2015 Baseline Survey of Engineering Departments Report March

2015 Baseline Survey of Engineering Departments Report March

2015 Baseline Survey of Engineering Departments Report March 8, 2016 Hotel InterContinental, Nairobi By Prof. Meoli Kashorda, PhD, MIET, MIEEE Executive Director, Kenya Education Network (KENET) & Professor of Information Systems, USIU And Prof Timothy Mwololo Waema, BS (Elect. Eng.), PhD (Information Systems) Professor of Information Systems, University of Nairobi Transforming education using ICT What is Our Agenda What was the Rationale for the Survey? How Did We Collect the Data? KENET data collection and analysis system Challenges and lessons Institutional ERPs and databases on departmental academic and research outputs What is New Data in the Baseline Report?

Faculty numbers and qualifications Graduation rates at Bachelors, Masters and Doctoral levels Institutional budgets for engineering departments Research and innovation outputs of engineering departments Conclusions, Recommendations and Policy Implications Transforming education using ICT Rationale for the Baseline Survey of Engineering Departments KENET is the National Research and Education Network (NREN) of Kenya Employs graduate electrical engineers who build and operate the national broadband network and data centers KENET s Strategic Plan 2011-2016 Focus on five STEM academic areas Engineering, computer science/information systems, medicine, agriculture, educational technology SIGs in engineering education and in educational technology are operational 2014 IEEE Conference on the Future of Engineering Education in Kenya Recognized lack of Open National Baseline Data on the State of Engineering Education and Research E-readiness Survey Research Series since 2006, recognized lack of open university education data to inform policy and strategy KENET is a member of higher education data committee of CUE KENET needed to discover engineering faculty and research champions for global collaboration and access to advanced e-infrastructures Data shall create some dissatisfaction (or discomfort ) and trigger change! Transforming education using ICT What will trigger change and transformation in

engineering education in Kenya? Change Dissatisfaction Vision Strategy (steps) Who is dissatisfied with the state of engineering education and research? Transforming education using ICT KENET as the NREN of KE Catalyst for transformation of education and research using ICT Discovers and supports research and innovation champions Offers up to 10 travel grants per year to faculty researchers or post-graduate students in STEM areas Sponsors innovative research projects using Mini-grants of $10,000 per University faculty team (see http://raspberry.kenet.or.ke ) Organizes forums of faculty in different areas (e.g., engineering faculty forum in 2015) Regularly Conducts E-readiness Survey of Connected Universities 2006, 2008, 2013 and 2015 (see http://ereadiness.kenet.or.ke) Data-driven advocacy and influencing ICT strategies to increase use of ICT in education and research Collects Annual Data on Enrollment of Connected Higher Education Institutions 2015 data collected for 57 universities / university colleges connected to KENET Builds advanced research infrastructures and community in different areas Africa Science Gateway and federated services (KENET CA, iDP, EDUROAM) The first NREN in Africa to have a Certification Authority (CA) accredited by EUGRDPMA allowing Kenyan researchers access global e-infrastructures for FREE! New Initiative to start measuring research collaboration and productivity of Kenyan universities and research institutes Will be using research intelligence tool from Elsevier SciVal to prepare research advocacy reports Transforming education using ICT

KENET National Broadband Network Coverage SEACOM (3150Mb/s) WIOCC (600Mb/s) KTCIP TEAMS/SEAMEWE4 (1200Mb/s) GOK TEAMS to Fujairah (600Mb/s) KENET POP KDN fiber-underground (Primary) Jamii fiber -overhead(Backup) SEACOM International capacity (3150Mb/s) WIOCC International capacity (600Mb/s) KTCIP TEAMS International capacity (1200Mb/s) GOK TEAMS International capacity (600Mb/s) . Ethiopia Lokichoggio Lodwar Mandera Moyale No. of Campuses Connected No of Schools

connected Nairobi POP 100 146 Kisumu POP 20 1 Mombasa POP 16 0 Eldoret POP 22 0 Nakuru POP 17 0 Meru POP 15

1 Total Campuses connected 190 148 2 91 POP Marsabit Girls Marsabi t Kitale Uganda Eldoret POP __ Weybuye 70 Eldoret Kakameg a

350KM 12 9 Kisumu POP Kisumu 400KM Kisii Rong o Meru Nakuru Nyeri 31 8Emb u Muranga 350KM Thika 150KM Kericho 400KM USIUTala

DC Garissa University College Garissa Mwingi Kitui Nairobi UoN POP Narok Kaljiado 15 9 Isebania Somalia Meru Nanyuki POP Isielo Nyahururu Nakuru POP Bomet

