een fysicus over de kosmos, de aarde en

een fysicus over de kosmos, de aarde en

een fysicus over de kosmos, de aarde en het leven Dr. Ard Louis Department of Physics University of Oxford www.cis.org.uk www.faraday-institute.org www.cpgrad.org.uk Botsende culturen? Woorden Gewoonten

Tradities Gedrag Geloof Waarden Aanamen Christelijke subculturen Wetenschapelijke subculteren cultuur ligt vaak onder de oppervlakte Mijn argument: Much of the tension between evolution and faith is due to

unrecognized cultural assumptions Beginnen met de Bijbel Bijbel aan de grondslag van mijn leven Ik ben classiek evangelisch/charismatisch in mijn Bijbel interpretatie en praxis Wetenschap heeft een dienende relatie, geen gezag kan b.v. helpen met interpretatie Henri Blocher In the Beginning IVP (1984) p 25 Nooit ons wereldbeeld boven de Bijbel

B.v. Copernicus/Galileo en Aristoteles Culturele verschillen: Metaphoren zijn belangrijk Toeval etc Antropomorphisatie (survival of the fittest) Waarom een groot verschil tussen Christelijke profesioneele wetenschappers en leken? Wetenschappelijk bewijs met tapijt argumenten Biologische self-assembly http://www.npn.jst.go.jp/

Keiichi Namba, Osaka Biologische systemen self-assemble (ze vormen zichzelf) Kunnen we dat begrijpen? Kunnen we het nabootsen? (Nanotechnologie) Virus self-assembly viruses T=1 02/29/20 T=3

Self-assembly van computer virusen Computer virusen? Monte-Carlo simulaties: stochastische optimalisatie http://www-thphys.physics.ox.ac.uk/user/IainJohnson/ Self-assembly met lego? Eiwitten en het Paradox van Levinthal Levinthal Paradox: 150 amino acids ~10 angles between them ~10150 different states.

How does protein find its folded native structure? CULTUUR VERSCHIL: Physici/Chemici/ Ingenieurs vinden dit belangrijk; Biologen niet zo belangrijk we used same design principles to make viruses self-assemble C.M. Dobson, Nature 426, 884 (2003) Biologicsche self-assembly

Als we het niet zouden zien zouden argumenten er tegen sterk lijken(Levinthal) onmogenlijkheids argumenten hebben weinig success in de biologie Hoe interpreteren we de natuur?: Natuur Theologie: Paley Newman Barth .. The fundamental thesis of the book is that if nature is to disclose the transcendent, it must be "seen" or "read" in certain specific ways -- ways that are not themselves necessarily mandated by nature itself. It is argued that Christian theology

provides a schema or interpretative framework by which nature may be "seen" in a way that enables and authorizes it to connect with the transcendent. --- A. McGrath p x about "the Open Secret" Wonderlijke toepasselijkheid van de taal van de wiskunde Quantum Mechanics + Relativity = Antimatter Schrdinger equation (Quantum Mechanics) Paul Dirac 1902-1984

+ = Energy-Momentum (Special Relativity) Dirac Equation (1928) Electrons Positrons (antimatter) discovered 1932 Zie ook: The applicability of mathematics as a philosophical problem, Mark Steiner HUP (1998); "The Unreasonable Effectiveness of Mathematics in the Natural Sciences," in Communications in Pure and Applied Mathematics, vol. 13, No. I (February 1960), Wij zijn gemaakt van sterrenstof:

He C via een resonancie Sir Fred Hoyle, Cambridge U A common sense interpretation of the facts suggests that a superintellect has monkeyed with physics .. and biology His atheism was deeply shaken Tapijt argumenten Wetenschap als een tapijt

--de kracht ligt niet aan n enkele draad maar aan het geheel en hoe ze zijn zamengewoven. Je kunt aan een paar draadtjes trekken, maar daardoor breek je het tapijt niet. The Golemization of Relativity, David Mermin, Physics Today 49, p11 April 1996 . Ik geloof net zo in het christendom als dat ik geloof dat de zon is opgegaan niet alleen omdat ik hem zie, maar omdat dit mij in staat stelt om al het andere te zien C.S. Lewis, Theology as Poetry in The Weight of Glory,

Natuurgeschiedenis Grootheid van God het universum: 100 miljard stellenstelsels, met elk 100 miljard sterren De hemel verhaalt van Gods majesteit Psalm 19 Wat is de mens? Psalm 8 In our galaxy there are 100,000 million stars, like our sun. our galaxy is one of 100,000 million galaxies. In a throwaway line in Genesis, the writer tells us, "he also made the stars" .. Gen 1:16 Natuurgeschiedenis

