Connecting Devices to the Internet of Things Bernard

Connecting Devices to the Internet of Things Bernard

Connecting Devices to the Internet of Things Bernard Kufluk, MessageSight Product Manager Please Note IBMs statements regarding its plans, directions, and intent are subject to change or withdrawal without notice at IBMs sole discretion. Information regarding potential future products is intended to outline our general product direction and it should not be relied on in making a purchasing decision. The information mentioned regarding potential future products is not a commitment, promise, or legal obligation to deliver any material, code or functionality. Information about potential future products may not be incorporated into any contract. The development, release, and timing of any future features or functionality described for our products remains at our sole discretion Performance is based on measurements and projections using standard IBM benchmarks in a controlled environment. The actual throughput or performance that any user will experience will vary depending upon many factors, including considerations such as the amount of

multiprogramming in the users job stream, the I/O configuration, the storage configuration, and the workload processed. Therefore, no assurance can be given that an individual user will achieve results similar to those stated here. 2014 IBM Corporation 2 Agenda The Internet of Things and its Ecosystem The IBM IoT Foundation and the IoT Foundation Quickstart Quickstart device recipes and demonstration How is Quickstart implemented? Writing your own device code Signing up and registering a device 3

The Internet of Things and its Ecosystem The Internet of Things is the next Internet Frontier Source: How Many Things ? IoT 2020 V iew What is the IoT being used for today? Key areas

Agriculture Automotive Consumer products Energy and Utilities Government Healthcare Home Automation Insurance Manufacturing Transport Oil and Gas Extend the value of goods and services, e.g. Unlock/Find your car Tell me when my washing is done How well am I cleaning my teeth?

Lock/ Monetize through new business models Ad-hoc care hire Pay-as-you-drive insurance Optimize by understanding behaviour and anticipating most optimal actions White goods manufacturer understanding customer behaviour Improved product support and maintenance Smarter Supply Chain Control remote behaviour with automation Home automation / remote control Energy Demand Management Smarter Cities Manufacturing

Consumers lead the Internet of things Today Tomorrow Integration A few connected devices per person Almost every device that consumers own will be connected, and many new ones will be created to leverage the value created by consumer connections. Cross-platform integrators will

connected devices and automate personal activity: Door Lock Dishwasher Clothes Washer Clothes Dryer Window Lock Garage Door Toothbrush Garden Moisture Coffee Maker Home Lights

Examples: Just as consumers have led enterprises in embracing new mobile services, we believe they will lead the adoption of connected devices & integrated services Ecosystem & Partners are crucial IBM SWG IBM Industry Solutions Maximo IoC Streams

SDK SDK Partnerships MessageSight Devices Gateways Networks Clouds

Solutions & Applications Oil & Gas Energy & Utilities Smarter Cities Consumer Electronics Connected Vehicle Transport

& Rail Life Science & Healthcare Industrial Manufacturing IoT use cases have many common requirements Core Requirements: Easily on-board connected things Create a real-time communication channel with the thing Begin capturing data from the thing Visualize data from the thing Collect data in a historian DB Provide access to the collected data Manage the things and the connectivity to them

Secure the data from the thing and control access to that that data Pay for the service based on usage Extended Requirements: Perform analytics both in real-time and on historical trend data Trigger events based on specific data conditions Interact with the thing from business apps and/or from mobile devices Send commands to the thing IBM Internet of Things Foundation and Quickstart IBM Internet of Things Foundation IBM Bluemix IBM IoT Foundation 1

Manage Connections Manage (IoTFConnections Portal) (IoTF Portal) Collect Data Collect Data (Historian) (Historian) 3 Analytics Analytics Mobile Mobile

Secure + Connect Secure + Connect (Messaging) (Messaging) 2 Assemble Assemble 1. 2. 3. Management API Real-time data API Historical data API

IBM Internet of Things Foundation Quickstart What Users Can Do: Connect devices, collect, route, and visualize data Build internet of things applications to analyze data Customize and add further devices Platform as a Service Key Capabilities: Extremely rapid device onboarding Real-time collection of data from devices Visualization of data from devices Communications api to allow custom devices to be added Access to data for Bluemix applications via the IoT Service Note: IoT Foundation Quickstart is a tool to let embedded device developers

connect to the IoT and see data from their device, and to provide data for IoT application developers to use. It is not intended for production use. It is a free service, there is no device or user registration step, and all data sent to the Quickstart service could potentially be viewed by any internet user. Try our IoT Foundation Quickstart 14 What You Can Do with Quickstart Select from a growing list of device recipes

Simply connect & recognize device types Visualize real-time data stream Visually define logic flows using Node-RED Mix with other services in BlueMix Build applications that incorporate IoT Quickstart Device Recipes Simple Connection for Internet of Things

