Materials for today https://msu.edu/~kenfrank/teaching.htm Network Interventions for H20
Materials for today https://msu.edu/~kenfrank/teaching.htm Network Interventions for H20 Fellows: Dearborn, MI Nov 2017 You think about the biggest challenge you face requiring a change in practices or innovation and the setting where it might be implemented Discuss with group of 3 or 4 I present on network interventions look at the picture first Think about location of expertise in network in your example Discussion with second group Debriefing: Did you make a good connection? Make introductions from 1st group to 2nd. Dynamics of system during diffusion: potential for polarization Processes of influence and selection: the social brain What will happen during diffusion of your innovation?
Biggest Challenges Requiring Changes in Practices Think about the biggest challenges you face requiring a change in practices or innovation E.G. Erosion, Extreme precipitation, political contention Meet in small groups of 3-4 and share your thoughts, including the challenges and corresponding changes in practices [Take notes to make introductions later] Segmentation Intervention Ravine Management in the Great lakes Alliance for the Great Lakes (Angela Larsen, Olga Lyandres) core practices Use of climate change knowledge in core practices
Close colleagues Information flows about climate change Measure of use of Climate Change in Practice Questions about Networks Using Networks for (Segmentation) Intervention: Time 1: Close Colleagues Targeted for professional development: experts, network bridgers, and sub-group representatives Colors of dots subgroups subgroups
identified by KliqueFinder using the close colleague data at time 1. Black Linessubgroups subgroups time-1 close colleague ties With Ethan Brown, Angela Larsen and Tingqiao Chen Structural Hole (Burt, 1992) Using Networks for Intervention Time 2 Including Changes in Networks and Practices Filling of structural hole,
institution al and Alliance effects Valente, T.W., 2012. Network interventions.subgroups Science,subgroups 337(6090), pp.49-53. Valente, T.W., 2017. Putting the network in network interventions.subgroups Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences,subgroups 114(36), pp.9500-9501. Things Learned Subgroups were roughly regionally based Network visualization was a good roadmap for newcomer (Ethan) to the system) Had to reinforce area based subgroups before creating bridges between them Think about your Innovation or Change in Practices
What does the current network look like in regarding changes in practices? Are there subgroups? Where is expertise located? Will each subgroup be able to access expertise? Find a new group of 3-4 of all new people. Share and discuss DEBRIEF: Locating the Expertise Did you find someone with similar challenges or valuable expertise? Make an introduction between someone in your 1st and 2nd groups Similar Challenges to implementation Complementary expertise
12 Evolution of Network during Diffusion Ideal Diffusion A B C System Frank*, K.A. , Penuel*, W.R., Sun, M. Kim, C., and Singl eton, C. 2013.subgroups subgroups The Organization as a Filte r of Institutional Diffusion.subgroups subgroups Teachers College Record . *Authors listed alphabetically equal auth orship.subgroups Volume 115(1). subgroups
http://www.tcrecord.org/Content.asp?Conte ntID=16742 Diffusion of Innovation with Varying Initial Practices A B C System Diffusion of Innovation with Varying Initial Practices and Subgroups A B C
Simon, H.A., 1965. The architecture of complexity.subgroups General systems,subgroups 10(1965), pp.6376. Diffusion of Innovation with Varying Initial Practices and Subgroups Polarization TIME 2 Influence: as A adopts more of the practices A B Selection, as the tie between B and C is dissolved
System C Network Interventions to Prevent Polarization, Distribute Expertise TIME 2 A B Add expertise System Examine structure, intervene to create ties to distribute expertise C Valente, T.W., 2012. Network interventions.subgroups
Science,subgroups 337 (6090), pp.49-53. Valente, T.W., 2017. Putting t he network in network interve ntions.subgroups Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences ,subgroups 114(36), pp.9500-9501. Debrief: Individual, Pair and System Dynamics Your own processes Were you influenced during the group discussions? How, why? How did you choose (or select) with whom to interact? First time (proximity)? Second time? The network: How might your network change during the diffusion of
practices you seek? Would polarization occur? How might you prevent polarization? Requires constant monitoring/engagement Enhanced serendipity Dunbar, R. I. (1998). The social brain hypothesis.subgroups brain,subgroups 9(10), 178-190. 19 20 Follow-up 1) When you act on or with a social system, consider network dynamics What does the network look like? Where is the expertise in the network?