Grootheid van God Analoog aan het universum: Ruimte tijd 24 uurige aarde je leven = 1 milliseconde De hemel verhaalt van Gods majesteit Psalm 19 Wat is de mens? Psalm 8 Natuurgeschiedenis EMOTIONEEL DEBAT ? Determineert waar we vandaan komen wie we zijn en hoe we zouden moeten leven? Intermezzo: het vertroebelend woord Evolutie 1) Evolutie as Natuurgeschiedenis

De aarde is oud(+/- 4.5 Billion years) Complexere levensvormen volgen op simplere levensvormen 2) Evolutie as a mechanisme voor biologische complexiteit Mutaties en natuurlijke selectie (note: Christenen zijn het er over eens dat God dit geschapen heeft) micorevolutie, immuunsysteem etc 3) Evolutie als wereldbeeld (evolutionisme) George Gaylord Simpson: "De mens is het resultaat van een doelloos en natuurlijk proces dat hem niet heeft bedoeld. Hij is niet gepland. of Richard Dawkins: "Darwin maakt het mogelijk om intellectueel vervulde atheist te zijn. Zie ook Bas Haring, Midas Dekkers, etc..

Tapijt argumenten: case study 1: een oude aarde ? Science is a tapestry -- you can pick at a few strings, but that doesnt break the whole cloth Radiometric dating (many overlapping isotopes) ice cores: up to 8000 years -- volcanoes like Vesuvius up to 740,000 years Milankovitch cycles Tree rings All these methods (when used properly) agree. There is no scientific controversy http://www.asa3.org/ASA/resources/Wiens.html

Tapijt argument: een oude aarde ? Milankovitch Cycles: here seen in 420,000 years of ice core data from Vostok, Antarctica research station. Common descent in biology? Page from Darwin's notebooks ~ circa1837 showing his first known sketch of an evolutionary tree depicting common descent. Case study 2: evolution of horses

Can sound like weak inductive reasoning to many physical scientists Case study 3: common descent of human & chimp? Divergence of the chimpanzee and human lineages occurred about 6 million years ago; the times of lineage divergence are not to scale News & Views: The chimpanzee and us, Wen-Hsiung Li and Matthew A. Saunders, Nature 437, 50-51 (1September 2005) . tapestry arguments in biology: chromosomal banding: Humans have 46 (2 X 23) chromosomes

Apes have 48 (2 X 24) chromosomes chromosome 2: Human, Chimp, Gorilla, Orang-utan The origin of man: a chromosomal pictorial legacy. J.J Yunis and O. Prakash, Science 215, 1525 (1982) tapestry arguments in biology: fusion of chromosome 2? chromosome 2: Human, Chimp, Gorilla, Orang-utan tapestry arguments in biology: evidence from the human genome

Chromosome 2 is unique to the human lineage of evolution, having emerged as a result of head-to-head fusion of two acrocentric chromosomes that remained separate in other primates. The precise fusion site has been located in 2q132q14.1 (ref. 2; hg16:114,455,823114,455,838), where our analysis confirmed the presence of multiple subtelomeric duplications to chromosomes 1, 5, 8, 9, 10, 12, 19, 21 and 22 (Fig. 3; Supplementary Fig. 3a, region A). During the formation of human chromosome 2, one of the two centromeres became inactivated (2q21, which corresponds to the centromere from chimp chromosome 13) and the centromeric structure quickly deterioriated [42]. Generation and annotation of the DNA sequences of human chromosomes 2 and 4, L.W. Hillier et al., Nature 434, 724 (2005). endogenous retroviruses HERV-K insertions

In humans endogenous retrovirus sequences make up about 1% of the genome. Lebedev, Y. B., et al. (2000) "Differences in HERV-K LTR insertions in orthologous loci of humans and great apes." Gene 247: 265-277. tapestry arguments in biology: more threads of evidence Genetic threads SINEs (Alu ) LINEs Retroviral insertions pseudo genes (e.g. olefaction) chromosomal inversions Phenotypal similarities