Wajiir 500KM 500KM Garse n Italian Space Agency -Luigi Broglio Space Centre- Malindi Namanga Malindi Tanzania Mombasa POP Kilifi Mombasa TEAMS Landing station INDIAN OCEAN SEACOM Landing station

NOFBI Distance- 856KM KENET Owned Last Mile Fiber 188KM KENET Core Ring Fiber Network 110KM Access Fiber Spurs 30KM Total KENET Owned fiber 1084KM Connected Schools classified as follows; KENET/Wananchi Partnership schools 144 (all in Nairobi) Google Confidential Proprietary KENET Schools 4 (Allianceand schools, Kisii and Marsabit Girls) Growth in Internet Bandwidth (Mb/s) (3.6x growth from Jan 2013 to Jan 2016) Overall Growth in Bandwidth Capacity From 2013 to 2016 8,000 7,055 7,000 6,000 5,000 3,858 4,000

2,954 3,000 1,950 2,000 1,000 - 2013 2014 2015 2016 Transforming education using ICT How Did We Collect the Data? Transforming education using ICT KENET Seeks Permission of Vice Chancellors to Collect Data Transforming education using ICT Analog Data Collection and Data Entry over 14 months Permission to collect data granted by Vice Chancellors Directed Detailed Questionnaires One Research assistant per campus / university (junior ICT or engineering faculty) collects data from head of department Phase 1 November 2014 April 2015

Printed questionnaires delivered by courier to department heads Data even on enrolment NOT easily available Completed questionnaires delivered back to KENET by Courier Data Entry, Data Cleaning, Analysis and Draft Report (May August 2015) Data entry at KENET by statistician and student assistants Engineering forum of heads of engineering departments and deans in October 2015 recommends data validation Data Validated November 2015 January 2016 Data more complete but still missing data on research output and departmental budgets! SIG on engineering education and KENET network of engineering department heads essential for data cleaning Transforming education using ICT Highlights of Engineering Baseline Survey Results Transforming education using ICT How many departments / degree programs? 12 Universities offering engineering degree programs 44 departments and 54 unique degree programs All departments / degree programs classified as: CSE Civil and Structural Engineering programs (10 departments) EEE Electrical and electronics engineering (13 departments MME Mechanical and mechatronics engineering programs (includes agricultural engineering) = 21 departments MME has the widest range of degree programs and departments (not sure why? ) Transforming education using ICT

Enrolment in 12 Universities University 1 2 Number Total of enrollment departme AY 2014/2015 nts 4 534 4 428 Dedan Kimathi University Egerton University Jomo Kenyatta University of 3 6 2,844 Agriculture and Technology 4 Kenyatta University 5 1,163 Masinde Muliro University of

5 3 149 Science and Technology Meru University of Science and 6 1 90 Technology 7 Moi University 5 1,211 8 Multimedia University of Kenya 1 65 9 Technical University of Kenya 4 1,765 10 Technical University of Mombasa 4 226 11 University of Eldoret 3 70 Transforming education using ICT 12 University of Nairobi 4 1,798 UG Student Enrolment over 3 years Department Civil and structural engineering (CSE) Electrical and

electronics engineering (EEE) Mechanical and mechatronic engineering (MME) Total 2012/20 2013/20 2014/2 13 14 015 Number of Depts 1,553 1,719 3,089 10 1,504 2,508 3,963 13 1,082 1,098

3,291 21 4,139 5,325 10,343 44 Transforming education using ICT UG Eng. Student Enrolment (AY 2012/2013 AY 2014/2015) Transforming education using ICT UG Eng. Graduates (3 AYs) Transforming education using ICT Faculty availability in Kenya Are they enough? Transforming education using ICT Where are the eng. lecturers? University 1 2 3

Full-time faculty (excluding tutorial fellows) 37 42 Part-time faculty Full-time faculty with PhDs Dedan Kimathi University 19 8 Egerton University 10 6 Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and 118 4 46 Technology 4 Kenyatta University 35 55 15 5 Masinde Muliro University 32

16 15 of Science and Technology 6 Meru University of Science 7 15 2 and Technology 7 Moi University 56 8 31 8 Multimedia University of 19 17 2 Kenya 9 Technical University of 36 46 13 Kenya 10 Technical University of 45 28 9 Mombasa 63%University of lecturers with PhD degrees at UoN, JKUAT13 and Moi

11 of Eldoret 18 2 Transforming education using ICT 12 University of Nairobi 63 0 44 Aggregate Faculty and Faculty Ratios Total Departmen Total partfull-time t name time faculty faculty Full-time faculty with PhD Undergraduate Student enrollment AY 2014/2015 Full-time Faculty to student ratio

