Chapter 42 Circulation and Gas Exchange General Properties
Chapter 42 Circulation and Gas Exchange General Properties of Circulatory Systems A circulatory system has A circulatory fluid A set of interconnecting vessels A muscular pump, the heart The circulatory system connects the fluid that surrounds cells with the organs that exchange
gases, absorb nutrients, and dispose of wastes Circulatory systems can be open or closed and vary in the number of circuits in the body Open and Closed Circulatory Systems In insects, other arthropods, and most molluscs, blood bathes the organs directly in an open circulatory system In an open circulatory system, there is no distinction between blood and interstitial fluid, and this general body fluid is called hemolymph
In a closed circulatory system, blood is confined to vessels and is distinct from the interstitial fluid Closed systems are more efficient at transporting circulatory fluids to tissues and cells Annelids, cephalopods, and vertebrates have closed circulatory systems Organization of Vertebrate Circulatory Systems
Humans and other vertebrates have a closed circulatory system called the cardiovascular system The three main types of blood vessels are arteries, veins, and capillaries Blood flow is one way in these vessels Arteries branch into arterioles and carry blood away from the heart to capillaries Networks of capillaries called capillary beds are the sites of chemical exchange between the blood
and interstitial fluid Venules converge into veins and return blood from capillaries to the heart 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Arteries and veins are distinguished by the direction of blood flow, not by O2 content Vertebrate hearts contain two or more chambers Blood enters through an atrium and is pumped out through a ventricle
Mammalian Circulation Blood begins its flow with the right ventricle pumping blood to the lungs In the lungs, the blood loads O2 and unloads CO2 Oxygen-rich blood from the lungs enters the heart at the left atrium and is pumped through the aorta to the body tissues by the left ventricle The aorta provides blood to the heart through the coronary arteries
Blood returns to the heart through the superior vena cava (blood from head, neck, and forelimbs) and inferior vena cava (blood from trunk and hind limbs) The superior vena cava and inferior vena cava flow into the right atrium Figure 42.6 Capillaries of head and forelimbs
Superior vena cava Pulmonary artery Capillaries of right lung Pulmonary vein Right atrium Right ventricle
Inferior vena cava Pulmonary artery Aorta Capillaries of left lung Pulmonary vein
Left atrium Left ventricle Aorta Capillaries of abdominal organs and hind limbs Figure 42.7 Aorta
Pulmonary artery Pulmonary artery Right atrium Left atrium Semilunar
Right ventricle Left ventricle The heart contracts and relaxes in a rhythmic cycle called the cardiac cycle The contraction, or pumping, phase is called systole The relaxation, or filling, phase is called diastole
The heart rate, also called the pulse, is the number of beats per minute The stroke volume is the amount of blood pumped in a single contraction The cardiac output is the volume of blood pumped into the systemic circulation per minute and depends on both the heart rate and stroke volume Four valves prevent backflow of blood in the heart
The atrioventricular (AV) valves separate each atrium and ventricle The semilunar valves control blood flow to the aorta and the pulmonary artery The lub-dup sound of a heart beat is caused by the recoil of blood against the AV valves (lub) then against the semilunar (dup) valves Backflow of blood through a defective valve causes a heart murmur
Blood Vessel Structure and Function A vessels cavity is called the central lumen The epithelial layer that lines blood vessels is called the endothelium The endothelium is smooth and minimizes resistance Figure 42.10a Valve Basal lamina
Capillaries have thin walls, the endothelium plus its basal lamina, to facilitate the exchange of materials Arteries and veins have an endothelium, smooth muscle, and connective tissue Arteries have thicker walls than veins to accommodate the high pressure of blood pumped from the heart In the thinner-walled veins, blood flows back to the heart mainly as a result of muscle action
Changes in Blood Pressure During the Cardiac Cycle Systolic pressure is the pressure in the arteries during ventricular systole; it is the highest pressure in the arteries Diastolic pressure is the pressure in the arteries during diastole; it is lower than systolic pressure A pulse is the rhythmic bulging of artery walls with each heartbeat
Fainting is caused by inadequate blood flow to the head Animals with longer necks require a higher systolic pressure to pump blood a greater distance against gravity Blood is moved through veins by smooth muscle contraction, skeletal muscle contraction, and expansion of the vena cava with inhalation One-way valves in veins prevent backflow of blood Leukocytes
There are five major types of white blood cells, or leukocytes: monocytes, neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils, and lymphocytes They function in defense by phagocytizing bacteria and debris or by producing antibodies They are found both in and outside of the circulatory system Platelets Platelets are fragments of cells and function in blood clotting
Blood Clotting Coagulation is the formation of a solid clot from liquid blood A cascade of complex reactions converts inactive fibrinogen to fibrin, forming a clot A blood clot formed within a blood vessel is called a thrombus and can block blood flow Mammalian Respiratory Systems: A Closer Look
A system of branching ducts conveys air to the lungs Air inhaled through the nostrils is warmed, humidified, and sampled for odors The pharynx directs air to the lungs and food to the stomach Swallowing tips the epiglottis over the glottis in the pharynx to prevent food from entering the trachea Air passes through the pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles to the alveoli, where
gas exchange occurs Exhaled air passes over the vocal cords in the larynx to create sounds Cilia and mucus line the epithelium of the air ducts and move particles up to the pharynx This mucus escalator cleans the respiratory system and allows particles to be swallowed into the esophagus Gas exchange takes place in alveoli, air sacs at the tips of bronchioles
Oxygen diffuses through the moist film of the epithelium and into capillaries Carbon dioxide diffuses from the capillaries across the epithelium and into the air space How a Mammal Breathes Mammals ventilate their lungs by negative pressure breathing, which pulls air into the lungs Lung volume increases as the rib muscles and diaphragm contract The tidal volume is the volume of air inhaled with
each breath The maximum tidal volume is the vital capacity After exhalation, a residual volume of air remains in the lungs Control of Breathing in Humans In humans, the main breathing control centers are in two regions of the brain, the medulla oblongata and the pons The medulla regulates the rate and depth of
breathing in response to pH changes in the cerebrospinal fluid The medulla adjusts breathing rate and depth to match metabolic demands
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