Fossils Tapestry arguments in biology The tapestry for: do humans and chimpanzees share a common ancestor? seems to most biologists to be unbreakably strong For some physicists, mathematicians and engineers -- these arguments may still seem foreign and vague; It doesnt smell like the scientific method they are familiar with -- for example: where is the repeatability? What is the predictive power of these arguments? Where are the numbers? TERUGBLIK: Tapijt argumenten Vaak moeilijk voor een leek om goed in

te schatten Verschillen van discipline tot discipline Biologen (ook Christelijke) geloven in de evolutie (type 1 & 2) omdat tapijt argumenten daarvoor sterk zijn. Er blijven uiteraard nog veel vragen over details. VOLGENDE VRAAG: Hoe zit het dan met de Bijbel en Genesis 1&2 Newton en de planeten De planeet banen zijn onstabiel: God hervormd

ze Sir Isaac Newton Leibnitz werpt tegen als God de gebreken van zijn schepping moest herstellen, dit zeker afbreuk zou doen aan zijn ambachtelijke vaardigheid John Hedley Brooke, Science and Religion, CUP 1991, p147 Leibnitz werpt tegen En ik houd vol dat God, als

hij wonderen verricht, dat niet doet om in de behoeften van de natuur te voorzien, maar in die van de genade. En wie anders denkt moet noodzakelijk een lage dunk hebben van de wijsheid en macht van God -- geen God van de gaten! God van de gaten?

We begrijpen iets niet --> God in het gat van onze kennis When we come to the scientifically unknown, our correct policy is not to rejoice because we have found God; it is to become better scientists Prof. Charles Coulson, Oxford U Meer Intermezzos? o Bijbelse taal o jaagt God voor de Leeuwen? (Job 38, Ps 104)? o Secondaire en Primaire oorzaken o Natuurwetten beschrijven het gewone handelen van God? o Denkpatronen over wetenschap en geloof

o o o o Nietsandersdanisme Mechanisme en betekenis Wetenschapisme God van de gaten Dawkins en atheisme van de gaten? "The individual organism ... is not fundamental to life, but something that emerges when genes, which at the beginning of evolution were separate, warring entities,

gang together in co-operative groups as "selfish co-operators". The individual organism is not exactly an illusion. It is too concrete for that. But it is a secondary, derived phenomenon, cobbled together as a consequence of the actions of fundamentally separate, even warring agents. From Richard Dawkins, Unweaving the Rainbow, (Penguin, London, 1998) p 308. Prof. Richard Dawkins (Oxford) Gene language [Genes] swarm in huge colonies, safe inside gigantic lumbering

robots, sealed off from the outside world, communicating with it by tortuous indirect routes, manipulating it by remote control. They are in you and me; they created us, body and mind; and their preservation is the ultimate rationale for our existence. Richard Dawkins -The Selfish Gene (1976) [Genes] are trapped in huge colonies, locked inside highly intelligent beings, moulded by the outside world,

communicating with it by complex processes, through which, blindly, as if by magic, function emerges. They are in you and me; we are the system that allows their code to be read; and their preservation is totally dependent on the joy that we experience in reproducing ourselves. We are the ultimate rationale for their existence. Denis Noble -The Music of Life: Biology Beyond the Genome (OUP 2006)

Natuurgeschiedenis EMOTIONEEL DEBAT ? Determineert waar we vandaan komen wie we zijn en hoe we zouden moeten leven? Intermezzo: het woord Evolutie 1) Evolutie as Natuurgeschiedenis De aarde is oud(+/- 4.5 Billion years) Complexere levensvormen volgen op simplere levensvormen 2) Evolutie as a mechanisme voor biologische complexiteit Mutaties en natuurlijke selectie (note: Christenen zijn het er over eens dat God dit geschapen heeft) micorevolutie, immuunsysteem etc

3) Evolutie als wereldbeeld (evolutionisme) George Gaylord Simpson: "De mens is het resultaat van een doelloos en natuurlijk proces dat hem niet heeft bedoeld. Hij is niet gepland. of Richard Dawkins: "Darwin maakt het mogelijk om intellectueel vervulde atheist te zijn. Zie ook Bas Haring, Midas Dekkers, etc.. Metaforen: Toeval of Stochastisch? Random mutations and natural selection... Stochastic (Monte Carlo) optimisation

e.g. used to price your stock portfolio ..... Lego blocks or clay? Evo-Devo Lego Blocks: pax6 sonic-hedgehog shaven-baby tinman

Endless Forms Most Beautiful: The New Science of Evo Devo and the Making of the Animal Kingdom. S.B. Carroll (Blackwell Science 2005) Why so few genes? Mycoplasma genitalium (483) E.coli (5416) S. cerevisiae (5800) (300 minimum?) Drosophila Melanogaster

