Dialect and identity among adolescents in present day

Dialect and identity among adolescents in present day

Dialect and identity among adolescents in present day Norway Unn Ryneland University of Oslo High fidelity or pure jalla? The problem of purism in culture, language and esthetics November 14-15 2003, Hgskolen i Hedmark The language situation in Norway sne 17 years from Tynset sne: = viss vi kjm til Oslo s ser dm p oss som bygdetullinger det trur j og bnder dumme bnder [det trur] j =e= sne: = if we come to Oslo then they look at us as rural weirdoes I think and peasants stupid peasants [I think] I =e= Dialect regional, social or ethnic variety of a language geographically determined variety - geolect

Standard overarching spoken variety closely related to the written standard norm the spoken East Norwegian standard, close to the written Bokml standard Modern Norwegian dialect change: regional dialect levelling horizontal (dialect-dialect) levelling vertical (dialect-standard) levelling complete convergence incomplete convergence emergence of intermediate forms Identity Dynamic, multi-layered, changeable and negotiable Social identity here operationalized trough affiliations of different kinds: to social groups, to the local community and through socio-cultural orientation ex. towards local lifestyle and local

norms or towards urban lifestyle and urban norms Comparative apparent time study of two neighbouring areas Areas of study: Rros and Tynset Located 50 km apart Belong traditionally to different dialect areas, but still they have many dialect features in common Ethnographic fieldwork, interview with 27 adolescents and 10 adults 16 features, 12 social characteristics Rros Tynset Palatalization of long alveolars and

alveolar clusters ball kveld spesielt mann ma, band ba[], sant sa[c] Gliding scale local: palatal palatalized apical post-alveolar apical alveolar laminal alveolar: standard a ] alveolar palatal [] laminal palatalized alveolar alveolar alveolar

] postpost-alveolar apical Long alveolars and alveolar clusters in Rros og Tynset 100 % TYNSET 80 % 80 % RROS 70 % 60 % 60 % Palatal lateral 50 %

Palatal lateral 40 % Alveolar lateral 40 % Intermediate form 30 % Alveolar lateral 20 % 20 % 0% 10 % Adults

0% Adolescents Adults 765 tokens 16 informants Adolescents 1192 tokens 21 informants Use of the different l-qualities according to group membership and local affiliation Cruisers 100 % 90 % School/sport

School/culture Skaters 80 % 70 % 60 % Palatal lateral 50 % Intermediate form Alveolar lateral 40 % 30 % 20 % 10 % 0% C ruisers School/sport School/culture

Skaters Carola fr Rros Carola:[[=e=]] mer enn mange ja trur je [vertfall] t dm =e= kule folka som hate Rros og-- dm prve jo legg om bevisst a = dm skal jo itt snakke noe rrosisk for det er jo = ikke noe kult (LATTER) [[for si det snn]] det er bondesprk har je ftt inntrykk av at det er snn [=] men = je vet itt je = det er itt s mange som snakke [[kav rrosisk vet je]] Carola: [[=e=]] yes more than most I think [at least] of the =e= cool people who hate Rros and they consciously try to change = they wont speak the dialect because its not cool (LAUGHTER) [[to put it like that]] its the language of peasants thats my impression [=] but = I don know = there are not so many who speak [[the traditional dialect]] Correspondence Analysis unnunge.dat 0.8 LPAL2 GRUPPEskulkultur

0.6 NEG2 TRYKK2 RMagne RTruls APOK2 PRESSV1 PRESST1 RBente CA axis 2 (20.05%) 0 RAilin TRYKK1 LOCAL FRAMTIDtilbake

SKULEalmfag RLinn SPAL2 KJONNjente FRAMTIDflytte LOKutkant RChris UFPL1 KJONNgut -0.2 NEG1 HOLDNheimpl JAM1 RTrym RHogne

NPAL1 LPAL1 REirik -0.4 SUP2 NPAL2 PERS11 RCarola GRUPPEsossskater AKADja ORIENTurban 0.4 0.2 Urban academic, mobil

RSondre JAM2 Modernity RIris RBjoern Cultural orientation, local TBo TAne TVarg GRUPPEskulidrett ORIENTlokal HOLDNdialekt APOK1 URBAN TKaare

TGunnar BFPL1 LOKsentrum UFPL2 PERS12 PRESST2 TMia TIna TOla THans TAasne TLaila TArne BFPL2 MON2 SUP

RTore Tradition -0.8 PRESV2 FRAMTIDbli -0.6 RFinn AKADnei SKULEyrkesfag MON1 Mobil, but traditional Local orientation traditionalist SPAL1 -1