Unpack device and connect it to the Internet Install software* on the device Start collecting and visualizing data * We provide source code samples for a variety of devices on Quickstart comes with recipes and code for the following with Wi-Fi Shield The parts of each Recipe Ingredients The hardware that you need

Preparation Unpacking the device, installing the OS if necessary, connecting it to your Computer, etc. Connecting Installing the QuickStart software and starting it up Visualization Type in your devices MAC address and see the results ARM mbed New - ARM mbed starter kit for IBM IoT Cloud Visualizing the results Chart View Raspberry Pi Demo connect an ARM Mbed device 2014 IBM Corporation 25 Node-Red running in the device

This shows the Sensor Tag device application logic implemented in Node-Red Writing your own Device Code Quickstart - how is it implemented? Bluemix Bluemix applications applications Softlayer cloud MQTT Server infrastructure MQTT Server infrastructure (based on IBM MessageSight) (based on IBM MessageSight)

TT Q M MQ T Embedded device app C, C++ or JavaScript T Visualization app HTML5

MQTT - Open Connectivity for Mobile, M2M and IoT High volumes of data/events Lossy or Lossy or Constrained Constrained Network Network Commands or Data Visualisation IT Systems Monitoring & Analytics Server

A lightweight publish/subscribe protocol with predictable bi-directional message delivery In the era of a Smarter Planet, open source and standards are essential 2013 MQTT Technical Committee formed 2011 - Eclipse PAHO MQTT open source project Cimetrics, Cisco, Eclipse, dc-Square, Eurotech, IBM, INETCO Landis & Gyr, LSI, Kaazing, M2Mi, Red Hat, Solace, Telit Comms, Software AG, TIBCO, WSO2 2004 open community

1999 Invented by Dr. Andy Stanford-Clark (IBM), Arlen Nipper (now Cirrus Link Solutions) Evolution of an open technology Publish / Subscribe Messaging (One to Many) A producer publishes a message (publication) on a topic (subject) A consumer subscribes (makes a subscription) for messages on a topic (subject) A message server matches publications to subscriptions If none of them match the message is discarded If one or more matches the message is delivered to each matching consumer Publish / Subscribe has three important characteristics: 1. It decouples message senders and receivers, allowing for more flexible applications 2. It can take a single message and distribute it to many consumers 3. This collection of consumers can change over time, and vary based on the nature of the message.

MQTT and HTTP The HTTP standard revolutionized how we consume data A single simple model: Send a request, read the response Available via any tablet, laptop, phone, PC etc. Good for requesting data from a known source MQTT brings features specifically designed for mobile or M2M use HTTP MQTT Style/Paradigm Synchronous, request/response

Asynchronous, event-driven Design Point Web browsers M2M / IoT Message size Rich headers 2 bytes in minimum header Reliability over fragile networks

Need to implement by custom code on top of HTTP Built-in Push client->server Yes Yes Push server->client Polling has to used on top of HTTP

Efficient, scalable push is built into the protocol Ubiquity Widely available Growing number of OSS and commercial implementations Standards IETF OASIS

Data distribution 1-to-1 only Supports 1-to-none, 1-to-1, 1to-n, n-to-1 MQTT Clients and APIs You can develop an MQTT client application by programming directly to the MQTT protocol specification, however it is more convenient to use a prebuilt client Client libraries provide some or all of the following: Functions to build and parse the MQTT protocol control packets Threads to handle receipt of incoming control packets

QoS 1 and QoS 2 delivery using a local persistence store KeepAlive handling Simple API for developers to use Open Source clients available in Eclipse Paho project C, C++, Java, JavaScript, Lua, Python and Go

Clients for other languages are available, see E.g. Delphi, Erlang, .Net, Objective-C, PERL, PHP, Ruby Not all of the client libraries listed on are current. Some are at an early or experimental stage of development, whilst others are stable and mature. Eclipse Paho clients

C / C++ MQTT C Client for Posix and Windows MQTT C++ Client for Posix and Windows Embedded MQTT C Client Java J2SE client J2ME client Android service Others

.NET iOS client (Objective-C) JavaScript (for browser and hybrid applications) Lua Python Go Paho C Client libraries Linux (Posix) or Windows Full featured clients providing an MQTT api with QoS1, QoS2 and keepAlive

handling Synchronous client (fully synchronous mode) Connect, Disconnect, Publish, Subscribe and Unsubscribe calls block until they receive a response from the server Applications use mqtt_receive() to read inbound messages Client library runs entirely on the calling applications thread Synchronous client (asynchronous mode) Selected by registering a messageReceived, messageDelivered or connectionLost callback. Library starts a separate thread to handle these callbacks Asynchronous (use MqttAsynch )

All API calls are processed asynchronously and invoke a callback when complete Embedded Client Limited to the construction and parsing of MQTT control packets Client runs entirely on the calling applications thread Intended for embedded devices that dont run Linux (e.g. ARM mbed) Programming your own device to use Quickstart You must Use MQTT 3.1 or MQTT 3.1.1 (3.1.1 is preferable) Connect to, port 1883 Supply a client-id of the form d:::, where: = quickstart = an identifier you provide, e.g. acme-thing = a 12 hexadecimal character mac address in lower case, without delimiting : (colon) characters. For example, a36d7c91bf9e.