(13,500) C. elegans (19,500) & P. pacificus (29,000) H. sapiens (23,000) Why so few genes? We share 15% of our genes with E. coli 25%

yeast 50%

flies 70%

frogs 98% chimps

what makes us different? Gene language Why are there so few genes? complexity comes from the interactions gene networks systems biology transcriptional network for yeast: Saccharomyces cerevisiae Gene language [Genes] swarm in huge colonies, safe inside gigantic

lumbering robots, sealed off from the outside world, communicating with it by tortuous indirect routes, manipulating it by remote control. They are in you and me; they created us, body and mind; and their preservation is the ultimate rationale for our existence. Richard Dawkins -The Selfish Gene (1976) [Genes] are trapped in huge colonies, locked inside highly intelligent beings, moulded by the

outside world, communicating with it by complex processes, through which, blindly, as if by magic, function emerges. They are in you and me; we are the system that allows their code to be read; and their preservation is totally dependent on the joy that we experience in reproducing ourselves. We are the ultimate rationale for their existence. Denis Noble -The Music of Life: Biology Beyond the Genome (OUP 2006) Contingency v.s.``deep structures: Re-run the tape of evolution?

Wind back the tape of life to the early days of the Burgess Shale; let it play again from an identical starting point, and the chance becomes vanishingly small that anything like human intelligence would grace the replay. In evolution, there is no direction, no progression. Humanity is dethroned from its exalted view of its own importance S.J. Gould: Wonderful Life; (W.W. Norton 1989) When you examine the tapestry of evolution you see the same patterns emerging over and over again. Gould's idea of rerunning the tape of life is not hypothetical; it's happening all around us. And the result is well known to biologists evolutionary convergence. When convergence is the rule, you can rerun the tape of life as often as you like and the outcome will be much the same. Convergence means that life is not only predictable at a basic level; it also has a direction. Simon Conway Morris Life's Solution: Inevitable Humans in a Lonely Universe; (CUP, 2003)

Convergent Evolution? "For the harmony of the world is made manifest in Form and Number, and the heart and soul and all poetry of Natural Philosophy are embodied in the concept of mathematical beauty." (On Growth and Form, 1917.) Convergent evolution in mechanical design of lamnid sharks and tunas Jeanine M. Donley, et al. Nature 429, 61-65 (6 May 2004) Convergent Evolution North America: Placental Sabre-toothed cat

South America Marsupial Sabre-toothed cat Convergent Evolution compound eye camera eye Convergent Evolution? Enormous number of examples ... from proteins to vision up to societies to intelligence.

Are rational conscious beings an inevitable outcome? The principal aim of this book has been to show that the constraints of evolution and the ubiquity of convergence make the emergence of something like ourselves a nearinevitability. SCM, Lifes Solution, (CUP 2005) pp328 TERUGBLIK: Metaforen zijn belangrijk toeval v.s. kansprocess genen taal etc.. Er is nog veel te ondekken Atheisme van de gaten? VOLGENDE VRAAG: Waarom de sterke consensus onder biologen dat de evolutie waar is?

Tapijt argumenten Wetenschap als een tapijt --de kracht ligt niet aan n enkele draad maar aan het geheel en hoe ze zijn zamengewoven. Je kunt aan een paar draadtjes trekken, maar daardoor breek je het tapijt niet. The Golemization of Relativity, David Mermin, Physics Today 49, p11 April 1996 . Wonderlijke toepasselijkheid

van de taal van de wiskunde Quantum Mechanics + Relativity = Antimatter Schrdinger equation (Quantum Mechanics) + Energy-Momentum (Special Relativity) = Dirac Equation (1928) Electrons Positrons (antimatter) discovered 1932 See also: The applicability of mathematics as a philosophical problem, Mark Steiner HUP (1998); "The Unreasonable Effectiveness of Mathematics in the Natural Sciences," in Communications in Pure and Applied Mathematics, vol. 13, No. I (February 1960), Eugene Wigner