CSE 142 56 53 3089 22 EEE 150 110 51 3963 26 MME 211 70 89 3291

16 Overall 503 236 193 10,343 21 There no shortage of engineering faculty or faculty with PhDs! Transforming education using ICT No. of Masters Students MSc degree enrolment trends Masters Enrollment 288 300 247 250 222 200 150 122 122 83

100 55 65 60 134 71 45 50 0 CSE EEE AY 2012/2013 MME AY 2013/2014 AY 2014/2015 Overall Transforming education using ICT Masters Graduates (3 AYs) Masters Graduates 140

122 120 105 No. of Graduates 100 80 60 40 20 0 27 6 1 CSE 6 2 5 EEE 32 35 38 11 MME

AY 2011/2012 2012/2013 AY 2013/2014 Why are most graduate students inAY MME degree programs? Overall Transforming education using ICT No. of PhD Candidates PhD Enrollment PhD Enrollment (3 AYs) 35 35 32 28 30 26 25 26 22 20 15 10

5 0 4 4 5 4 2 CSE 2 EEE AY 2012/2013 MME AY 2013/2014 Why are most are in MME degree programs Overall AY 2014/2015 Transforming education using ICT No. of PhD Graduates PhD graduates (3 AYs) Overall PhD Graduates 15

16 14 12 12 9 10 8 6 4 2 0 AY 2011/12 AY 2012/2013 AY 2013/2014 Transforming education using ICT Graduates at Post-graduate levels & faculty publications 195 Masters graduates over 3 years (AY 2011/2012 to AY 2013/2014) 36 PhD graduates in engineering over 3 years 50% in Agricultural engineering Egerton, JKUAT and UoN 0.4, 0.6, 0.7 papers per faculty per year in EEE,

CSE and MME areas! Transforming education using ICT Institutional budget allocations Transforming education using ICT Faculty Remuneration Are universities attracting young faculty? Faculty rank Average gross salary (including all monthly allowances) (KSh) Maximum gross salary (including all monthly allowances) (KSh) Comparable network engineers ranks a)Tutorial fellow 89,259

152,411 b)Assistant lecturer 94,032 152,411 Assistant network engineer Network engineer 210,000 Senior engineer c)Lecturer 114,566 50th percent ile PWC salary (Ksh) 120,07 6 254,71 3

354,09 5 Senior 354,09 d)Senior 131,358 288,200 engineer 5 lecturer Chief 646,10 Is payment non-practicing allowance a solution? e)Associate Transforming education using ICT 161,336 310,000 technical 5 professor How about the external view? Elseviers Scival Six Universities visible as offering engineering degree programs 36 PhD graduates in engineering over same period 50% in Agricultural engineering Egerton, JKUAT and UoN 0.4, 0.6, 0.7 papers per faculty per year in EEE, CSE and MME areas!

Transforming education using ICT Research output of medicine, engineering & ICT disciplines Transforming education using ICT | 29 Universities performance in Engineering 2010-2015 Bubble size: Citations per Publication Egerton Kenyatta Moi Nairobi JKUAT Egerton has highest international collaboration; highest Field-weighted Citation Impact and most citations per publications Maseno Source: SciVal Conclusions

The 503 full-time faculty appear adequate for the 10,343 UG students in AY 2014/2015 But they are spread over 44 departments, teaching 54 degree programs 59% of the 10,343 enrolled in EBK accredited engineering program Engineering faculty publications are low at between 0.4 and 1.1 per faculty per year (confirmation with SciVal or in comparison to Medicine) It has to do with research funding / reward system? Low enrollment at post-graduate levels and low graduation rates at PhD No evidence that universities are committing adequate resources to engineering departments invest in data infrastructures Most of heads of departments did not know their budgets! University ERPs and databases do not appear to be maintaining data on graduates, publications, collaborations The problem is NOT laboratory or research infrastructures Faculty are unaware of FREE advanced e-infrastructures accessible through KENET Transforming education using ICT Recommendations 1. Reduce the number of degree programs and departments to ensure critical mass of faculty in each degree program 2. Implement an incentive mechanism for Eng. Faculty e.g. Payment of non-practicing allowance OR implement differential pay for critical disciplines to achieve V2030 e.g. Eng to attract young engineers into universities and retain them 3. Improve faculty motivation, working environments,

remuneration, research grants, travel grants and scholarships for Masters and PhD students by Universities and GoK It is NOT about lack of equipment! 4. Conduct detailed demand-side study for engineering graduates demand and their employment skills Involve the Industry (LIWA, KEPSA etc) in the demand-side surveys Transforming education using ICT Thank You www.kenet.or.ke Jomo Kenyatta Memorial Library, University of Nairobi P. O Box 30244-00100, Nairobi. 0732 150 500 / 0703 044 500

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