A Multifaceted Intervention to Narrow the Evidence-Based Gap

A Multifaceted Intervention to Narrow the Evidence-Based Gap

A Multifaceted Intervention to Narrow the Evidence-Based Gap in the Treatment of Acute Coronary Syndromes: THE BRIDGE-ACS TRIAL Presenter: Otavio Berwanger (MD; PhD) on Behalf of the BRIDGE-ACS Steering Committe Sponsor: Ministry of Health-Brazil Conflicts of Interest Presenter: Otvio Berwanger A Multifaceted Intervention to Narrow the EvidenceBased Gap in the Treatment of Acute Coronary Syndromes: THE BRIDGE-ACS TRIAL FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE:

None to declare Trial Organization Trial Steering Committee Otvio Berwanger (Co- Chair) Renato D. Lopes (Co-Chair) Helio P. Guimaraes (PI) Eric D. Peterson Karen S. Pieper Luiz Henrique A. Mota Alexandre Biasi Cavalcanti Armando de Negri Ligia Laranjeira Coordination Research Institute HCor and Brazilian Clinical Research Institute (BCRI) Project Office Helio P. Guimares

Eliana V. Santucci Vera Lucia Mira Elivane Victor Vitor Carvalho Bernardete Weber Ligia N. Laranjeira Alessandra A. Kodama Ana D. Zazula Adjudication Committee Ana Denise Zazula, Uri A. Flato, Marcos Tenuta, Bernardo N. Abreu Background and Rationale Large-scale randomized trials have established the efficacy of several interventions for the management of patients with ACS Registries have consistently demonstrated that the

translation of research findings into practice is suboptimal and that these care gaps are even greater in low- and middle-income countries Quality Improvement interventions have rarely been rigorously evaluated, especially in low- and middle-income countries, where up to 80% of the global burden of cardiovascular diseases resides ELIGIBILTY HOSPITALS Inclusion Criteria General public hospitals from major urban areas with an emergency department that receives patients with ACS Exclusion Criteria Private hospitals, cardiology institutes, and hospitals from rural areas PATIENTS Inclusion criteria Consecutive patients with ACS (STEMI, NSTEMI, and UA) as soon as they

presented in Emergency Department, according to standardized definitions Exclusion criteria Patients who were transferred from other hospitals within >12 hours, patients with non-type I myocardial infarction, and patients for whom the presumptive admission diagnosis of ACS was not confirmed THE BRIDGE-ACS TRIAL Design: Pragmatic Cluster Randomized Trial Prevention of Bias: Concealed allocation (central web-based randomization) and Intention-to-treat analysis Blinding of outcome assessors Quality control: on-site monitoring + central statistical checking + e-CRF + central adjudication of eligibility criteria and endpoints Sample Size: 1,150* patients from 34 clusters(public hospitals) in Brazil recruited between March and November 2011 * Original Target Sample Size: 34 clusters (1020 patients)

Berwanger O et al, AHJ, 2012; 163:323-329 34 Clusters (Public General Hospitals) including 1,150 consecutive patients with ACS Concealed Randomization Multifaceted Quality Improvement Intervention (n= 17 clusters and 602 patients) Routine Practice (n= 17 clusters and 548 patients) ITT ITT

Primary Endpoint: Adherence to all eligible evidence-based therapies during the first 24 hours Secondary Endpoints: Adherence to all eligible evidence-based therapies during the first 24 hours and at discharge, composite EBM score, major cardiovascular events Multifaceted Quality Improvement Intervention Algorithm for risk stratification and recommendation of evidence-based therapies for each risk category Chest Pain Label Printed reminder, as a rapid triage tool, attached to the clinical evaluation form

Checklist Multifaceted Quality Improvement Intervention Chest Pain Label Checklist Colored bracelet according to the risk stratification category Colored Bracelet (according to the risk stratification Multifaceted Quality Improvement Intervention Chest Pain Label

Checklist Colored Bracelet (according to the risk stratification Educational materials containing evidence-based recommendations for the management of ACS Pocket Guidelines A trained nurse who ensure that all components of quality improvement intervention are being used Case Manager

Poster Endpoints Primary endpoint Adherence to all evidence-based therapies (aspirin, clopidogrel; anticoagulation therapy and statins) during the first 24 hours in patients without contraindications Secondary endpoints Adherence to all evidence-based therapies at admission and within one week of discharge (aspirin, clopidogrel, anticoagulation and statins during the first 24 hours and aspirin, beta-blockers, statins, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors at discharge) Composite adherence score (CRUSADE endpoint) Major cardiovascular events (CV mortality, non-fatal MI, Nonfatal stroke and non-fatal cardiac arrest)

All-cause mortality Major bleeding Statistical Analysis All analyses followed the intention-to-treat principle Comparisons between intervention and control groups were conducted using a generalized estimation equation (GEE) extension of logistic regression procedures for cluster-randomized trials Effects were expressed as a population average odds ratio (ORPA) and 95% CIs Analyses were performed by the HCOR Research Institute (So Paulo, Brazil) and validated by the Duke Clinical Research Institute (Durham, NC) Patient Baseline Characteristics Intervention (n=602)

Control (n=548) 413 (68.6) 376 (68.6) 6213 6213 Diabetes, no. (%) 175 (29.1) 182 (33.2)

Hypertension, no. (%) 433 (71.9) 402 (73.4) Dyslipidemia, no. (%) 216 (35.9) 162 (29.6) 53 (8.8) 48 (8.8) 187 (31.1)

147 (26.8) ST-elevation myocardial infarction 232 (38.5) 236 (43.1) Non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction 230 (38.2) 180 (32.8) Unstable angina 140 (23.3)

132 (24.1) Patient Baseline Characteristics Male, no. (%) Age, meanSD, yrs Cerebrovascular disease, no. (%) Current smoker, no. (%) Final diagnosis, no. (%) Cluster Baseline Characteristics Cluster Baseline Characteristics Intervention Control (n=17)

(n=17) 12 (70.6) 12 (70.6) 6 (35.3) 7 (41.2) 7 (41.2) 7 (41.2) Coronary care unit, no. (%) 10 (58.8)

9 (52.9) Teaching hospital, no. (%) 14 (82.4) 13 (76.5) Chest pain protocol at ED1, no. (%) 13 (76.5) 11 (64.7) 4537 (2698, 4175 (1000,

13485) 10500) Cardiologist available at ED1, no. (%) Cardiac surgery team available 24 hours, no. (%) Percutaneous coronary intervention capabilities, no. (%) Volume of patients seen in the ED1 per month, median (25th, 75th) 1 Emergency department Main Outcome

ORPA = 2.64 (1.285.45) ICC = 0.32 Adjusted ORPA = 3.97 (1.52 to 10.37) p = 0.01 ORPA = 2.63 (1.275.42) ICC = 0.32 p = 0.01 Results ORPA = 2.49 (1.085.74) ICC = 0.36 p = 0.03 Results ORPA = 2.49 (1.085.74) ICC = 0.36

p = 0.03 ORPA = 2.47 (1.085.68) ICC = 0.36 p = 0.03 In-Hospital Clinical Outcomes 0.1 0.2 1 5 10 Conclusions In patients with ACS, a simple multifaceted educational intervention resulted in significant improvement in the use of evidence-based

medications Because it is simple and feasible, the tools tested in the BRIDGE-ACS trial can become the basis for developing quality improvement programs to maximize the use of evidence-based interventions for the management of ACS

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