Marine Fish Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata Subphylum Vertebrata
Marine Fish Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata Subphylum Vertebrata All fish possess a notochord later modified into a backbone w/ moveable
vertebrae it allows animals to bend and wiggle and serves to protect the spinal cord Ichthyology = study of fish Typical Fish Characteristics
Adapted to live in water Have gills for breathing Fins for locomotion and stabilization Internal skeleton Often covered in scales
Cold-blooded (ectothermic) colder temps. slow the metabolism Classes of Fish Agnatha Chondrichthyes Ostiechthyes Agnatha
Jawless Most primitive Fewer in # due to inability to compete w/ jawed fish Feed by suction have round mouths w/ rows of teeth No fins or scales
Ex. hagfish and lamprey Chondrichthyes Cartilaginous cartilage skeleton Ventral mouth Many have replaceable razor-sharp teeth
Some have small teeth but gigantic mouths Ex. rays, skates and sharks Osteichthyes
Bony fish Skeleton made of true bone Most successful class Terminal mouth
20,000+ species in almost every aquatic habitat Greater speed and maneuverability Specialized mouths w/ protrusible jaws Swim bladder to control buoyancy Dont need a skeleton to provide support because the water does. Body Forms Body
shape is directly related to lifestyle. They have all types of body forms, for example: Fusiform o Streamlined, torpedo shaped swimming machines o Designed to rapidly move through the water
in pursuit of prey o Efficiency is higher due to: o o o o Ability to fold fins into depressions along body Smooth eyes flush w/ head
Gills covered w/ flap = operculum Slime coating o Ex. salmon, bass, tuna, swordfish Body Forms (cont) Compressed Squished side to side Allows for easy movement among
plants and narrow spaces like coral reef Ex. flounder, perch, butterfly fish Body Forms (cont) Attenuated
Tube like live in narrow spaces rocks, coral reefs, etc. Usually secretes a large amount of slime Ex. eel Depressed Flattened top to bottom
(dorsoventrally) Usually bottom dwellers Shape of a Hersheys kiss Ex. sea robin, rays, skates Depressed Attenuated
Fins principle function is locomotion Shape is related to method of controlling position or altitude in water Shapes, sizes, and function differ from fish to fish there are 6
of fins depends on function too: dorsal - used as rudder to prevent rolling Anal used as a rudder Pelvic/pectoral used in turning, braking, balancing
caudal pushes against water and used in forward mvmt. One of the major differences b/n bony and cartilaginous fish is the shape and function of the fins: Sharks rely on fins for lift (to keep
from sinking) Fin function reason why bony fish are more maneuverable than cartilagenous fish Three major typs of caudal fins Heterocercal
sturgeon or shark use fins to regulate depth (no swim bladder) also aid in swimming Pushes head downward and lifts tail as it beats side to side Pectoral fins act as airplane wings Shark fin soup a delicacy in the orient dump the rest of the organism back to die
Ex. shark Diphycercal No real lobes ex. lungfish Homocercal modern bony fish
Use fins as swimming aids and for turning and stopping or just moving forward Lobe same size Ex. perch
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