Wetenschap en Schoonheid Henri Poincar 1854 1912 A Scientist does not study nature because it is useful; he studies it because he delights in it, and he delights in it because it is beautiful. If nature were not beautiful, it would not be worth knowing, and if nature were not worth knowing, life would not be

worth living. Tapijt argument: een oude aarde ? Science is a tapestry -- you can pick at a few strings, but that doesnt break the whole cloth Radiometric dating (many overlapping isotopes) ice cores: up to 8000 years -- volcanoes like Vesuvius up to 740,000 years Milankovitch cycles Tree rings All these methods (when used properly) agree. There is no scientific controversy http://www.asa3.org/ASA/resources/Wiens.html

Tapijt argument: een oude aarde ? Milankovitch Cycles: here seen in 420,000 years of ice core data from Vostok, Antarctica research station. Tapijt argument: gezamelijke afstamming Mens en Chimpanzee? Divergence of the chimpanzee and human lineages occurred about 6 million years ago; the times of lineage divergence are not to scale News & Views: The chimpanzee and us, Wen-Hsiung Li and Matthew A. Saunders, Nature 437, 50-51 (1September 2005) . tapestry arguments in biology: chromosomal

banding: Humans have 46 (2 X 23) chromosomes Apes have 48 (2 X 24) chromosomes chromosome 2: Human, Chimp, Gorilla, Orang-utan The origin of man: a chromosomal pictorial legacy. J.J Yunis and O. Prakash, Science 215, 1525 (1982) tapestry arguments in biology: fusion of chromosome 2? chromosome 2: Human, Chimp, Gorilla, Orang-utan

tapestry arguments in biology: evidence from the human genome Chromosome 2 is unique to the human lineage of evolution, having emerged as a result of head-to-head fusion of two acrocentric chromosomes that remained separate in other primates. The precise fusion site has been located in 2q132q14.1 (ref. 2; hg16:114455823114455838), where our analysis confirmed the presence of multiple subtelomeric duplications to chromosomes 1, 5, 8, 9, 10, 12, 19, 21 and 22 (Fig. 3; Supplementary Fig. 3a, region A). During the formation of human chromosome 2, one of the two centromeres became inactivated (2q21, which corresponds to the centromere from chimp chromosome 13) and the centromeric structure quickly deterioriated [42]. Generation and annotation of the DNA sequences of human chromosomes 2 and 4, L.W. Hillier et al., Nature 434, 724 (2005).

endogenous retroviruses HERV-K insertions In humans endogenous retrovirus sequences make up about 1% of the genome. Lebedev, Y. B., et al. (2000) "Differences in HERV-K LTR insertions in orthologous loci of humans and great apes." Gene 247: 265-277. tapestry arguments in biology: more threads of evidence Genetic threads SINEs (Alu ) LINEs

Retroviral insertions pseudo genes (e.g. olefaction) chromosomal inversions Phenotypal similarities Fossils The tapestry for: do humans and chimpanzees share a common ancestor? seems to most biologists almost unbreakably strong for physicists, mathematicians and engineers -- these arguments may still seem foreign and vague; where is the proof?, how do you know? -- so communities talk past each other tapestry arguments in biology But others [biologists], I soon came to realize, regarded logical arguments as suspect. To them, experimental evidence, fallible as it might be, provided a far surer avenue to

truth than did mathematical reasoning. .... Their implicit assumption seemed to be: How could one know ones assumptions were correct? Where, in a purely deductive argument, was there room for the surprises that nature might offer, for mechanisms that might depart altogether from those imagined in our initial assumptions? Indeed for some biologists, the gap between empirical and logical necessity loomed so large as to make the latter seem effectively irrelevant. Evelyn Fox Keller, in Making Sense of Life: Explaining Biological Development with Models, Metaphors, and Machines, HUP, (2002) You cant ask those kinds of questions!!!! (Biologist to AAL at Protein-Protein Interaction Conf, June 2004) Where are the equations -- a physicist might ask Tapestry arguments Basic scientific principles are shared across fields But what is considered necessary or sufficient

for a (self-organised) tapestry varies from field to field (often unwritten) cultural iceberg, above and below waterline evidence: grant or paper review demarkation problems mathematics->physics->chemistry->biology>medicine->engineering Differences --in spite of apparent epistemic laxity ... it still works! Christian evaluation needs communities of scholars TERUGBLIK: Tapijt argumenten Vaak moeilijk voor een leek om goed in te schatten Verschillen van discipline tot discipline

Biologen (ook Christelijke) geloven in de evolutie (type 1 & 2) omdat tapijt argumenten daarvoor sterk zijn. Er blijven uiteraard nog veel vragen over details. VOLGENDE VRAAG: Hoe zit het dan met de Bijbel en Genesis 1&2 Bijbels of cultureel? Wat is de genre?