How will the network change during diffusion? 2) Be part of the social engine: make an introduction! 3) Its a network Intravention (Glens Daigger term) EXTRA home reflection 22 Relationship to Distributed Leadership TIME 2 A
B Spillane, J.P., 2012.subgroups Distributed leadershipsubgroups (Vol. 4). John Wiley Sons. School Informal Leader Influences behavior of Subgroup Member C Spillane, J.P., Halverson, R. an amond, J.B., 2001. Investigatin hool leadership practice: A dist ed perspective.subgroups Educational researcher,subgroups 30 (3), pp.23-28.
Relationship to Loose Coupling TIME 2 A Innovation only loosely coupled to Behavior of Cs subgroup B Bidwell, C.E., 1965. The school as a formal organization.subgroups Handbook of organizations,subgroups 972(8),
p.1019. Two subgroups only Loosely Coupled to one another C Weick , K.E., 1976. Educational organizations as loosely c oupled systems.subgroups Administrative science qu Current Policy Context: Competing Institutions, Dynamics of Loose Coupling Bidwell, C.E., 1965. The school as a formal organization.subgroups Handbook of organizations,subgroups 972,
p.1019.March, J.G. and Simon, H.A. Weick , K.E., 1976. Educationa l organizations as loosel y coupled systems.subgroups Administrative science q uarterly , pp.1-19. Common Core (RTTT) 2002-2015 2015-2017 Federal
Cohen, D. K., & Moffitt, S. L. (2009).subgroups The ordeal of equality: Did federal regulation fix the schools?. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. State Lowe Boyd, W. and Crowson, R.L. (2002). The quest for a new hierarchy in education: from loose coupling back to tight?.subgroups Journal of educational administration,subgroups 40(6), pp.521-533. District Coburn, C.E., Hill, H.C. and Spillane, J.P ., 2016. Alignment and accountability in policy design and implementation: The C ommon Core State Standards and imple
mentation research.subgroups Educational Researcher,subgroups 45 (4), pp.243-251. School Jacob, R.T., Hill, H.C. & Corey, D. (2017) The impact of professional development on teachers mathematical knowledge for teaching, instruction, and student achievement. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness. DOI: 10.1080/19345747.2016.1273411 Constant Dynamic Interplay of Change Agent and Intra-organizational Processes Penuel, W.R., Fishman, B.J., Haugan Cheng, B. and Sabelli , N., 2011. Organizing research and development at the intersection of learning, implementation, and design.subgroups Educational researcher,subgroups 40(7), pp.331-337. focus on persistent problems of practice from multiple stakeholders
perspectives; a commitment to iterative, collaborative design; concern with developing theory related to both classroom learning and implementation through systematic inquiry concern with developing capacity for sustaining change in system Honig , M.I. and Hatch, T.C., 2004. Crafting coherence: How schools strategic ally manage multiple, external demands.subgroups Educational Researcher,subgroups 33(8), pp.16-30. coherence might provide a more productive organizing construct for policy if researchers and practitioners viewed it as a process by which schools use multiple external demands to strengthen students opportunities to learn. Formal and Informal Mechanisms in Organizations Selznick, P., 1948. Foundations of the theory of organization. American sociological review, 13(1), pp.25-35. Shedd, J.B. and Bacharach, S.B. (1991). Tangled hierarchies:
Teachers as professionals and the management of schools. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. (Chapter 1: "Professionals in Bureaucracies". Chapter 3: "Autonomy and Control".) Rowan, B. (1990). Commitment and control: Alternative strategies for the organizational design of schools. In Courtney Cazden (Ed.), Review of Research in Education, Volume 16. Washington, D.C.: American Educational Research Association. Systemic Reform National Governors Association et. al. (2008). Benchmarking for Success: Ensuring U.S. Students Receive a World Class Education. Washington, D.C.: National Governors Association. Burch, P. (2009). Hidden Markets: The New Education Privatization. New York, NY: Routledge. Hess, F.M. (Ed.) (2006). Educational Entrepreneurship: Realities, Challenges, and Possibilities. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press
Elmore, R.F. (2000). Building a New Structure for School Leadership. Washington, D.C.: Albert Shanker Institute. Difficulty of Changing Schools Tyack, D. and Tobin, W. (1994). The "grammar" http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.310 2/00028312031003453 schooling: Why has it been so hard to change? American Educationa l Research Journal, 31, 453-479. Technology as an Example of Innovation Diffusion 1.0 Cohen, D. K. (1987). Educational technology, policy, and practice. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 9(2), 153-170. Cuban, L. (1986). Teachers and machines: The classroom uses of technology since 1920. New York: Teachers College Press. Frank, K. A., Zhao, Y., and Borman (2004). Social Capital and the Diffusion of Innovations within Organizations: Application to the Implementation of
