Warm Up 1. How are rocks broken down? 2. How are rocks formed? 3. List the 3 types of rocks produced by the rock cycle. Geosphere Just like the spherical layers in an onion, the Earth has multiple layers that serve different purposes. Layers by Composition The crust is less than 1% of Earth by mass. The two types are oceanic crust and continental crust. The mantle is hot, ultramafic (filled with magnesium and iron) rock. It
represents about 68% of Earth's mass. The core is mostly iron metal. The core makes up about 31% of the Earth. Layers by Mechanical Properties The lithosphere is composed of both the crust and the portion of the upper mantle and behaves as a brittle, rigid solid. The asthenosphere is partially molten upper mantle material and Lesson 2: The Rock Cycle How rocks are created and destroyedthen created again.
Key Terms Igneous Sedimentary Metamorphic Lava Magma Foliation Deposition Major Rock Groups 1. Igneous Formed when rocks melt into
magma or lava and then cool 5 Intrusive: (plutonic) slow cooling and crystallization; when magma within the lithosphere Extrusive: (volcanic) quick cooling at the surface; when lava cools on the surface of the lithosphere Fig. 2.9
MAGMA Obsidian is a dark-colored volcanic glass that forms from the very rapid cooling of molten rock material. It cools so rapidly that crystals do not form. Major Rock Groups 2. Sedimentary Formed at the Earths surface when other rocks are weathered, eroded, deposited, Clastic (Mineral Fragments or grains, clays) Chemical (crystalline chemical/biochemical precipitates)
9 About Metamorphic Rocks Metamorphic is Greek for change in form http://www.yourdictionary.com/images/main.metamorphosis.jpg Major Rock Groups
3. Metamorphic Changed by pressure, temperature and fluids. When rocks bend or partially melt due to strong forces in the lithosphere Do not melt 11 Classification of Metamorphic Rocks
Foliated wavy layers and bands that are caused by minerals with flat crystals that form long axes perpendicular to the pressure Gneiss Schist Slate IGNEOUS
Crystallization MAGMA 13 IGNEOUS Plutonic Crystallization MAGMA 14 Weathering
Volcanic IGNEOUS Plutonic Crystallization Uplift 15 MAGMA Weathering
SEDIMENT Volcanic IGNEOUS Plutonic Crystallization Uplift 16 MAGMA Weathering
SEDIMENT Erosion Transport Deposition Volcanic SEDIMENTARY IGNEOUS
Plutonic Crystallization Uplift 17 MAGMA Weathering SEDIMENT Erosion
Transport Deposition Volcanic SEDIMENTARY IGNEOUS Plutonic Crystallization Uplift
18 MAGMA Weathering SEDIMENT Erosion Transport Deposition
MAGMA Burial Weathering SEDIMENT Erosion Transport Volcanic
Can you see IGNEOUS any shortcuts? Deposition SEDIMENTARY Plutonic
Increased P&T METAMORPHIC Crystallization Melting Uplift 20 MAGMA Burial
Weathering SEDIMENT Erosion Transport Deposition Volcanic SEDIMENTARY
IGNEOUS Plutonic Increased P&T METAMORPHIC Crystallization Melting Uplift 21 MAGMA
Burial In Conclusion The rock cycle demonstrates the relationships among the three major rock groups It is powered by the interior heat of the Earth As well as earths momentum and The energy from the sun It involves processes on the
Earths surface as well as the Earths interior It connects the hydrologic cycle with the tectonic cycle. Weathering SEDIMENT Erosion Transport Deposition
Uplift 24 MAGMA Burial The Rock Cycle How are igneous rocks formed? By melting, cooling, and crystallization
What happens to igneous rocks that undergo weathering and erosion? They become sediments How do sediments become sedimentary rocks? By deposition, burial, compaction, and cementation The Rock Cycle (continued) What forces cause sedimentary rocks to be transformed into metamorphic rocks? Heat and pressure without melting! How can metamorphic rock be transformed into igneous rock?
By melting, cooling and crystallization of magma How can sandstone be transformed into sediment? By erosion The Rock Cycle A Diagram http://www.cotf.edu/ete/modules/msese/earthsysflr/rock.html http://www.learner.org/interactives/rockcycle/diagram.html
separation of powers. constitutional government. The chart below shows the organization of the government of the United States, based on the Constitution. Which constitutional principle is illustrated by the chart? Federalism. Separation of power. Checks and balances. Popular sovereignty
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This presentation is for illustrative and general educational purposes only and is not intended to substitute for the official MSHA Investigation Report analysis nor is it intended to provide the sole foundation, if any, for any related enforcement actions.
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