SWEDISH ARMED FORCES LANGUAGE SCHOOL STANAG 6001 AND
SWEDISH ARMED FORCES LANGUAGE SCHOOL STANAG 6001 AND ITS APPLICABILITY IN STANDARDIZED AND NON-STANDARDIZED LANGUAGES: THE CASE OF ARABIC JOSEPH SAOUK Arabic (and STANAG)? Non-standardized STANAG?
languages and International (?) languages: Interoperability Languages used by the UN (official website): Arabic English French Russian Spanish Is Arabic a standardized or a nonstandardized language?
Which Arabic? (Modern) Standard Arabic (MSA)? Dialectal Arabic (DA)? The Arabic diglossia First used for Arabic by William Marais 1930/31. Charles Ferguson 1959: (narrow)Diglossia: A sociolinguistic situation in which two genetically related, but very
divergent, varieties of a language which are perceived as one language by the language community stand in a relationship of functional complementarity. The Arabic diglossia Charles Ferguson1959: Diglossia: The high (H) variety is acquired through formal education and is used by (educated) members of the
community for literary and formal occasions, while the low (L) variety is the naturally acquired vernacular of all the members of the community, and is used for informal, everyday communication. (summarized by Mejdell 1999) DO WE HAVE (ONLY) A LEVEL RELATION BETWEEN THE ARABIC VARIETIES ? H L
H L Is this as well the perception of the language community? How is STANAG applicable for Arabic in this case? H L H
L Is STANAG applicable following to Arabic variety? L H L Variety = level (?) 1+2? H
3+4+ 5? ? The Arabic diglossia What about the linguistic difference/distance between the varieties H - L? The situation where dialects play the roll of speeches besides a high-variety exists not only within the Arabic-speaking
region, however, nowhere else is the distance between the two forms as large as there. Fischer, W. & Jastrow, O. with contribution of: Behnstedt, P.; Grotzfeld, H.; Ingham, B.; Sabuni, A.; Schabert, P.; Singer, H.-R.; Tsotskhadze, L.; and Woidich, M. (1980) Handbuch der arabischen Dialekte. Is the difference between Arabic diglossia and other cases one of (vertical) distance/grade? ? World
Arabic H H L L H L How is STANAG supposed to be applied to
Arabic? IS THE VERNACULAR H H UNUSABLE (NONEXISTING) ON L L HIGHER LEVELS?
The Arabic diglossia How to understand: COMPLEMENTARITY? GENETICAL RELATION? SAME LANGUAGE? The Arabic diglossia MSAs domains: if someone needs to give a lecture at a university, or a sermon in a mosque, he is expected to use Standard Arabic,
a variety different at all levels from the local vernacular, and felt to be so different from the vernacular that it is taught in schools in the way foreign languages are taught in English speaking societies. Perception vis-a-vis feeling of the language community Ferguson (H and L) varieties of a
language which are perceived as one language by the language community Belief? Hudson (SA) a variety felt to be so different from the vernacular that it
is taught in schools in the way foreign languages are taught in English speaking ARAB HUMAN DEVELOPMENT REPORTS Arabic diglossic case: some problematic aspects The teaching of Arabic is also
undergoing a severe crisis in terms of both methodology and curricula. The most apparent aspect of this crisis is the growing neglect of the functional aspects of (Arabic) language use AHDR 2003 (p. 26). Appropriateness of teaching MSA The situation of Arabic language teaching cannot be separated from that of classical Arabic in general, which has in effect ceased to be a spoken language. It is only the
language of reading and writing; the formal language of intellectuals and academics, often used to display knowledge in lectures. Classical Arabic is not the language of cordial, spontaneous expression, emotions, daily encounters and ordinary communication. It is not a vehicle for discovering ones innerself or outer surroundings. (AHDR 2003:26) Standardization of Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) (Versteegh, K. The Arabic Language) Standardization
of Arabic In modern time. [F]ounded with explicit references to the example of the Acadmie Franaise 1919: Syria: The Academy of the Arabic Language in Damascus 1932: Egypt: the Academy of Cairo 1947: Iraq: the Academy of Iraq 1976: Jordan: the Academy of Jordan. Goals and purposes of the academies (Versteegh K. The Arabic Language) To
guard the integrity of the Arabic language and preserve it from dialectal and foreign influence. To adapt the Arabic language to the needs of modern times. Quality of the educational systems Preservation of the cultural heritage Domains of each variety: MSA Formal:
every written text! Text books Teaching books Newspapers Personal letters* Ad:s Culture: song, theater et c DA Everyday use: generally every oral contact. Not in
mosques/sermons/ Not in univ. lectures Not in some tvinterviews. Not in written* The Arabic diglossia What is Arabic? (Prof. Jan Rets: vad r arabiska? 2001). Arabiyya c-a modern dialects. Linguistic distance like that between Swedish and Icelandic
OR Latin and Italian (?) Varieties and levels? MSA DA 5 5 4
4 3 3 2 2 1 1
a variety different at all levels from the local vernacular ? Maltese! The Arabic diglossia: Levels or varieties/languages? ? ? H H L L
The Arabic diglossia Monoloingual register variation? Bilingual code interaction? Arabic diglossic case (there may be very great differences between one dialect of Arabic and another, to the point of mutural
incomprehensibility), with little variation between the most educated and the least educated speakers. Hudson, R. A. Sociolinguistics (p. 54). Examples on functional level (2) English: what do you want? Arabic: MSA: maatha toreed?