Publish to the topic iot-2/evt/status/fmt/json Publish at QoS=0 only You should be aware that... The retained flag will not be honoured Subscribing to receive messages isnt supported. Programming your own device Quickstart message format The message payload must be in JSON and must not exceed 4096 bytes (thats the QuickStart limit). The message payload must contain a single top-level property called "d". This property may contain an arbitrary number of child properties, these having either integer or string datatypes: { "d": { "name1": "stringvalue", "name2": intvalue, ... } } Here's an example: { "d": { "myName": "Stuart's Pi", "cputemp": 46, "sine": -10, "cpuload",

1.45 } } "myName" is optional but if you supply it, its displayed as a title on the visualization page. Security Considerations As we have already noted, the IBM IoT Cloud Quickstart service is free and does not provide any security features. When designing an IoT application for production use, you need to consider its security implications, including: 1. Do I need to secure the data coming from the devices? This could mean Authenticating the devices when they connect, to protect against an attacker who attempts to impersonate them Using TLS to protect the data as it travels from the device, to prevent the data from being modified in transit Protecting the devices and the software that runs on them from being subverted by an attacker. 2. Do I need to restrict access to the data itself, for privacy or other reasons?

Use TLS to encrypt the data as it travels from the device Authenticate any applications that try to access the device data Registering devices with the IoT Foundation Signing up to the IoT Foundation Service Signing up allows permanent usage of the IoTF service in a secure fashion. Administration dashboard that lets you register devices and monitor their status Security of data, the device and the communications channel (TLS + authentication and authorisation for devices & applications) Inbuilt historian with API for time series data access Allows publishing of information to registered devices (i.e. sending commands to devices) Available Plans 30-day Free Trial: Available from IBM Marketplace

Free plan: Available from IBM Bluemix Bronze: Get started quickly and move to production with a small number of devices Silver: For standard needs: development, test and production use Gold: For advanced needs and large-scale production use Two ways to sign up for an IoT account 1. Via IBM Bluemix Sign up to Bluemix itself Open the Bluemix Catalog and scroll down till you find Internet of Things Create an instance of the IoT Service

You may bind it to a Bluemix application or leave it unbound 2. Via IBM Cloud Marketplace Log in to marketplace Select 30-day Free Trial or paid subscription You can start on either route from Signing up (by either route) creates an IoT Foundation Organization. This represents you usage of the Foundation

Registering Devices with and IoTF Organization When registering a device with an IoTF organization you must provide A Device Type - this describes the kind of device it is A Device Identifier unique for this device (within its Device Type) Registering devices Credentials When you have successfully registered your device, the IoT Foundation generates a Token for it to use on the MQTT Connect call. The UI provides a block of credentials (including this token) as shown below The id of the owning organization The device type that you provided The device id that you provided Indicates that authentication is to be by token Secret token to be used by your

device. Registering devices using the Credentials The recipes that come with the Quickstart devices tell you how to update the device code so that it uses the credentials generated by the IoTF In some cases this is simply a question of downloading a file onto the device. If you are writing your own device code, you need to connect as follows: Make the MQTT connection to, or (TLS) Use an MQTT client identifier of the form: d:::

Supply the literal "use-token-auth" as the MQTT username Supply the authorization token as the MQTT password Registered devices receiving commands Once a device has been registered, it can subscribe to receive commands sent to it by IoT Foundation applications The device connects as described on the previous slide It can subscribe to any topic of the form iot-2/cmd//fmt/

is used to distinguish between different types of command. A device that supports more than one type of command can make more than one subscription. Alternatively it can subscribe to all commands that are targeted to it by using the + MQTT wildcard character in this topic element. is used to distinguish different payload encodings. Multiple formats might be published and this distinction subscribes the device only to a relevant encoding format. If possible, applications and devices should use a format-id of json and encode the command as a JSON object. However, no constraints are imposed on the message structure or encoding, or on the content of the commands. Demo 2014 IBM Corporation 45

Summary Internet of Things Rapidly growing space, across nearly every industry Partner ecosystem plays a vital part IoT Foundation Connect devices, collect, route, and visualize data Build internet of things applications to analyze data Customize and add further devices MQTT Messaging optimized for mobile, smart sensors and telemetry devices Simple APIs for Java, JavaScript and other languages instrumented

interconnected intelligent Useful Links IBM IoT Foundation and Quickstart Quickstart recipes on developerWorks Quickstart code on GitHub MQTT information MQTT 3.1.1 Specification Questions? Thank You

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