Computer Technology in Schools." Sociology of Education, 77: 148-171 . Kunda, G. (2006). Engineering culture: control and commitment in a high-tech corporation . Philadelphia: Temple University Press. Zhao, Y. and Frank, K. A., (2003). "An Ecological Analysis of Factors Affecti ng Technology Use in Schools." American Educational Research Journal, 4 0(4): 807-840. 2.0 External and Internal Influences Coburn, C.E. (2005). The role of nonsystem actors in the relationship between policy and practice: The case of reading instruction in Cali fornia. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 27 (1), 23-52. Honig
, M.I. and Hatch, T.C. (2004). Crafting coheren ce: How schools strategically manage multiple, external demands. Educational Researcher, 33 (8) Crystalized Sociogram E B Grade 2 3 + unknown multiple C D
Distance between A and B reflects history of school: SES integration Each number is a teacher Lines connecting two numbers indicate teachers who are close colleagues Solid lines within subgroups, gray between Circles indicate cohesive subgroups KliqueFinder
quick power point on how to use KliqueFinder A Frank, K. A. and Zhao, Y. (2005). "Subgroups as a Meso -Level Entity in the Social Organization of Schools." Chapter 10 , pages 279-318. Book honoring Charles Bidwell's retirement, edited by Larry Hedges and Barbara Schneider. New York: Sag 32 e publications. ad ins E op ts
2 jo ct Tea che r Di st ri B wi nd ow s
C D A Ripple Plot Overlay talk about technology on social geography of crystallized sociogram Lines indicate talk about technology Size of node indicates teachers use of technology into core instructional practices at time 1 Ripples indicate increase in use from time 1 to time 2
33 District administrators Constrained teacher networks inequalities Professional learning communities Formal leaders Assignment of Students to Teachers Networked improvement communities Social Media
Social Network Analysis Kenneth Frank Yun-jia Lo Others [for the Handbook on the Sociology of Education. Barbara Schneider and Guan Saw editors. Oxford] Kenneth Frank, Yun-jia Lo. Social Networks and Educational Opportunity. [for the Handbook on the Sociology of Education. Barbara Schneider and Guan Saw editors. Oxford Sink Entropy and Source Entropy for the Flow of Resources A B
A B D C D C Hypothesis 1: High receiver entropy implementation Low receiver entropy (.325) High receiver entropy (1.09) Resource value=3 Resource value=1
Interaction strength=3 Interaction strength=1 A B A B D C D C
Low provider entropy (.154) High provider entropy (1.21) Hypothesis 2: low provider entropy implementation Selection Application Transition from Social Exchange to Systemic Exchange Via Quasi-Ties video : (42:25-48:00) Frank, K.A. 2009 Quasi-Ties: Directing Resources to Members of a Collective American Behavioral Scientist. 52: 1613-1645 36 Examples of Influence Models Sun, M., Penuel, W.,subgroups Frank, K.A., subgroups and Gallagher, A.subgroups subgroups Forthcoming.subgroups subgroups Shaping Professional Development to Promote the Diffusion of Instructional Expertise among Tea chers.subgroups
Education, Evaluation and Policy Analysis. subgroups Sun, Min.,subgroups Frank, K.A. , Penuel, W. and Kim, Chong Min. 2013. How External Institutions Penetrate Schools through Formal and Informal Leaders.subgroups subgroups Educational Administration Quarterly 49(4), 610-644.subgroups http://eaq.sagepub.com/content/early/2013/03/18/0013161X12468148 subgroups Frank*, K.A., Penuel*, W.R., Sun, M. Kim, C., and Singleton, C. 2013.subgroups subgroups The Organization as a Filter of Institutional Diffusion.subgroups subgroups Teachers College Record. *Authors listed alphabetically equal authorship.subgroups Volume 115(1).subgroups http://www.tcrecord.org/Content.asp?ContentID=16742 Frank, K.A. , Zhao, Y., Penuel, W.R., Ellefson, N.C., and Porter, S. 2011. Focus, Fiddle and Friends: Sources of Knowledge to Perform the Com plex Task of Teaching.subgroups Sociology of Education,subgroups Volsubgroups 84(2): 137-156. subgroups Youngs, P.,subgroups Frank, K.A., and Pogodzinski, B. 2011.subgroups The Role of Mentors and Colleagues in Beginning Elementary and Middle School Teachers Language Arts Instruction.subgroups Chapter 8 in Sean Kelly, Editor.subgroups Understanding Teacher Effects.subgroups subgroups New York: Teachers College Press. subgroups Penuel, W.R.,subgroups Frank, K.A., and Krause, A. 2010. Between Leaders and Teachers: Using Social Network Analysis to Examine the
Effects of Distributed Leadership.subgroups subgroups Pages 159-178subgroups in Alan J. Daly editor.subgroups Social Network Theory and Educational Change.subgroups Cambridge: Harvard University Press. subgroups Penuel, W. R., Riel, M., Joshi, A., &subgroups Frank, K. A.subgroups 2010.subgroups The alignment of the informal and formal supports for school reform: Implications for improving teaching in schools.Educational Administration Quarterly, 46(1), 57-95. subgroups Frank , K. A., Zhao, Y., and Borman (2004). Social Capital and the Diffusion of Innovations within Organizations: Application to the Impleme reflection ntation of Computer Technology in Schools." Sociology of Education, 77: 148-171.