-1.5 GRUPPEbusraaner -1 Local features -0.5 0 CA axis 1 (53.08%) 0.5 1 Levelled features 1.5 Ina 17 years from Tynset Ina: nei det er vel kanskje en del som ikke fler at dm er-- har noe at

det er noe fle tilhrighet om for vi har ikke noe snn noe vr stolt av p Tynset som dm har p Rros s at vi fler behov for = ja det kan godt vr [= ] men det har noe med forskjellig utgangspunkt og det da = at dm har mer-- = en rrosing er en rrosing men en tynseting er noe litt mer udefinerbart det finnes mange snne som meg snn = Ina: I suppose there are some people who dont feel that they are = have something- that there is anything to feel affiliation with because we dont have anything to be proud about in Tynset like they have in Rros so we feel the need to = yes that may be [=] but its got to do with different points of departure too = that they have more- = a rrosing is a rrosing but a tynseting is something a bit more indefinable there are many people like me like = Litteratur Abrahamsen, J. E. 1995. Utvalde palatal-tal: metodekritisk ljos p avpalataliseringi i yngre ml i Hery p Sunnmre. Trondheim: Hovedoppgave i nordisk NTNU. Auer, Peter & Frans Hinskens 1996.The convergence and divergence of dialects in Europe. New and not so new developments in an old area. Sociolinguistica No. 10,1-25 (ed. Ammon, Mattheier, Nelde) Tbingen: Max Niemeyer. - 2001. A Typology of European Dialect/Standard Constellations, or Europes

Sociolinguistic Unity. Plenary paper given at the 34th Societas Linguistica Europaea Meeting in Leuven, Belgium 28.08 01.09.2001. Blom, Jan P. & John J. Gumperz. 1972. Social meaning in linguistic structure: code-switching in Norway. In Directions in Sociolinguistics, Gumperz, J. & D. Hymes (eds.), 407-434. New York: Academic Press. Dahl, O. C. 1981. Lateraler i en trnderdialekt, i I Jahr, E. H. & O. Lorentz (red.) Fonologi/ Phonology. Studier i sprkvitenskap 1. Oslo: Novus, 308-318. Endresen, R. T. 1991. Fonetikk og fonologi. Ei elementr innfring. Oslo: Universistetsforlaget. 2000. Sprklydlre: fonetikk og fonologi, i Endresen, Simonsen & Sveen (red.). Innfring i lingvistikk. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget. Hanssen, E. 1990. Nordland, i Jahr, E.-H. Den store Dialektboka, Oslo: Novus. Jahr, E. H. 1981. L-fonema i Oslo byml. I Jahr, E. H. & O. Lorentz (red.) Fonologi/Phonology. Studier i sprkvitenskap 1. Oslo: Novus, 328-344. Ladefoged, P. 2001. Vowels and Consonants. An Introduction to the Sounds of Language. Massachusetts USA & Oxford UK: Blackwell. Moen, I. & H. G. Simonsen 1997. Kontaktmnstre for apikale plosiver i stnorsk, MONS 7, 154-168. Litteratur forts. Mhlum, Brit 1992. Dialektal sosialisering. En studie av barn og ungdoms sprklige strategier i Longyearbyen p Svalbard. Oslo: Novus. - (1996). Codeswitching in Hemnesberget Myth or reality? Journal of Pragmatics 25,

749-761. Ryneland, Unn 1998. Sprkleg regionalisering p Rros og Tynset. Mlbryting 2, 98-120. - 2001a. Is age-grading always a potential problem in apparent time studies? In Proceedings of the First International Conference on Language Variation in Europe, Fontana, J., L. McNally, T. M. Turell , E. Vallduv (eds.), 187-197. - (forthcoming). Dialects in Norway - catching up with the rest of Euope? In Are dialects in Europe dying? Special issue of The Internatonal Journal of the Sociology of Language. Sandy, Helge 1998. The Diffusion of a New Morphology in Norwegian Dialects. Folia Linguistica 32, 83-100. - 2000. Utviklingslinjer i moderne norske dialektar. Folkmlsstudier 39, 345-384. Simonsen, H. G. & I. Moen 2001. En elektronisk database over norske sprklyder. MONS 9 Oslo: Novus, 211-220. Skjekkeland, Martin (2000). Dialektutviklinga i Noreg dei siste 15 ra drfting og analyse. Skriftserien nr. 67, Hgskolen i Agder. Vold Ulset, K. A. 2002. Sprklig regionalisering i Trndelag. En studie av ungdommers taleml i nedre Melhus. Hovudoppgve i nordisk sprk, INL, NTNU. Universitetet i Oslo Historisk-filosofisk fakultet Unn Ryneland Institutt for nordistikk og litteraturvitskap Pb. 1013 Blindern 0315 Oslo

e-post: [email protected] Different tendencies - Regionalization around regional centers in north and west both horizontal og vertical levelling - Regionalization towards Oslo and East Norwegian standard in the eastern part mostly vertical levelling Regionalization the region gradually replaces the local community as the important linguistic and mental orientation unit more important to display regional affiliation and identity than strictly local local places do not stop being important

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