Genesis 1-2:3 Phrases that occur 10 times: 10 times God said (3 for mankind, 7 for other creatures) 10 times creative commands (3 x let there be for heavenly creatures, 7 x let for world below) 10 x To make 10 x According to their kind Phrases that occur 7 times

(heptads) and it was so and God saw that it was good Genesis 1:2-3 Phrases that occur 3 times God blessed God created

God created men and women Other numerical patterns: Intro 1:1-2 contains 21 words (3 x 7) and conclusion (2: 1-3) contains 35 words (5 X 7) Earth is mentioned 21 times and God 35 times -- see e.g. H. Blocher In the Beginning, p 33 or E. Lucas Can We Believe Genesis Today , p 97 Wat is de genre? FRAMEWORK VIEW

SHAPED Day 1 The separation of light and darkness Day 2 The separation of the waters to form the sky and the sea Day 3 The separation of the

sea from dry land and creation of plants INHABITED Day 4 The creation of the lights to rule the day and the night Day 5 The creation of the birds and fish to fill the sky and sea Day 6 The creation of the animals and humans to fill the land and

eat the plants Day 7: The heavens and earth were finished and God rested Wat is de genre? Gen2:4-7 -- more patterns: These are the generations a. b. c. d. e.

f. of the heavens and the earth when they were created in the day that the Lord God made the earth and the heavens. Chiastic structure (C. John Collins, Genesis 1-4 P&R (2006)) When no bush of the field was yet in the land and no small plant of the field had yet sprung upfor the Lord God had not caused it to rain on the land, and there was no man to work the ground, and a mist was going up from the land and was watering the whole face of the ground then the Lord

God formed the man of dust from the ground and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, and the man became a living creature. A completely different emphasis! Wat is de genre? More like Revelation than like Luke But very clear in its teaching e.g. God created the world Creation is good I Tim 4: 1The Spirit clearly says that in later times some will abandon the faith and follow deceiving spirits and things taught by demons. 2 Such teachings come through hypocritical liars, whose consciences have been seared as with a hot iron. 3 They forbid people to marry

and order them to abstain from certain foods, which God created to be received with thanksgiving by those who believe and who know the truth. 4 For everything God created is good, and nothing is to be rejected if it is received with thanksgiving, 5 because it is consecrated by the word of God and prayer. Wat is de genre? More like Revelation than like Luke? But very clear in its teaching e.g. God created the world Creation is good Man is made in Gods image Mankind (adam) has fallen into sin A promise of redemption (seed of woman) MANY! More things No problems with perspecuity on doctrine

Wat is de genre? Is it chronological? "Now what man of intelligence will believe that the first and the second and the third day existed without the sun and moon and stars? Origen 185 - 254: First Principles, 4.3 On this subject there are three main views. According to the first, some wish to understand paradise only in a material way. According to the second, others wish to take it only in a spiritual way. According to the third, others understand it both ways, taking some things materially and others spiritually. If I may briefly mention my own opinion, I prefer the third

Augustine of Hippo (354-430) De Gen. ad litt VIII, 1. (on the literal interpretation of Genesis) Jewish Commentators the sages agree that the creation of this earth and sky was a single divine event and not a series of distinct occurrences spread out over six or seven days N.M. Samuelson, Judaism and the Doctrine of Creation, CUP (1994) p115 The text does not point to the order of the [acts] of creation the text does not by any means teach which things were created first and which later [it only] wants to teach us what was the condition of things at the time when heaven and earth were created, namely, that the earth was without form and a confused mass Rashi (1040-1105), Commentary on Genesis

Many more examples, e.g. Maimonides (1135-1204) etc Wat is de genre? Strong internal hints at elevated prose, more like Revelation than like Luke Two separate narratives (tablets) Numerical patterns Thematic patterns A common understanding of church fathers, early

