved memory & attention Crying to express basic needs Language precursors
Joint attention Social-Emotional/Behavioral Milestones: Attachment Relationships Self-regulation based on regular biological routines Sleep cycles more predictable Gaze aversion Social smile Multiple displays of emotions Differences in temperament
Normal Development: Infancy, Childhood and Adolescence Temperament https://www.youtube.com/watch?reload=9&v=kEU-az-NzTc&feature=related Normal Development: Infancy, Childhood and Adolescence 7 Months to 1 Year Cognitive/Linguistic Milestones: Social Stimulation & Interaction Perceptual & sensory capabilities Memory & attention skills
Object permanence Point at objects Emergent language skills Learn and respond to name Social-Emotional/Behavioral Milestones: Attachment Relationships Attachment relationships Separation anxiety Stranger wariness Social referencing Normal Development: Infancy, Childhood and Adolescence
13 to 18 Months Cognitive/linguistic milestones Social stimulation & interaction Expansion of repertoire of earlier cognitive skills -Object permanence -Memory & retrieval: -After the first word (eight-18 months) Social-emotional/behavioral Milestones Attachment relationships Self-awareness: Recognition of oneself
First demonstrations of empathy Normal Development: Infancy, Childhood and Adolescence 19 Months to 2 Years Cognitive/Linguistic Milestones: Social Stimulation & Interaction Memory, problem solving & attention: - Action plans - Pretend/make-believe play - Daily life play themes Advanced linguistic skills: - Two or more words - Replacing parts of a word
- Vocabulary growth Social-Emotional/Behavioral Milestones: Attachment Relationships Use of language to regulate Awareness of others More complex emotions Less separation anxiety Self-control Imitation of others, language use & play based on gender stereotypes
Normal Development: Infancy, Childhood and Adolescence Piagets Theory of Intellectual Development Theory of intellectual development Jean Piaget Part 1 (12:25) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I1JWr4G 8YLM Part 3 (11:30) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x9nSC_X gabc Part 2 (13:05) https://www.youtube.com/watch?feature =endscreen&v=Qb4TPj1pxzQ&NR=1 Part 4 (4:49) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cVSa
EHhOEZY&feature=relmfu Normal Development: Infancy, Childhood and Adolescence Late Toddlerhood & Preschool (2-5 years) Caregiver reliance vs independence Changes in understanding of self & others mental representations problem solving language social-emotional process Behavior Self reliance
San Jose library Normal Development: Infancy, Childhood and Adolescence 2 to 5 Years Cognitive/Linguistic Milestones: Mental Representation Sociodramatic play Dual representation
Explanations & relationships Cognitive scripts Memory of 4 items Private speech Literacy & numeracy skills Vocabulary 2000 words Complex sentences Social-Emotional/Behavioral Milestones: Parental Demands vs
Childs Autonomy Temper tantrums Change in aggression Complex behavioral & emotional expressions First friendships Moral beliefs & emotional display Describes mental states Gender constancy Feeding & toileting self Sexual curiosity & self-exploration Patterning of temper tantrums (1:54) https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2011/12/05/143062378/whats-behind-a-temper-tantrum-scientists-dec onstruct-the-screams Normal Development: Infancy, Childhood and Adolescence Childhood: 6 to 11 Years
More involved in social world Learn skills for later use in adulthood More attuned to cultural norms, rules & laws Shift focus & attention from parents to peers Sense of mastery over academic & social domains Increased interest/involvment with peers Normal Development: Infancy, Childhood and Adolescence Piagets Stages of Intellectual Development Piagets stages of intellectual development (6:18) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TRF27F2bn-A&feature=related
Normal Development: Infancy, Childhood and Adolescence Childhood: 6 to 11 Years More involved in social world More attuned to cultural norms, rules & laws Shift focus & attention from parents to peers Sense of mastery over academic & social domains Increased interest/involvement with peers Sri Lankan children playing in a beach (Photo: Dhammika Heenpella) Normal Development: Infancy, Childhood and Adolescence
6 to 11 years Cognitive/Linguistic Milestones: Information Processing Selective attention Gist-based memory Automatization Time and space Seriation and object categorization
Metacognition Cognitive self-regulation 10000 words Double meanings and metaphors Shading skills Social-Emotional/Behavioral Milestones: Self & Others Mastery Decreased self-esteem
Gender stereotypes, roles, identity Delayed gratification and impulse control Emotional regulation Problem focused or emotioncentered coping Empathy and perspective taking Moral views and normative beliefs Trust and mutual enjoyment Peer victimization Sexual/romantic interest Normal Development: Infancy, Childhood and Adolescence Adolescence (12-18 years) Increased attention on peers Increased risk-taking behavior & experimentation Higher-order cognitive & linguistic skills Increased moodiness &
caregiver conict Increased conformity Preparation for adulthood Formulation of adult identity Normal Development: Infancy, Childhood and Adolescence 12 to 18 Years Cognitive & Linguistic Milestones: Complex Reasoning & Formal Mental Operations Cognitive self-regulation Metacognition Self-consciousness Cognitive distortions Imaginary audience Personal fable Rational decision-making Impulsivity
40,000 words Refined grammar Conversational skills Social Emotional & Behavioral Milestones: Assertion of Ones Identity and Autonomy Self-esteem & emotional uctuations Increased dimensionality of self esteem Variations in mood & behavior Peer group conformity Risky behaviors Peer victimization Moral beliefs Perspective-taking Normal Development: Infancy, Childhood and Adolescence
Erik Eriksons Stages of Psychosocial Development Eric Eriksons stages of psychosocial development (12:02) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=577GqQDMX08&feature=related Normal Development: Infancy, Childhood and Adolescence Conclusions Absence of psychopathology Important milestones in a timely fashion Context: racial, ethnic, cultural & environmental differences Use discussions of atypical behavior and normal development to inform conceptualizations Normal Development: Infancy, Childhood and Adolescence Other Useful Internet Resources
Palo Alto Medical Foundation (information available in English and Spanish) http://www.pamf.org/children/common/development/ Medline Plus: Trusted Health Information for You https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002456.htm National Institute of Child Health and Human Development https://www.nichd.nih.gov/ Centers for Disease Control and Prevention https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/childdevelopment/index.html
University of Michigan Health System (with videos and information in Spanish) https://www.mottchildren.org/posts/your-child/developmental-milestones Child Developmental Institute https://childdevelopmentinfo.com/ IACAPAPThank Thank You Slide You! Normal Development: Infancy, Childhood and Adolescence
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