EA: aewiz eh? LA: shoo biddak? IA: shetreed? GA: (ee-)shtebee? Examples on functional level (2) English: where are you going? Arabic: MSA: ila ayna tadh-hab? EA: raayiH feen?
LA: laween raayeH? IA: wein raayeH? The Arabic diglossia EA GA IA LA References in STANAG to the proficiency of native speaker/listener Listening: 2
Can reliably understand face-toface speech in a standard dialect, delivered at a normal rate with some repetition and rewording, by a native speaker not used to speaking with non-natives. Listening: 3
Can follow accurately the essentials of conversations among educated native speakers, lectures on general subjects References in STANAG to the proficiency of native speaker/listener Listening: 4 Readily understands
utterances made in the media and in convesations among native speakers both globally and in detail, generally comprehends regionalisms and dialects. Listening 5 Comprehension equivalent to that of the welleducated native
listener. Able to fully understand all forms and styles of speech intelligible to the welleducated native listener References in STANAG to the proficiency of native speaker/listener Speaking: 2 Can interact with native
speakers not used to to speaking with non-natives, although natives may have to adjust to some limitations. Speaking: 3 Can use the language clearly and relatively
naturally to elaborate on conepts freely and ake ideas easily understandable to native speakers. References in STANAG to the proficiency of native speaker/listener Speaking: 4 Can set the
tone of both professional and non-professional verbal exchanges with a wide variety of native speakers. Speaking: 5 uses the language with
great flexibility so that all speech, including vocabulary, idioms, colloquialisms, and cultural references, is References in STANAG to the proficiency of native reader Reading: 4
Reading speed is similar to that of a native reader. Reading: 5 Able to fully comprehend all forms and styles of the written language understood by the welleducated native
reader References in STANAG to the proficiency of native writer/reader Writing: Errors 3 are occasional, do not interfere with comprehension, and rarely disturb the
native reader. Writing: 5 Writing proficiency is functionally equivalent to that of a welleducated native writer Examples on higher levels
Gunvor Mejdell: Switching, Mixing: Code Interaction in Spoken Arabic. EA is the dominant language in diglossic code interaction though not necessarily the underlying, or matrix, code of all speech production. Transcription signs SA: Standard Arabic (in bold)
EA: Egyptian Arabic (in italic) N: Neutral (in plain) Examples on Arabic language use Examples on Arabic language use Examples on Arabic language use somebody else than the others write about, and consequently an artistic expression different from that of the others.
Examples on Arabic language use Dominant language: The code which supplies the grammatical morphemes is the matrix. (Myers-Scotton) Sociolinguistic aspects in code-mixing FS: insisting on his cultural role, Model
of language use Yet modern and secular (not religious azhari) Not pompous (not orthoepic: with case endings) YI: insists on his identity as leftwing intellectual Allegiance
to the common people (non-snobbish) Leaving enough traces of SA (cultured man). Arabic diglossic case The Arabic diglossic case is socio-linguistically to be situated somewhere between bilingual code interaction and monolingual
register/style variation. Mejdell (p. 225.) The Arabic diglossia Monoloingual register variation Arabic diglossia H MSA H DA
L MSA L DA Bilingual code interaction The Arabic diglossia Fergusons prediction?
References Farjani, N. (Ed.) (2003): Arab Human Development Report: Building a Knowledge Society. United Nations. Ferguson, C. A. (1959): Diglossia. Word 15, 325-340. Fischer, W. & Jastrow, O. with contribution of: Behnstedt, P.; Grotzfeld, H.; Ingham, B.; Sabuni, A.; Schabert, P.; Singer, H.-R.; Tsotskhadze, L.; and Woidich, M. (1980) Handbuch der arabischen Dialekte.
Hudson, R. A. (1980): Sociolinguistics. Cambridge University Press. Marais W. 1930/31: La diglossie arabe. Lenseignement Public Revue pdagogique CIV, 12, 401-409 and CV, 20-39 and 120-133. Mejdell, G. (1999): Switching, mixing Code interaction in spoken Arabic. In Brendemoen Bernt, Lanza Elizabeth and Ryen Else (Eds.): Language Encounters
Across Time and Space (pp. 225-241). Oslo, Novus Press. Myers-Scotton, C. (1993): Social Motivations for Codeswitching (Oxford studies in Lnaguage Contact). Oxford: Clarendon Press. Versteegh, K. (1997): The Arabic Language. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
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