Jewish commentators and early Evangelical leaders. Main theological teachings are crystal clear (perspicuity) Physical interpretation less so -- there science can take a servant role and help you decide. We must be very careful not to import our own cultural biases into interpretation Bijbel en Wetenschap De wetenschap: een knechtenrol voor Bijbel interpretatie The Bible must not be placed under any other authority! no authority, even one at the apex of the scientific world, may impose his authority on the Bible in order to dictate how it is to be

understood, even with the best intentions. Instead of an authority, however, a ministerial, servant-role apears possible. .. The knowledge derived from the observation of reality (`science) would help us to understand the language of the Bible better. Henri Blocher In the Beginning IVP (1984) p 25 Aside:Emergence of Humans? e.g. at what age is a child spiritually responsible to God? John Stott on Homos Divinus Advice from C.S. Lewis When the author of Genesis says that God made man in His own image, he may have pictured a vaguely corporeal God

making man as a child makes a figure out of plasticine. A modern Christian philosopher may think of the process lasting from the first creation of matter to the final appearance on this planet for an organism fit to receive spiritual as well as biological life. Both mean essentially the same thing. Both are denying the same thing -- the doctrine that matter by some blind power inherent in itself has produced spirituality. (C.S. Lewis, God in the Dock Eerdmans (1970), p 46) Advice from Billy Graham "I don't think that there's any conflict at all between science today and the Scriptures. I think that we have misinterpreted the Scriptures many times and we've tried to make the Scriptures say things they weren't meant to say, I think that we have made a mistake by thinking the Bible is a scientific book.

The Bible is not a book of science. The Bible is a book of Redemption, and of course I accept the Creation story. I believe that God did create the universe. I believe that God created man, and whether it came by an evolutionary process and at a certain point He took this person or being and made him a living soul or not, does not change the fact that God did create man. ... whichever way God did it makes no difference as to what man is and man's relationship to God. Billy Graham quoted by David Frost Source: Book - Billy Graham: Personal Thoughts of a Public Man (1997, p. 72-74)

Samenvatting Complexe materie! Evolutie als 1. Natuurgeschiedenis 2. Mechanisme om biologische complexiteit te maken 3. Wereldbeeld (evolutionisme) Metaforen zijn belangrijk Mechanismen van evolutie kunnen mooi zijn Tapijt argumenten en de consensus onder wetenschappers omtrent Evolutie 1&2 Bijbel interpretatie belangrijk om goed naar genre te Writers of the Fundamentals

James Orr 1844-1913 One of the original Fundamentalists There is not a word in the Bible to indicate that in its view death entered the animal world as a consequence of the Sin of man. When you say there is the six days and the question whether those days are meant to be measured by the twenty-four hours of the suns revolution around the earth -- I speak of these things popularly. It is difficult to see how they should be so measured when the sun that is to

measure them is not introduced until the fourth day. Do not think that this larger reading of the days is a new speculation. You find Augustine in early times declaring that it is hard or altogether impossible to say what fashion these days are, and Thomas Aquinas, in the middle ages, leaving the matter an open question. The Bible and Science Wayne Grudem The lesson of Galileo, , should remind us that careful observation of the natural world can cause us to go back to Scripture and reexamine

whether Scripture actually teaches what we think it teaches. Sometimes, on closer examination of the text, we may find that our previous interpretations were incorrect. Wayne Grudem, Systematic Theology IVP (1994) p 273 The Bible is not a science textbook The whole point of scripture is to bring us to a knowledge of Christ --- and having come to know him (and all that this implies), we should come to a halt and not expect to learn more. Scripture

provides us with spectacles through which we may view the world as Gods creation and self-expression; it does not, and was never intended, to provide us with an infallible repository of astronomical and medical information. John Calvin 1509-1564 Advice from Schaefer Francis Schaefer 1912-1984 We must take ample time, and

sometimes this will mean a long time, to consider whether the apparent clash between science and revelation means that the theory set forth by science is wrong or whether we must reconsider what we thought the Bible says. Francis Schaefer Warfield on evolution B. B. Warfield (1851-1921). A biblical inerrantist as evolutionist. Livingstone DN, Noll MA, 1: Isis. 2000 Jun;91(2):283-304.

The theological doctrine of biblical inerrancy is the intellectual B.B. Warfield 1851-1921 basis for modern creation science. Yet Benjamin Breckinridge Warfield of Princeton Theological Seminary, the theologian who more than any other defined modern biblical inerrancy, was throughout his life open to the possibility of evolution and at some points an advocate of the theory. Throughout a long career Warfield published a number of major papers on these subjects, including studies of Darwin's religious life, on the theological importance of the age of humanity (none) and the unity of the human species (much), and on Calvin's understanding of creation as proto-evolutionary. He also was an engaged reviewer of many of his era's important books by scientists, theologians,

and historians who wrote on scientific research in relation to traditional Christianity. Exploration of Warfield's writing on science generally and evolution in particular retrieves for historical consideration an important defender of mediating positions in the supposed war between science and religion. God openbaart zich door de natuur Psalm 19: De hemel verhaalt van Gods majesteit, Het uitspansel roemt het werk van zijn handen Melkweg: 100 miljard sterren Universum: 100 miljard sterrensteden God maakte ook de sterren" .. Gen 1:16