home 37 Zhao, Y. and Frank, K. A., (2003). "An Ecological Analysis of Factors Affecting Technology Use in Schools." American Educational R Examples of Selection Frank, K.A., Muller, C., Mueller, A.S., 2013.subgroups Thesubgroups Embeddedness subgroups of Adolescent Friendship Nominations: The Formation of Social Capital in Emergent Network Structur es.subgroups American Journal of Sociology,subgroups Volsubgroups 119(1):216-253. Media hits: Atlantic;subgroups Huffington Post;subgroups Huffington Post (Op-ed);subgroups US News and World Report;subgroups Yahoo;subgroups Health Day;subgroups RedOrbit;The Times of India;subgroups MSUToday:subgroups Psych Central:subgroups Positions and Promotions;subgroups Deccan Chronicle:subgroups wood radio: subgroups Fox Chicago:subgroups local news channels (south Carolina):subgroups Science Daily;National Science Foundation Spillane, J., Kim, Chong Min, Frank, K.A. subgroups subgroups 2012. Instructional Advice and Information Providing and Receiving Behavior in Elementary Schools : Exploring Tie Formation as a Building Block in Social Capital Development.subgroups subgroups American Educational Research Journal. Vol 49 no. 6 1112-1145 Crosnoe, Robert, Annasubgroups Strassman-Mueller, andsubgroups Frank, K.A. subgroups 2008. Gender, Body Size, and Social Relations in American High Schools.subgroups Social Forces subgroups 86: 1189-1216.
Frank, K. A. and Zhao, Y. (2005). "Subgroups as asubgroups Meso -Level Entity in the Social Organization of Schools." Chapter 10, pages 279-318. Book honoring Charl es Bidwell's retirement, edited by Larry Hedges and Barbara Schneider. New York: Sage publications. reflection Frank, K.A. &subgroups Yasumoto home 38 , J. (1998). "Linking Action to Social Structure within a System: Social Capital Within and Between Su
Vocabulary 10. Food web pg.502. Define, describe a consumer in your animals environment and provide 1 picture. 1. Shows the feeding relationships of many different organisms in an ecosystem (a bunch of different food chains interacting). 2. Below is an...
anterior region has 2 cross-eyed eyespots on the dorsal surface that are sensitive to light. Planarians. Planarians. ... Suckers and hooks on scolex attach worm to host. pork Tapeworms (cont.) body is divided into proglottids that contains both testis and...
The mock project takes elements from real CiDA projects. Your final work will be marked as if it was a real piece of coursework. You will get a GCSE grade. This is the only practice we will do before the...
Parents not ready to parent. Poor attachment. Not ready for kindergarten. Academic failure. Substance use, criminality. Social isolation and dysfunction. Adult violence, SUD. Abuse Neglect. Behavioral Problems Skill Deficits. Unintended pregnancy. What we see: Cascading series of adverse events ....
In this chapter, Brian tries to control the situation by flying the plane. Many students should be able to connect his actions for flying a plane to playing a video game. Brian also gets frustrated when the radio doesn't work....
Manifest Destiny "And that claim is by the right of our manifest destiny to overspread and to possess the whole of the continent which Providence has given us for the development of the great experiment of liberty and federated self-government...
Ready to download the document? Go ahead and hit continue!