Intelligent Design (capitalised) heterogeneous movement -- will focus on ID centred at Discovery Institute some key publications and people The Mystery of Lifes Origin (1984) Charles B. Thaxton, Walter L. Bradley, Roger L. Olsen Evolution, a Theory in Crisis (1986) Michael Denton Darwin on Trial (1991) Philip Johnson Darwins Black Box (1996) Michael Behe (CT book of the year) Icons of evolution (2000) Jonathan Wells No Free Lunch (2001)

William Dembski What is ID Intelligent agency, as an aspect of scientific theory making, has more explanatory power in accounting for the specified, and sometimes irreducible complexity of some physical systems, including biological entities, and/or the existence of the universe as a whole, than the blind forces of. . . matter.[1] That is, intelligent design is a better explanation for entities exhibiting complex specified information (CSI) than are appeals to the inherent capacities of nature (i.e. chance and/or physical necessity). ID suggests that the world contains

objects that exhaust the explanatory resources of undirected natural causes, and can only be adequately explained by recourse to intelligent causation. (definition from Peter S. Williams) Irreducible Complexity Michael Behe (1996) Bacterial flagellum, immune system, etc... are too complex to have evolved This result is so unambiguous and so significant that it must be ranked as one of the greatest achievements in the history of science ... The discovery [of intelligent design] rivals those of Newton and Einstein, Lavoisier and Schroedinger, Pasteur and Darwin.

Complex Specified Information William Dembski CSI -- information that could not have come there by chance alone? e.g. when we see a statue v.s. weathered rock Law of the conservation of information Intelligent Design Philosophical issues: Definition of science (demarcation) ? Problems, but why not follow the evidence? Theological issues:

when/why does God intervene? miracles? Newman/Barth critique ID and Christians Major issues is -- why these Miracles miracles? occur to serve Gods redemptive purpose Origin, Augustine, Aquinas, Luther, Calvin etc... And I hold, that when God works miracles, he does not do it in order to supply the wants of nature, but those of grace. Whoever thinks otherwise, must needs have a very mean notion of the wisdom and power of God Leibnitz

e.g. what is the Biblical rationale for supernatural action aiding the creation of the flagellum? Intelligent Design (capitalised) GOOD Looking at complex questions in science/philosophy counteracting evolutionism middle road, broad church? LESS GOOD Detached from scripture doesnt solve some pressing questions (like death before fall) very political

http://www.discovery.org William Dembski, Michael Behe, Stephen Meyer, Paul Nelson Calvin on using science As far as I am aware, there is no evidence that Galileo had any direct knowledge of Calvin's writings. Nevertheless his understanding of the nature of the language used by the Bible when referring to the natural world is the same as Calvin's as the following quotations from the Letter to the Grand Duchess Christina show.

B1. These propositions set down by the Holy Ghost were set down in that manner by the sacred scribes in order to accommodate them to the capacities of the common people, who are rude and unlearned. (p. 181) B2. It is necessary for the Bible, in order to be accommodated to the understanding of every man, to speak many things which appear to differ from the absolute truth so far as the bare meaning of the words is concerned. (p. 182) B3. For that reason it appears that nothing physical which sense-experience sets before our eyes, or which necessary demonstrations prove to us, ought to be called in question (much less condemned) upon

the testimony of biblical passages which may have some different meaning beneath their words. (p. 182f) B4. ...having arrived at any certainties in physics, we ought to utilize these as the most appropriate aids in the true exposition of the Bible and in the investigation of those meanings which are necessarily contained therein, for these must be concordant with demonstrated truths. (p. 183) The first two quotations express the same 'accommodation' understanding of biblical language as Calvin adopted. The third recognises that, as a result of this, the literal sense of the biblical text may sometimes be at variance with the scientific understanding of the natural phenomenon described. In the final quotation Galileo makes the point made by Prof. McKay that one reason why biblical interpreters should take scientific knowledge into account is that it will help them to recognise when the biblical writers are using the language of appearance or cultural idioms, and so help them avoid the kind of misinterpretation

made by those who condemned Galileo. http://www.st-edmunds.cam.ac.uk/cis/lucas/lecture.html le

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